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Article
Frequency of CMV- Infection among Hemodialysis Patients in Tikrit City
تكرار الخمج بالفيروس المضخم للخلايا((CMV بين مرضى الديلزة الدموية في مدينة تكريت

Author: Israa Hashim Saadoon إسراء هاشم سعدون
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 3C Pages: 2523-2528
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

It has been well documented that hemodialysis patients have impaired immune response, which may result in higher prevalence rates of viral infections, including CMV. Infections in these patients may be due to primary infection or, more commonly, by reactivation of latent virus or re-infection with exogenous virus, which may be introduced by blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CMV-IgG and IgM antibodies among hemodialysis patients. The current research included 116 hemodialysis patients (69 male and 47 female) who attended to Tikrit Teaching Hospital for the period from beginning of October/2013 to the end of April/2014. CMV-IgG was found in 102 out of 116 (87.9%), while CMV- IgM was detected in 10 out of 116 (8.6%) of hemodialysis patients. CMV-IgG was found in a higher rate in females than that in males (91.5% and 85.5% respectively), while CMV-IgM was detected in a higher rate in males than that in females (10.1% and 6.4% respectively). However, there was non-significant difference (p> 0.05) between sex and seropositivity. Also, non- significant relation was found between age and seropositivity for both CMV-IgG and CMV-IgM antibodies (p> 0.05). Since patients receiving hemodialysis treatment are immunocompromised and can be at risk of primary infection or reactivation of latent infection of CMV, its necessary to identify these patients with anti-CMV IgG and IgM specific serological tests for appropriate management.

من المعروف جيدا" أن مناعة مرضى الديلزة الدموية تكون ضعيفة والذي ينتج عنه انتشارا" عاليا" للأخماج الفيروسية بينهم والتي من بينها CMV. ان الأخماج بين هؤلاء المرضى قد تكون بسبب إصابة أولية، أو الأكثر شيوعا"، اعادة تنشيط فيروس كامن أو اعادة الإصابة بفيروس جديد, والذي يمكن أن يحدث عن طريق نقل الدم. كان الهدف من هذه الدراسة تقييم تكرار CMV-IgGو CMV-IgM في مرضى الديلزة الدموية. شمل البحث الحالي 116من مرضى الديلزة الدموية (69ذكر و47 أنثى) المراجعين لمستشفى تكريت التعليمي للفترة منذ بداية تشرين الأول/2013 ولغاية نهاية نيسان/2014 . وجدت الأجسام المضادة CMV-IgG في 102 من مجموع 116 (9‚87٪)، بينما الأجسام المضادة CMV-IgM كانت موجودة في 10 من مجموع 116 (6‚8٪) من مرضى الديلزة الدموية. كان CMV-IgG موجودا" بمعدل أعلى في الاناث عما هو عليه في الذكور(5‚ 91٪ و 5‚85٪ على التوالي), بينما تم الكشف عن CMV-IgM بمعدل أعلى في الذكور عما هو عليه في الاناث (1‚10٪ و 4‚6٪ على التوالي). على الرغم من ذلك, لم تلاحظ فروقا" معنوية (p>0.05) بين الجنس والايجابية المصلية. كذلك لم تلاحظ فروقا" معنوية بين العمر والايجابية المصلية لكل من CMV- IgG وp) CMV-IgM >0.05). بسبب أن مرضى الديلزة الدموية لديهم مناعة ضعيفة وممكن أن يكونوا تحت خطر الخمج الأولي بـالـ CMVأو إعادة تنشيط الخمج الكامن به, فإنه من الضروري معرفة هؤلاء المرضى بالفحوصات المصلية المتخصصة لكل من الـ CMV-IgG و CMV-IgM لغرض المعاملة المناسبة معهم.

Keywords

CMV --- hemodialysis patients --- ELISA.


