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Article
EFFECT OF ASPIRIN AS ANTIFUNGAL DRUG AGAINST SOME OPPORTUNISTIC FUNGI
تأثير الأسبرين كمضاد فطري ضد بعض الفطريات الانتهازية

Author: Alia' . A. Al- Bader علياء احمد البدر
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-107
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The effect of aspirin( non steroidal anti-inflammtory drug a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) as antifungal has been studied against some opportunistic fungi : Aspergillus flavus , A. niger , A. terreus ,Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium sp . and Trichoderma sp. Aspirin was showed a potent activity against all tested fungi in vitro . Aspirin gives the greatest effects in a concentration of 1000 µg , 2000 µg and 3000 µg causing 100% inhibition .

درس اثر الأسبرين ( عقار غير ستيرويدي ، مضاد للاتهاب ومثبط لانزيم السايكلوجينيز ) كمضاد فطري ضد بعض الفطريات الانتهازية Aspergillus flavus , A. niger , A. terreus ,Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium sp . and Trichoderma sp. وجد ان الاسبرين ذو فعالية قوية ضد جميع الفطريات المدروسة مختبريا واعطى اكبر تاثير عند التراكيز 1000 µg/ml , 2000 µg/ml and 3000 µg/ml اذ ادت هذه التراكيز الى حدوث تثبيط كامل للنمو الفطري

Keywords

Asprin --- Fungi --- Pain killer


Article
EFFECT OF ASPIRIN AS ANTIFUNGAL DRUG AGAINST SOME OPPORTUNISTIC FUNGI
تأثير الأسبرين كمضاد فطري ضد بعض الفطريات الانتهازية

Author: Alia' . A. Al- Bader علياء احمد البدر
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-107
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The effect of aspirin( non steroidal anti-inflammtory drug a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) as antifungal has been studied against some opportunistic fungi : Aspergillus flavus , A. niger , A. terreus ,Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium sp . and Trichoderma sp. Aspirin was showed a potent activity against all tested fungi in vitro . Aspirin gives the greatest effects in a concentration of 1000 µg , 2000 µg and 3000 µg causing 100% inhibition .

درس اثر الأسبرين ( عقار غير ستيرويدي ، مضاد للاتهاب ومثبط لانزيم السايكلوجينيز ) كمضاد فطري ضد بعض الفطريات الانتهازية Aspergillus flavus , A. niger , A. terreus ,Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillium sp . and Trichoderma sp. وجد ان الاسبرين ذو فعالية قوية ضد جميع الفطريات المدروسة مختبريا واعطى اكبر تاثير عند التراكيز 1000 µg/ml , 2000 µg/ml and 3000 µg/ml اذ ادت هذه التراكيز الى حدوث تثبيط كامل للنمو الفطري

Keywords

Asprin --- Fungi --- Pain killer


Article
Analgesic Effect of Melatonin in Mice

Author: Imad Hashim Mohammad, M.Sc., Ph.D.
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 28-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Melatonin is the main hormone secreted by the pineal gland. This indole compound (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is derived from serotonin after two biochemical steps. Melatonin has been implicated in some pharmacological effects including sedative/hypnotic, anticonvulsant activity and others. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of different doses of melatonin administered i.p. to mice, and then, to find the dose- response line of melatonin in mice as analgesic agent.Methods: The dose response effect of melatonin (10, 50, and 100mg/kg) were assessed against control using tail flick test in mice as a model of nociceptive pain. In this model, all doses of melatonin were given intraperitoneally 15 min before immersion of tail in hot water 50°C, and Tail Flick Latency was measured before, and after (15, 30, 60 and 120 min ) administration of melatonin.Results: Administration of melatonin i.p. to mice significantly P ≤ 0.05 increase tail flick latency in melatonin treated groups after 30 min and 60 min compared to baseline values; while after 120 min, administration of melatonin produce significant and dose dependent antinociceptive effect following its i.p. administration. The percentage increase in tail flick latency produced by i.p. administration of melatonin doses of 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg were 86.59%, 156.05% and 169.19% respectively when compared to baseline values.Conclusions: The present study showed that melatonin produces analgesic effect in a dose dependent manner in mice, further studies are required to know the exact mechanism by which melatonin exerts this analgesic effect.Keywords: melatonin, analgesia, pain

