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Article
Effectiveness of dental health education program on periodontal health status of nursery school children in Erbil city
فعالية برنامج التثقيف في مجال صحة الأسنان على الحالة الصحية لسن أطفال المدارس التمهيدية في مدينة أربيل

Author: Shahida Rassul Hussain
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2012 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 175-179
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Dental health education is a planned package of information, learning activities or experiences that are intended to promote dental health. The current study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dental educational program on cleanliness and gingival health in primary dentition of nursery school children aging (3-6) years in Erbil city.Methods: Oral examination was performed on (148) children of (Balla) nursery school in Erbil city. They were divided into two equal groups, each consisting of (74) children. The first group, an experimental group, received dental health education instructions for 8 weeks before clinically examining the children (the dentist with cooperation from their teachers) twice a week. The second group, control group, whose members examined clinically without any dental educational program. Index used was CPITN.Results: Clinical examination showed that CPITN of group (1) was lower with a healthier gingiva with less plaque accumulation when compared with group (2) with statistical significant differences (P-value <0.005).Conclusion: Dental health education program is an essential activity for promoting optimal oral health and preventing oral diseases. The program displayed positive influence on gingival and oral health behaviors of nursery school children.

Keywords

Dental plaque --- Gingivitis --- CPITN


Article
Gingival health status among 3-5 years old children in Al-Edwania village, Baghdad

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 84-86
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Periodontal disease is one of the most widespread diseases in Iraq therefore this study was conducted to assess the periodontal condition.Materials and methods: A sample of 91 children living in AL-Edwania village was examined using plaque and gingival indices.Results: It showed a high prevalence of gingival inflammation, gingival inflammation increased with age, and females had a significantly higher gingival index mean than males. The mild type of gingivitis was found to be the highest score. Higher gingival and plaque index means in posterior segment were demonstrated than that in anterior segment.Conclusion: The most common type of gingivitis was the mild. The GI and PlI were increased with age and higher among females.


Article
Salivary Viscosity in Relation to Oral Health Status among a Group of 20-22 Years Old Dental Students
علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع صحة الفم لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة

Authors: Nada Jafer MH. Radhi ندى جعفر محمد حسن راضي --- Baydaa Ahmed Yas بيداء احمد ياس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 219-224
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Elevated salivary viscosity increases the risk for dental caries and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to disclose the relationship between salivary viscosity and dental caries as well as gingival disease severity among a group of 20-22 years old dental students. Materials and methods: Forty five dental students of both gender aged 20-22 years at College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad took part in this study. Stimulated salivary samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for measuring salivary viscosity at the Poisoning Consultation/Surgical Specialty Hospital. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity according to Decayed, Missing and Filled (D1-4 MFS) Index (Mühlemman, 1976). Plaque index PlI (Silness and Löe, 1964) was used for measuring dental plaque thickness while gingival index GI (Löe and Silness, 1963) was used for diagnosis of the gingival disease. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary viscosity showed weak non significant correlation with caries experience (P>0.05). However, according to dental caries severity students with severe dental caries recorded higher salivary viscosity than those with moderate caries severity with significant difference in case of DS fraction (m.d.= -0.01, P< 0.05). However, according to DMFS statistical difference was close to the confidence limit (P=0.07). No significant correlation could be found between salivary viscosity and gingival inflammation (P> 0.05). Also regarding severity of gingivitis no significant difference in salivary viscosity was recorded between those with mild and those with moderate gingivitis (P> 0.05). Conclusions: It is recommended that measuring salivary viscosity to be a part of routine dental diagnosis when treating patient with higher dental caries risk. However, further studies are needed to disclose the effect of increased salivary viscosity on gingival health with larger sample size. Keywords: Salivary viscosity, dental caries, gingivitis.