Article
THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ON NERVE CONDUCTION IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

Authors: Abdul Al-Razzaq N Khudair --- Thamer A Hamdan --- Oras Kadhim Baqer,
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 7-13
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Abstract The alteration in nerve conduction is considered one of the important complaints of patients who are suffering from diabetes mellitus nowadays. Therefore, we conduct this study which aimed to evaluate the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude in diabetic patients and assess the effects of the patients’ age, severity and duration of diabetes on nerve conduction impairment. A case control study, the studied sample were 200 persons, 150 diabetic patients (93 males and 57 females) and the control group consisted of 50 participants (32 males and 38 females). All the patients attended the neurophysiology outpatient department of Al-Sader Teaching Hospital in Basrah city. The diabetic participants were selected at random from age, diabetes duration, and sex. Regarding the ages and exclusion criteria of the controls were ranged same as the diabetic. All participants were interviewed and a questionnaire form was filled prior to examination. Both the diabetic patients and the controls were subjected to the same electrophysiological and laboratory investigations. The results of the study showed a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity and amplitude in diabetic patients comparing to controls in all the examined nerves. Furthermore, there was a significant association between advancing age and longer-duration of diabetes with the reduction of conduction velocity and amplitude. Also, a significant inverse correlation between increased severity of diabetes disease (HbA1c level) and decreasing of both conduction velocity and amplitude. However, the study demonstrated no statistical significant difference between patients and controls regarding the gender. In conclusion, the age of the patients, duration of the disease and the severity of diabetes (hyperglycemia control) are playing a crucial role as risk factors in developing of peripheral neuropathy in diabetic patients.


Article
A Survey Of Dermatophytes Isolated From Iraqi Patients In Baghdad City

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Abstract

Dermatophytes infection is a common problem worldwide and frequent in Iraq. Several reports and articles were published on prevalence, distribution, causes and treatment of dermatophytosis . This case study was conducted on fifty patients(31males and 19 females) with suspected dermatophytes were studied . Their ages ranged from one year to fifty years .Patients admitted to Baghdad Teaching Hospital , Dept . of Dermatology , Baghdad during September 2010 to March 2011.Hairs and scales were collected and microscopicall examination using 20% KOH were done. Hair and scales from active outer border of the lesion were inoculated on modified Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Culture was incubated at room temperature(28C°) for 4 - 5 weeks. The identification of dermatophyte species was based on the gross , and microscopical and cultural characteristic according to standard mycological references . The infection of dermatophyte was much higher in children below 10 years of age. Males 31(62%) were affected more than females 19(38%).Tinea capitis 19(47.5%) was the predominant clinical type .The main etiological agents was Trichophyton rubrum 20(50%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes 13(32.5%). The predominant anthropophilic dermatophytic species was Trichophyton rubrum. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, causative agents of dermatophytosis in group of Iraqi patients in Baghdad.

اصابات الامراض الجلدية من المشاكل الشائعة في العالم وخاصة العراق . عدة تقارير نشرت لدراستها وخاصة الانتشار والمسببات والمعالجة . وقد اجريت هذة الدراسة حيث تضمنت خمسون مريضا ( 31 ذكر مع 19 انثى ) المشكوك بأصابتهم بالفطريات .وترواحت اعمارهم من سنة واحدة الى خمسون سنة. المرضى من مراجعين لمستشفى بغداد التعليمي و شعبة الامراض الجلدية – في مدينة بغداد للفترة من بداية شهر أيلول 2010 وحتى نهاية شهر أذار 2011 . خضعت النماذج المأخوذة من الشعر والكشطات الجلدية الى الفحص المباشر بمحلول 20%KOH وقد زرعت على وسط السابرويد المطور وتحت درجة حرارة 28م ولمدة 4 -5 اسابيع. وقد شخصت الفطريات المسببة للامراض الجلدية بألاعتماد على الشكل المظهري للنمو الفطري والفحص المجهري لها والتفاعلات الكيموحيوية وبالاعتماد على المصادر الفطرية .وسجلت اعلى اصابة في الاطفال دون سن العاشرة من العمر وكانت اصابة الرجال 31 (62%) اعلى من النساء 19 (38%). الاصابة بسعفة الرأس( (Tinea capitisوالتي كانت سائدة أكثر من بقية الحالات الجلدية الاخرى حيث شكلت نسبة أصابة47.5 %.اما المسببات الرئيسية للاصابات الفطريات الجلدية في البشر هي: Trichophyton rubrum 20 عزلة ( (%50, Trichophyton menatgrophytes 13 عزلة (%32.5) , Microsporum canis 4 عزلة (%10) , Trichophyton sudanese 1عزلة(%2.5) , Trichophyton schoenleinii 1عزلة (%2.5) Epidermophyton floccosum and 1 عزلة (%2.5). واثبتت الدراسة ان الفطريات المحبة للبشرAnthropophilicهي السائدة.