Keywords

melatonin --- analgesia --- pain


Article
Pain intensity and control with fixed orthodontic appliance therapy (A clinical comparative study on Iraqi sample)

Author: Hayder Fadhil Saloom حيدر فاضل سلوم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 122-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to investigate the level and intensity ofpatients` pain and discomfort, and to compare between the use of Bite Wafer and Paracetamol in reducing painand discomfort associated with initial orthodontic tooth movement in both adolescents and adults.Sample: 110 subjects with two age groups, 52 adolescents with age range from 12 to less than 18 years and 58 adultswith age range 18-24 years, successfully completing the study. For each subject fixed orthodontic appliance (Roth0.022) was bonded and round 0.014 NiTi arch wire was ligated with elastic ligature. The subjects in the Bite Wafergroup were instructed to chew on it whenever they feel pain for the next 7 days, and document the time andeffectiveness of it in the questionnaire. The Paracetamol group subjects instructed to use Paracetamol 500mg torelive pain and record times and effectiveness of its use in questionnaire.Results: The peak of pain was occurred in the first day and declined gradually till totally disappeared at the sixth dayafter initial arch wire placement. A marked reduction of pain intensity was noticed in both adolescents and adultsgroups, using Bite Wafer, from the first to the sixth day which is much higher than Paracetamol group especially inadolescents. No gender differences (P>0.05) was noticed in this study.Conclusion: Although both Bite Wafer and Paracetamol reduced pain gradually, Bite Wafer reduced pain moreobviously and safely in comparison to Paracetamol especially in adolescents

Keywords

pain --- Wafer --- orthodontic


Article
A clinical comparison between maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth using local anesthesia and normal saline by the periodontal ligament injection (An in vivo study)

Authors: Majidah K.W. AL-Hashimi ماجدة الهاشمي --- Raad S. Al-Doori رعد الدوري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 18-23
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Local anesthesia is the primary method used in dentistry to control patients’ pain. However, even in thepresence of adequate soft tissue anesthesia, there may be incomplete pulpal anesthesia. This is particularly true inthe mandible where obtaining profound pulpal anesthesia may be difficult. The periodontal ligament injection hasreceived much attention in the dental literatures. lntraligamentary anesthesia has been advocated as a primary anda supplemental injection technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, with electrical pulp tester, the anestheticefficacy of the periodontal ligament injection using 2% Lidocaine with 1:80000 epinephrine and normal saline in fortyvolunteers. The success rate was defined as no patient’s response to the maximum output of an electrical pulptester. Also pain rating during initial needle penetration and injection of solution were compared.Material and method: Forty adult volunteers participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups (10subjects each): Group Ia: each subject received a periodontal ligament injection in mandibular first premolar andfirst molar right or left side with Lidocaine injection and pulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Group 1b:each subject received a periodontal ligament injection in mandibular first premolar and first molar right or left sidewith normal saline injection and pulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Group IIa: each subject receiveda periodontal ligament injection in maxillary first premolar and first molar right or left side with Lidocaine injection andpulp tested each minute by EPT and Ethyl chloride. Group IIb: each subject received a periodontal ligamentinjection in maxillary first premolar and first molar right or left side with normal saline injection and pulp tested eachminute by EPT and Ethyl chloride.Results: The results showed that the duration of profound pulpal anesthesia, using 2% Lidocaine with 1:80000epinephrine, was 10 minutes and injection of anesthetic solution and normal saline in clinically healthy teeth wereonly mildly discomforting. The periodontal ligament injection using normal saline was not effective in producinganesthesia. A conclusion was drawn from the study that the periodontal ligament injection can be used effectively,as a primary injection technique, to anesthetize mandibular posterior teeth especially the first molars