الخلاصــةالمقدمة: ان ارتفاع لزوجة اللعاب يزيد من خطر الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو الكشف عن علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع شدة التسوس وشدة التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة. المواد والطرق: شارك في هذه الدراسة خمسة واربعون طالب من كلا الجنسين بعمر 20-22 سنة في كلية طب الاسنان/جامعة بغداد. تم جمع عينات اللعاب المحفز حيث اخذت الى المختبر لقياس لزوجة اللعاب في مركز السموم التابع لمستشفى الجراحات التخصصية. تم حساب شدة التسوس باستخدم مؤشرنخر ، قلع ، حشوة (D1-4MFS)لاكتشاف شدة تسوس سطوح الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية تبعا لتصنيف (Mühleman, 1976). استخدم مؤشر دليل الصفيحة الجرثومية لقياس ثخن الصفيحة(Silness and Löe, 1964) واستخدم مؤشر اللثة ((Löe and Silness, 1963 لقياس التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن وتم فحص جميع الاسنان. النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ارتباطا ضعيفا وغير معنوي للزوجة اللعاب مع تسوس الاسنان. اخذت شدة التسوس بنظر الاعتبار ووجد ان الطلبة ذوي التسوس الشديد اظهروا لزوجة عالية للعاب مقارنة مع الطلبة ذوي التسوس المتوسط الشدة مع وجود فرق معنوي في حالة DS (m.d.=0.01, P< 0.05) اما في حالة مؤشر حالة التسوس DMFS)) كان الفرق الاحصائي قريبا الى حدود الثقة (P= 0.07). لم يتم ايجاد ارتباط معنوي بين لزوجة اللعاب والتهاب اللثة (P> 0.05) بالاضافة الى عدم وجود فرق معنوي بين الطلبة الذين لديهم التهاب لثة طفيف والتهاب لثة متوسط الشدة. الاستنتاجات: اوصت الدراسة ان يعتبر قياس لزوجة اللعاب جزءا من تشخيص امراض الفم الروتينية عند معالجة المرضى الذين لديهم خطورة الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان واوجدت ضرورة لاجراء دراسة اخرى للكشف عن مدى تأثير زيادة لزوجة اللعاب على صحة اللثة وهناك حاجة لاختبار عينات دراسة ذات حجم كبير.


Article
Salivary Viscosity in Relation to Oral Health Status among a Group of 20-22 Years Old Dental Students
علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع صحة الفم لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة

Authors: Nada Jafer MH. Radhi ندى جعفر محمد حسن راضي --- Baydaa Ahmed Yas بيداء احمد ياس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 219-221
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Elevated salivary viscosity increases the risk for dental caries and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to disclose the relationship between salivary viscosity and dental caries as well as gingival disease severity among a group of 20-22 years old dental students. Materials and methods: Forty five dental students of both gender aged 20-22 years at College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad took part in this study. Stimulated salivary samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for measuring salivary viscosity at the Poisoning Consultation/Surgical Specialty Hospital. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity according to Decayed, Missing and Filled (D1-4 MFS) Index (Mühlemman, 1976). Plaque index PlI (Silness and Löe, 1964) was used for measuring dental plaque thickness while gingival index GI (Löe and Silness, 1963) was used for diagnosis of the gingival disease. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary viscosity showed weak non significant correlation with caries experience (P>0.05). However, according to dental caries severity students with severe dental caries recorded higher salivary viscosity than those with moderate caries severity with significant difference in case of DS fraction (m.d.= -0.01, P< 0.05). However, according to DMFS statistical difference was close to the confidence limit (P=0.07). No significant correlation could be found between salivary viscosity and gingival inflammation (P> 0.05). Also regarding severity of gingivitis no significant difference in salivary viscosity was recorded between those with mild and those with moderate gingivitis (P> 0.05). Conclusions: It is recommended that measuring salivary viscosity to be a part of routine dental diagnosis when treating patient with higher dental caries risk. However, further studies are needed to disclose the effect of increased salivary viscosity on gingival health with larger sample size. Keywords: Salivary viscosity, dental caries, gingivitis.

الخلاصــةالمقدمة: ان ارتفاع لزوجة اللعاب يزيد من خطر الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو الكشف عن علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع شدة التسوس وشدة التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة. المواد والطرق: شارك في هذه الدراسة خمسة واربعون طالب من كلا الجنسين بعمر 20-22 سنة في كلية طب الاسنان/جامعة بغداد. تم جمع عينات اللعاب المحفز حيث اخذت الى المختبر لقياس لزوجة اللعاب في مركز السموم التابع لمستشفى الجراحات التخصصية. تم حساب شدة التسوس باستخدم مؤشرنخر ، قلع ، حشوة (D1-4MFS)لاكتشاف شدة تسوس سطوح الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية تبعا لتصنيف (Mühleman, 1976). استخدم مؤشر دليل الصفيحة الجرثومية لقياس ثخن الصفيحة(Silness and Löe, 1964) واستخدم مؤشر اللثة ((Löe and Silness, 1963 لقياس التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن وتم فحص جميع الاسنان. النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ارتباطا ضعيفا وغير معنوي للزوجة اللعاب مع تسوس الاسنان. اخذت شدة التسوس بنظر الاعتبار ووجد ان الطلبة ذوي التسوس الشديد اظهروا لزوجة عالية للعاب مقارنة مع الطلبة ذوي التسوس المتوسط الشدة مع وجود فرق معنوي في حالة DS (m.d.=0.01, P< 0.05) اما في حالة مؤشر حالة التسوس DMFS)) كان الفرق الاحصائي قريبا الى حدود الثقة (P= 0.07). لم يتم ايجاد ارتباط معنوي بين لزوجة اللعاب والتهاب اللثة (P> 0.05) بالاضافة الى عدم وجود فرق معنوي بين الطلبة الذين لديهم التهاب لثة طفيف والتهاب لثة متوسط الشدة. الاستنتاجات: اوصت الدراسة ان يعتبر قياس لزوجة اللعاب جزءا من تشخيص امراض الفم الروتينية عند معالجة المرضى الذين لديهم خطورة الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان واوجدت ضرورة لاجراء دراسة اخرى للكشف عن مدى تأثير زيادة لزوجة اللعاب على صحة اللثة وهناك حاجة لاختبار عينات دراسة ذات حجم كبير.