Article
17- PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY OF Escherichia coli AND Klebsiella pneumoniae FROM PATIENTS AND ANIMALS IN BASRAH PROVINCE

Author: Roaa A. Sabeeh*, Mazin N. Mousa**, Bassam Y. Khudaier
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 192-208
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

During the period of seven months from October 2016 to May 2017, 299samples were collected, 152(51%) human samples, of which 69 (45.4%) were fromurine and 83 (54.6%) were from children suffering from diarrhea in hospitals in AlBasra governorate. 147 (49.2%) samples were from fecal of animals, of which 82(55.8% ) samples were from buffalo and 65(44.2%) were from cow .A total of 101E. coli serotype O157: isolates out of 299 were suspected E. coli analyzed 52/101(34.2%%) were from human 16 (10.5%) samples were from urine and 36 (23.7%)samples were from stool . and 49/101(33.3%) were from animal 33(22.4%)samples were from buffalo and 16 (10.9%) samples were from cow . On the otherhand 68(22.7%) isolates out of 299 were suspected K. pneumoniae analyzed 41/68(27%)were from human 28/41( 18.4%) isolates were from urine samples and 13/41(8.6%) isolates were from stool samples and 27/68 (18.4%) were from animal 16(10.9%) samples were from buffalo and 11(7.5%) samples were from cow).Allsuspected isolates were subjected to testing biochemical. It was found that 10 out of101 were 4 isolates of animal faeces (2 buffalo and 2 cows).six isolates of 52isolates (4 of the children's stool samples and 2 of the urine samples) 19.5% nonfermented sorbitol (NSFEC).The isolates were tested against 14 different antibiotics

Keywords

Escherichia coli --- patients --- Basrah.


Article
Evaluation of clinically suspected pertussis in children attending Rapareen Teaching Hospital in Erbil Governorate
تقييم السعال الديكي المشتبه به سريريًا عند الأطفال الملتحقين بمستشفى رابرين التعليمي في محافظة أربيل

Authors: Shireen A. Dzayee --- Nazdar E. Alkhateeb --- Dlair A. Chlalabi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 1051-1056
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Pertussis is one of the vaccine preventable diseases. Bordetella pertussis (B. Pertussis) continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients suspected or confirmed to have pertussis in relation to certain clinical and laboratory data. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in Rapareen Teaching Hospital from June 1st, to September 1st, 2010. The study enrolled 651 inpatients below five years of age with respiratory tract infection with 72 of them having initial suspicion of pertussis. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from them and nasopharyngeal swab were sent for culture for isolation of microorganisms as well as blood samples obtained for haematological assessment (white blood cell differential count and platelet count). Those confirmed to have pertussis and para-pertussis were considered as group A while other culture results were considered group B. Results: Most of patients were below one year of age (56.9%) with large numbers were not properly vaccinated and they had positive family history of paroxysmal cough (68.1% and 58.3%, respectively). Twenty one patients confirmed to have pertussis and parapertussis by culture methods. There was no significant difference between patients with group A when compared to group B regarding gender, vaccination status, history of post-tussive vomiting or whoop and family history of chronic cough. Mean platelet count was significantly different between two groups, with pertussis and parap-pertussis cases had less platelet count.Conclusion: Near half of patients with B. pertussis and parapertussis have a defect in their vaccination program.