Keywords

Pain --- PDL --- local anesthesia


Article
Etiology of the oral burning pain and its relationship to sex, age and anatomical sites (Clinical study among a sample of Iraqi patients in Baghdad)

Author: Sabah M. Dhamad صباح ضمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 70-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The studies about oral burning pain are few in Iraq in spite of this disease is a significant commonamong numbers of Iraqi patients, so more information were required in order to avoid its effect and occurrence. Theaim of the current study is to determine the actual causes for the disease by examining a sample of Iraqi patients inBaghdad, in order to evaluate its relationship to the age, sex and the anatomical sites.Subjects and methods: Sixty patients were selected from two hospitals, several specialized dental clinics and publicmedical clinic, in east of Baghdad (Sadder, Jamella and Baladeyate cities). Nineteen patients were excludedbecause they could not continue in this study. The remaining forty one patients, 23 female patients, their agesranged between 25 – 60 years, while the male patients were 18, their ages ranged between 20 – 60 years. Theduration of symptoms of burning inside the oral cavity ranged from 6 months to 3 years . Each patient in this studywas examined clinically to detect any oral lesion may have direct cause for the disease , also patients were askedabout the types of drugs intake , in addition to their psychological conditions . The medical and dental histories weretaken from all examined patients, also all medical and dental reports of the patients were determined. Few results ofdifferent investigations of the examined patients were replaced by new ones, and the others were taken inconsideration for obtaining results for this study. Fasting blood sugar, thyroid function test, histopathologicalexamination and others were examples for such investigations which had been done. The most important finding inthis current study that the cause of oral burning pain in the examined Iraqi sample was mainly multi factorial causesand a few cases were caused by single etiology.Results: This study revealed that the most common causes of the oral burning pain in this Iraqi sample was , hormonalchanges , bad psychological conditions , the side effects of some drugs intake , chronic gastritis in addition to otherfactors. The most anatomical site affected inside the oral cavity was the dorsal portion of the tongue.Conclusion: One conclusion for the current study in some examined cases was found that a hiding cause may play arole in oral burning pain occurrence beside other factors. This study appeared that female patients over 50 yearswere more susceptible to this disease than male patients; also older age groups for both sexes were mostly affected


Article
Determination of the effect of stress on the salivary cortisol level among sample of university students having myofacial pain

Authors: Rana M. Hasan --- Jamal N. Ahmed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 87-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Psychological stress is considered the major etiological factor precipitating myofacial pain andtemporomandibular disorders.It is known that stress induce various adaptational responses of physiologic systems. Theprocess includes increase in the activity of the hypothalamic -pituitary-adrenal axis which promotes cortisol secretion.Salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels.The use of salivary biomarkers hasgained increased popularity since collecting samples is non-invasive and painless. The aim of thisstudy was toevaluate the level of cortisol in saliva among sample of university students having myofacial pain, during the finalexam period and whether this finding could have a significant value as a symptomatic psychobiological marker.Materials and Methods: Ninety eight (98) university students were enrolled in this study. Fifty(50) were with myofacialpain (symptomatic) and forty eight (48) were without myofacial pain (asymptomatic) as a control group.Eachstudent with myofacial pain was examined according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TemporomandibularDisorders. Saliva sample were collected from each subject before final examination and three months later forbiochemical analysis of cortisolusing ELISA test.Results: A highly significant difference in salivary cortisol level between the two periods for both the study and controlgroups, and a non-significant difference between the two groups in before examination period. A negativeassociation has been observed between the level of salivary cortisol and severity of pain and a highly significantimprovement of pain between the final examination periods and three months later.Conclusions: Dental students perceived a higher level of stress prior to the final exam was associated with raisedsalivary cortisol levels which could be considered as a useful non-invasive biomarker for measuring acute stress

Keywords

Stress --- Cortisol --- Myofacial pain


Article
The Effect of impact of a counseling program to reduce the social pain of students at the preparatory stage
أثر برنامج إرشادي في خفض الألم الاجتماعي لدى طلاب المرحلة الإعدادية