Article
Effectiveness of Chlorhexidine Digluconate Mouth Rinse in Improving Oral Health in Orthodontic Patients with Fixed Appliances

Author: Ghada Dh Al-Sayagh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 25 Pages: 162-169
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine digluconate rinsing solution on plaque and gingival bleeding in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. Materials and Methods: This study included 42 orthodontic patients (29 females and 13 males), who were undergoing treatment in orthodontic postgraduate clinic of the collage of Dentistry, Mosul University. The patients of this study had a mean age of 18 years (range 12–28 years). The patients were divided in to control group (brushing only, N=20) and an experimental group (brushing +chlorhexidine digluconate mouth rinse, N=22). Plaque, gingival indices scores, in addition to pocket depth were measured in different three time periods (day 0, two weeks and four weeks). Results: Plaque, gingival indices scores, in addition to pocket depth shows statically significant differences at level (p≤0.05) among different genders between the two groups for each of the three time periods. Conclusions: The use of chlorhexidine digluconate based mouth rinses reduced bacterial plaque accumulation, pocket depth and improved the gingival index


Article
Measurement of salivary Immunoglobulin A of participants with a healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis conditions

Author: Suzan Ali Salman سوزان علي سلمان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 120-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a subclass of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), It is an antibody that playsan important role in mucosal immunity. It is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions from mammaryglands, tear glands and salivary glands, every pathologic process in the body involves the immune system, andperiodontal inflammation is one of them and is not an exception.Material and methods: this study was consisted of 60 healthy male participants of an age ranged between (35-50)years old ; 25 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontists(Clinical Attachment Loss equal to 3-4mm at ≥30% of the sites; 20 participants with plaque induced gingivitis and 15 participants had clinically healthyperiodontium as control group. oral examination include Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth andClinical Attachment Level were conducted for all participants four sites were examined for each tooth (labial,lingual, mesial and distal), 2ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all participants to measureSecretory Immunoglobulin A in μg /ml by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.Results: salivary IgA(sIgA) mean was (356.3) μg /ml for the chronic periodontitis patients; while it was 202 μg /ml forplaque induced gingivitis patients and it was 129.2 μg /ml for the control group. Highly significant differencesamong the three group were recorded (P-value <0.001). For chronic periodontitis patients, the Plaque Index GingivalIndex scores were positively highly significant correlated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva. The ProbingPocket Depth scores were positively and significantly associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. The ClinicalAttachment Level scores were positively but non significant associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. Forthe gingivitis and the control group they were positive non significant association between the periodontalparameters and the Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva.Conclusion: there is a correlation between Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva and the periodontal healthstatus.


Article
Evaluation of serum levels Superoxide dismutase in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and gingivitis