Keywords

Pertussis --- Culture --- Cough --- Patients


Article
Disability assessment of diabetic patients in Erbil city
تقييم العجز لمرضى السكري في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Saadia Ahmed Khuder --- Dara Abdulla Al-Banna
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 902-909
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: The disabling effects of diabetes mellitus are multi-factorial, which can result in the high prevalence of long term complications. The aim of this study was to assess disability levels of diabetic patients. Methods: A quantitative design descriptive study was conducted in Leila Qasim Center in Erbil City in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq from February 2012 to February 2013. A non-probability purposive sample of 400 diabetic patients for more than 5 years was selected. A questionnaire was designed and divided into three parts: sociodemographic data, clinical data, and the standardized questionnaire developed by World Health Organization for disability assessment. Results: The highest percentage (57%) of diabetic patients had a moderate level of disability, while 23% had a mild level of disability. Severe level of disability was present in 20% of sample. No one had not disability or extreme level of disability. Conclusion: More than half of diabetic patients were in the moderate level of disability.


Article
Assessment of depression severity among cancer patients in Nanakaly Hospital, Erbil City
تقييم شدة الاكتئاب بين مرضى السرطان في مستشفى نانكلي، مدينة أربيل

Authors: Bakhtyar Othman Omer --- Yusif Bakr Omer --- Mosleh Saber Kareem
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1922-1929
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Depressive symptoms are present in several psychiatric disorders, the ones most commonly seen in patients with cancer, especially more common in those who are at the end of life. This study aimed to assess the severity of depression and association between socio-demographic data with the severity of depression among Cancer Patients in Nanakaly Hospital, Erbil City.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 cancer patients of both genders in Nanakaly Hospital, Erbil city, Iraq, from February 22nd, 2016 to April 27th, 2016. A questionnaire was designed for the study; it contained two parts. Part one consisted of socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, level of education, occupation, marital status, economic status, religion and residential area of the patients. Part two consisted of Beck depression rating inventory. Data were collected through interviews with patients. Frequency, percentages and Chi-square tests were used for interpretation of data.Results: The mean age (±SD) was 49.54 (±16.66) years. Each of males and females represented 50% of the sample. Most of the participants were married (75%), illiterate (35%), Muslims (94%), housewives (38%), had somehow sufficient income (40%) and from rural areas (84%). Majority of the studied sample (79%) suffered from moderate depression level, while only (21%) of them suffered from severe depression. There was no significant association between the level of depression and the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the medical status as well.Conclusion: The study concluded that most of the cancer patients have depression symptoms.


Article
Diabetic Patients Knowledge and Practice Regarding Annual Visual Checking

Authors: 1 Maha Hussein Mukhaiseer , --- 2 Ban A. Ridha Salman --- 3 Iman Ahmed Mohammed
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a significant cause of visual impairment; many diabetics do not have regular eye examinations, although it is known that early diagnosis and reduces the risk of blindness. There were many barriers that prevent diabetics from attending eye clinics. Objectives: To assess knowledge, and practice about ocular complications among diabetic patients and to determine barriers preventing the diabetic patients annual visual checking Methods: A cross-sectional study involving the interview was conducted among 300 diabetic patients attending out patient in Ibn Al Haitham Teaching Ophthalmology Hospital between November 2017 and June 2018.Results: The vast majority of patients (95%) believe that; diabetes could affect their eyes. 67% have their eyes checked up after being diagnosed with diabetes, of which only 33% they examined their eyes if vision got poor. Majority of patients believe that; controlling their blood sugar levels can help preserve their vision (84%). 72% of the total has good knowledge of DM effect on the eye. 55% of patients obtained their knowledge from the doctor and only 2% having obtained this knowledge from Television. Unfortunately only 3% of them check their vision annually 37 % they don’t know treatments available for diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Diabetic patients’ knowledge of ocular manifestations and the practice of diabetic patients towards eye examination were low, thus required to improve practice towards eye care to prevent visual impairment.