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Abstract The research aims to identify the impact of the current method in a pilot program to reduce the social pain of students at the preparatory stage , through hypothesis testing the following: 1.No statistically significant differences at the level (0,05) between the experimental group arranged degrees before applying the Indicative Programme and beyond. 2.No statistically significant differences at the level (0,05) between the control group arranged scores in tests of tribal and posttest on a scale of social pain. 3.No statistically significant differences at the level (0,05) between the Order of the experimental group and the control group in the post test. Current search is determined by students in the preparatory stage preparatory schools under the Directorate General EducationalCenter in Diyala province city of Baquba spend / morning study government/ academic year(2013-2014)m. . To achieve the goal of research and testing hypotheses used experimental method The design (experimental group and a control group with pretest after me) sample consisted of (20) students from the preparatory stage stage in secondary jeweler for Boys Distributors randomly divided into two groups (experimental group) and (control group) , and by (10) students in each group , were conducted in the parity of the two variables , namely, (students' grades on a scale of social pain, age, IQ , and academic achievement for the father , and the mother's educational attainment , and economic leve). The researcher built a pain scale social which consisted of (40) items were presented to a group of experts in education and psychology who emphasized by (100%) on the validity of the scale of the application and thus achieves honesty virtual , The Persistence Vtm find it in three ways are retail midterm reaching (0,87) , and re-testing as was (0,88) , and has reached Alvakronbach (0,90). As well as the researcher applying the mentoring program (bstyle guidance realist) has been implemented through a pilot program prepared for the purpose of reducing the pain of social , were verified Believe (Indicative Programme) through honesty virtual , through the presentation to a group of experts in guidance and counseling , and may be program (12) and by guiding session (three sessions) per week per session time (45)M. The following statistical methods were used : (Pearson correlation coefficient , Alvakronbach equation , the equation of Spearman , t- test for two independent samples , chi-square , and Cookson test , Mann- Whitney test, the weighted average, weight percentile). . The results of the current research as follows: 1.There were statistically significant differences at the level (0,05) between the experimental group arranged degrees before applying the Indicative Programme and beyond. 2.No statistically significant differences at the level (0,05) between the control group arranged scores in tests of tribal and posttest on a scale of social pain. 3.There were statistically significant differences at the level (0,05) between the Order of the experimental group and the control group in the post test. The results showed that the indicative program to reduce the impact of the social pain of students at the preparatory stage. In light of the results and conclusions of the researcher presented a number of recommendations and suggestions.  