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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women, there is an increasing evidence for an oxidative stress in PCOS that induce genomic and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid damage that leads directly to reduced fertility. The objectives of this study are to assess and compare the periodontal health status by measuring clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI and BOP)as well as serum levels of superoxide dismutase at gingivitis ,gingivitis with PCOS and healthy periodontium groups, then correlate between clinical and biochemical parameters.Materials and Methods: 60 females with an age range between (25-40) years old had been tested and divided into3 groups ,the control group consists of (20) females with healthy periodontium, group of (20) females with gingivitis and group of (20) females with gingivitis and PCOS. After completion of clinical periodontal parameters recording (PLI, GI& BOP), blood samples were collected and biochemical analysis of serum samples were carried out by using [Super oxide dismutase Assay kit] to evaluate serum super oxide dismutase levels.Results: The highest mean values of PLI,GI and BOP score1 were found in gingivitis+PCOS group. Highly significant difference was revealed among the groups regarding mean values of Superoxide dismutase with the highest mean value at gingivitis+ PCOS followed by gingivitis groups. Non-significant correlation were demonstrated between clinical and biochemical parameters except the significant moderate positive correlation of BOP at gingivitis+PCOS group.Conclusion: It could be certified that severity of gingivitis may increase in patients with PCOS. The concentration of serum SOD increased with the severity of gingival inflammation as well as the presence of PCOS. Serum SOD may be useful biochemical marker for early detection of periodontal disease and PCOS


Article
Occurrence and pattern of antibiotic resistance among dental plaque bacteria from gingivitis patients and their clinical correlation

Author: Sazan M. Abdulaziz
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 2 Pages: 51-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: A diverse group of bacteria live in biofilms in the oral cavity. On dental surfaces biofilms form plaque that is potentially involved in caries and periodontal diseases. Periodic studying of plaque microflora and their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns strongly affects the clinical practice in plaque-induced oral diseases.Materials and methods: Dental plaque samples were collected from 22 patients having ages ranged between 33 and 49 years with gingivitis that met the study criteria. Plaque, gingival and gingival bleeding indices (PI, GI, GBI) were measured for each patient. Laboratory procedures included microbiological examination of plaque samples followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing using disc diffusion method were also proceeded.Results: All patients were categorized as moderate gingivitis (GI: 1.1-2.0), the recorded PI were 1.2-2.7. Bleeding was observed in all subjects. Gingivitis was significantly higher in males (P=0.021). A total of 121 bacterial species were isolated from plaque samples, Facultative anaerobes constitute 83%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were α-hemolytic streptococci (36.36%) and Enterococcus faecalis (14.87%) among facultative, and Fusobacterium sp., Actinomyces sp., Veillonella sp. among obligate anaerobes (3.31%, 2.48%, 2.48%, respectively). Imipenem (77.2%) and Ciprofloxacin (59.4%) were the most effective agents against both bacterial groups. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was recorded in most of the isolates (> 90%). A very highly significant relation between MDR with each of the above clinical criteria was recorded (P-value= 0.000).Conclusions: The high level of MDR isolates is of great clinical concern and requires an urgent reassessment of the policies of antibiotic prescription in dental settings


Article
Gingivitis and Toothbrush Contamination

Author: Hussain O. Muhammed حسين عويدمحمد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2017 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 126-134
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Oral diseases can be controlled by reducing the microbial count in the oral cavity and thiscan be achieved by maintaining proper oral hygiene. Toothbrushes are the most commonlyused oral hygiene aid to prevent the dental and other oral diseases.To evaluate the association between gingivitis and contamination statues of toothbrush,effectiveness of disinfectants and duration of using the toothbrushes.The study was conducted on 63 patients and their toothbrushes. Gingival status ofparticipants were evaluated by measuring the gingival index then the patients were askedabout the duration of using his/her toothbrush and asked to bring his toothbrush forassessment of contamination status with regards to(Staphylococcus aureus) as well as forevaluation of efficacy of two types of disinfectants. The toothbrush samples were collectedand subjected to quantitative assay of microorganisms. The efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.2%)and sodium hypochloride (1%) were assessed at 1, 2 and 3 hours. The data were comparedby using student T test, ANOVA and LCD test and t- test. The gingival in dex was higherwith patients using the toothbrushes for longer duration, the S.aureus was isolated from alltooth brushes as well as the degree of contamination was increased with increased theduration of use. The chlorhexidine and sodium hypochloride were effective indecontamination of toothbrushes but their efficacy was reduced with increasing the period ofusing the toothbrush. The gingivitis might be exacerbated by prolong using of toothbrushes,contamination correlated directly with duration of using the toothbrushes and efficacy ofdisinfectant inversely correlated to duration of use.


Article
Prevalence and severity of Periodontal disease among institutionalized elderly in Baghdad-Iraq

Author: Bacima GH. Ali B.D.S.M.Sc د.بسيمة علي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 120-123
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This research analyzes data {rom dentate institutionalized elderly in Baghdad city .The study population comprised (100) dentate elderly ranging in age from 50-100 years27( males and 28 females) .Results showed that Prevalence of gingivitis was 100%among the elderly in both sexes and that the severity is higher among females for score 3and 2 of plaque index .

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