يهدف البحث الحالي الى التعرف على أثر برنامج إرشادي في خفض الألم الاجتماعي لدى طلاب المرحلة الإعدادية، وذلك من خلال اختبار الفرضيات الآتية:1. لاتوجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (0,05) بين رتب درجات المجموعة التجريبية قبل تطبيق البرنامج الإرشادي وبعده.2. لاتوجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (0,05) بين رتب درجات المجموعة الضابطة في الاختبارين القبلي والبعدي علىمقياس الألم الاجتماعي.3. لاتوجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (0,05) بين رتب درجاتالمجموعة التجريبية والمجموعة الضابطة في الاختبار البعدي. يتحدد البحث الحالي بطلاب المرحلة الإعدادية في المدارس الإعدادية التابعة للمديرية العامة لتربية محافظة ديالى في مركز قضاء مدينة بعقوبة/ الدراسة الصباحية الحكومية/ للعام الدراسي (2013-2014م). ولتحقيق هدف البحث واختبار فرضياته استخدم المنهج التجريبي ذا التصميم (مجموعة تجريبية ومجموعة ضابطة مع اختبار قبلي ــ بعدي) تكونت عينة البحث من(20) طالباً من طلاب المرحلة الإعدادية في ثانوية الجواهري للبنين موزعين بطريقة عشوائية على مجموعتين، (مجموعة تجريبية) و(مجموعة ضابطة)، وبواقع (10) طلاب في كل مجموعة، وقد تم إجراء التكافؤ للمجموعتين في بعض المتغيرات وهي (درجات الطلاب على مقياس الألم الاجتماعي، والعمر، والذكاء، والتحصيل الدراسي للأب، والتحصيل الدراسي للأم، والمستوى الاقتصادي). وقام الباحثان ببناء مقياس الألم الاجتماعي الذي تكون من (40) فقرة وتم عرضه على مجموعة من الخبراء في التربية وعلم النفس الذين أكدوا بنسبة (100%) صلاحية المقياس للتطبيق وبذلك تحقق الصدق الظاهري، أما الثبات فتم إيجاده بثلاث طرائق هي التجزئة النصفية إذ بلغ (0,87)، وإعادة الاختبار إذ بلغ (0,88)، والفاكرونباخ وقد بلغ (0,90). وكذلك قام الباحثان بتطبيق برنامج إرشادي بـ(أسلوب الإرشاد الواقعي) تم تنفيذه من خلال برنامج أرشاديأعدّ لغرض خفض الألم الاجتماعي، وتم التحقق من صدق (البرنامج الإرشادي) عن طريق الصدق الظاهري، من خلال عرضه على مجموعة من الخبراء في الإرشاد والتوجيه، وقد تكوّن البرنامج من (12) جلسة إرشادية وبواقع (ثلاث جلسات) في الأسبوع زمن الجلسة الواحدة (45) دقيقة. وقد استعملت الوسائل الإحصائية الآتية: (معامل ارتباط بيرسون، معادلة الفاكرونباخ، معادلة سبيرمان، الاختبار التائي لعينتين مستقلتين، مربع كاي، اختبار ولكوكسن، اختبار مان وتني، الوسط المرجح، الوزن المئوي).وأظهرت نتائج البحث الحالي ما يأتي:1. توجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (0,05) بين رتب درجات المجموعة التجريبية قبل تطبيق البرنامج الإرشادي وبعده.2. لاتوجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (0,05) بين رتب درجات المجموعة الضابطة في الاختبارين القبلي والبعدي علىمقياس الألم الاجتماعي.3. توجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (0,05) بين رتب درجاتالمجموعة التجريبية والمجموعة الضابطة في الاختبار البعدي.وقد أظهرت النتائج أن للبرنامج الإرشادي أثراً في خفض الألم الاجتماعي لدى طلاب المرحلة الإعدادية. وفي ضوء نتائج البحث قدم الباحثان عدداً من التوصيات والمقترحات.


Article
Nurse’s Knowledge and Attitudes toward Cancer Pain Management at Baghdad Hospitals
معارف واتجاهات الممرضين تجاه تخفيف الم السرطان في مستشفيات بغداد

Authors: Faisal Younus Sameen --- Wafaa M. Attoof Al-Attar
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 134-143
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objectives: The present study aims to assess Nurse’s Knowledge and Attitudes toward Cancer Pain Management at Baghdad Hospitals.Methodology: Descriptive study was conducted during the period from December 29th 2014 to July 1st 2015. The sample was selected purposive (non probability) of 95 nurses from Al –Amal National Hospital for Cancer Management and Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The study instrument consisted of two major parts constructed for the purpose of the study (socio-demographic characteristic and Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP).Reliability of the questionnaire form was determined through a pilot study while the content validity of the questionnaire was determined through a panel of experts; and collected data from 30th of March to 10th of May2015. The data were analyzed by used descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, S.D), inferential statistical analysis (correlation coefficient and chi- square test,).Results: Results of the study showed that, the knowledge and attitudes towards pain management were poor. The correct answer rate for the entire scale, on average, was 37.4%, ranging from (9.5% to 82.1%), And found that (7.4%) of nurses score were more than 50%, and (92.6 %) of nurses score were less than 50% level, In socio-demographic characteristics has no significant relationship with knowledge and attitudes, about cancer pain management, while training session in cancer pain management out Iraq has found significant differences at (P value < 0.05).Conclusion: The study concluded that, the knowledge and attitudes of nurses in oncology units towards the toward cancer pain management is unaccepted to the importance of the patient’s disease.Recommendation: The researcher recommends the establishment of regular courses for nurses about pain control and conduct studies on the impact of cancer pain treatments for the long term and activating pain measurement chart.

هدف الدراسة: تهدف الدراسة الحالية الى تقييم معارف واتجاهات الممرضين تجاه تخفيف الم السرطان في مستشفيات بغداد.المنهجية: أجريت الدراسة الوصفية للمدة من 29 من كانون الاول 2014 إلى الأول من تموز 2015. وتم اختيار عينة غرضية غير احتمالية ل 95 ممرض وممرضة من مستشفى الامل الوطني لمعالجة السرطان و مستشفى بغداد التعليمي. يتكون الاستبيان من جزئين ( الصفات الديموغرافية و المعارف واتجاهات الممرضين تجاه تخفيف الم السرطان ) وتم تحديد صدق الأداة من خلال عرضها على (17) خبيرا من ذوي الاختصاص ومن ثم تطبيق (الاختبار- واعادة الاختبار) لتحديد ثبات الاستمارة من خلال حساب معامل الارتباط بيرسن (0.79 ) .جمعت العينة من 30 اذار ولغاية 10 ايار2015 .تم تحليل البيانات من خلال الاحصاء الوصفي (التكرارات ،النسبة ألمئوية، والوسط والانحراف المعياري)والإحصاء ألاستنتاجي (معامل الارتباط واختبار مربع كاي ). النتائج: اظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن معارف واتجاهات الممرضين في وحدات الأورام تجاه معالجة الألم كانت ضعيفه وان معدل الاجابات الصحيحة 37.4٪، والتي تراوحت اجاباتهم مابين ( 9.5٪ إلى 82.1٪) ووجدت ان (7.4٪) من درجات الممرضين كانت اكثر من 50٪، و (92.6 ٪) درجاتهم أقل من 50٪، و عدم وجود فروقات بين الصفات الديموغرافية ومعارف الممرضين واتجاهاتهم حول معالجة الألم سرطان، بينما وجدت فروقات ذات دلالة معنوية بين الدورات التدريبية في معالجة الم السرطان خارج العراق بمستوى معنویة (0.05)الاستنتاج: استنتجت الدراسة بان معارف واتجاهات الممرضين في وحدات الأورام تجاه معالجة الم السرطان بمستوى غير مقبول بالنسبة لاهمية المرض للمريض.التوصيات: يوصي الباحث اقامة دورات ومحاضرات منتظمة للممرضين حول السيطرة على الألم و إجراء دراسات حول تأثير علاجات الم السرطان للمدى البعيد وتفعيل استمارة قياس الألم.

Keywords

Pain --- Knowledge --- Attitude --- Nurses


Article
Diagnostic Indications for Upper GIT Endoscopy Prospective Study

Authors: Riyadh Zair Alrubaie --- Haydar Talib Almousawi
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 2451-2454
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Upper GIT endoscopy is considered a safe procedure performed by a doctor, a well-trained subspecialist who uses the endoscope to diagnose and, in some cases, treat problems of the upper digestive system.Aim: to set a guideline for indications for upper GIT endoscopy in AKadhymiah Teaching Hospital.Materials And Methods: Prospective study of 600 patients presented with upper GIT symptoms and referred for upper GIT endoscopy. Results & Discussion: The results suggest the importance of symptoms indicating upper GIT endoscopy are in the following orders, dysphagia, acidity, melaena, vomiting, haematemesis, heartburn, nausea, epigastric pain and dyspepsia. The highest age incidence with positive endoscopic findings is between 30-40years ,male more than female, (male/female ratio 2/1). Conclusion: The duration of symptoms over 1 month found to be significant indication. There is no relation between smoking, alcohol or drug intake with endoscopic findings in our study

Keywords

GIT endoscopy --- indications --- pain

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