Article
Assessment of Quality of Life of Diabetic Patients Type-1- in Mosul City
تقييم لنوعية حياة مرضى السكري النوع الاول في مدينة الموصل

Authors: Salwa Hazim Ghailan سلوى حازم غيلان --- Ma'an A. Fadhil Al-Akaily معن أحمد فاضل العكيلي
Journal: Mosul Journal of Nursing مجلة الموصل للتمريض ISSN: 23118784/26630311 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-61
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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The aim of the study was to assess health problems related to Health Related of Quality of Life (HRQoL) of diabetic patients Type-1-, and to identify the relationship between some characteristics of diabetic patients Type-1- and health problems related to quality of life. This study uses the purposive approach. The study was conducted at Ibn-Sina hospital in Mosul city. The discruptive sample consists of (600) patients who visited Ibn-Sina hospital. In order to collect the study information, a questionnaire was constructed depending on previous studies and related literature review. It is composed of two parts: part one included (6) items which focus on the diabetic patients demographic characteristics such as (sex, age, marital status, occupation, educational level and residence). Part two was composed of (5) main items that covered independency, daily physical activities, psycho-social aspects, beliefs and environment. The total questions included (80) items, three scale options were used in the rating scale: (0) for never, (1) for sometimes and (2) for always. Content validity was determined by presenting the questionnaire to a panel of (12) experts. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by calculating Cronbach's Coefficient alpha. The data analysis shows that there is a significant statistical association between (HRQoL) items that are related to independency, daily physical activities, psycho-social aspects, beliefs and environment domains. The researcher concluded that (HRQoL) can be measured by instrument and that diabetic patients' independency, daily physical activities, psycho-social aspects, beliefs and environment were affected by their demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, occupation, educational level and residence). Depending on the findings and conclusions of the study, the researcher recommended further studies which could improve the instrument of this study from the view point of validity, reliability, and quality of questions.

هدف الدراسة هو تقيم المشاكل الصحية المتعلقة بنوعية الحياة لمرضى السكري النوع الأول وتحديد العلاقة بين بعض صفات المريض مع المشاكل الصحية المتعلقة بنوعية الحياة. استخدمت هذه الدراسة المدخل الغير تجريبي النوع الوصفي. ونظمت الدراسة في مستشفى ابن سينا التعليمي مدينة الموصل. وتتكون العينة العمدية من (600) مريض الذين يزورون مستشفى ابن سينا التعليمي ولجمع معلومات الدراسة فقد بُني الاستبيان معتمداً على الدراسات السابقة وعلى استعراض المصادر المتعلقة بالموضوع. يتألف الاستبيان من جزئين: تضمن الجزء الأول (6) فقرات والتي ركزت على الصفات الديموغرافية لمرضى السكري مثل ( الجنس, العمر، الحالة الاجتماعية, المهنة, التحصيل الدراسي والسكن). وتألف الجزء الثاني من (5) فقرات رئيسية التي شملت الاستقلالية, النشاطات الجسمية اليومية, الجوانب الاجتماعية - النفسية، المعتقدات والبيئة). وتضمنت مجموع الأسئلة (80) فقرة, حيث استخدمت ثلاث اختبارات معيارية في تقدير المقياس : الرقم (2) يعني نعم, والرقم (1) يعني أحيانا, والرقم (0) يعني كلا. وتحددت مصداقية المحتوى بواسطة عرض الاستبيان على هيئة تتألف من (12) خبير. وقد قيم الثبات الداخلي للاستبيان بواسطة حساب معامل الارتباط كرونباج إلفا. أظهرت تحليل البيانات أن هناك ترابط إحصائي معنوي لفقرات المشاكل الصحية المتعلقة بنوعية الحياة: الاستقلالية, النشاطات الجسمية اليومية, الجوانب الاجتماعية – النفسية، المعتقدات والبيئة. أستنتج الباحث أن الصحة المتعلقة بنوعية الحياة ممكن أن تقاس بواسطة أدوات ,استقلالية مرضى السكري والنشاطات الجسمية اليومية, الجوانب الاجتماعية – النفسية، المعتقدات والبيئة وتأثرت بصفاتهم الديموغرافية (الجنس, العمر، الحالة الاجتماعية, المهنة، التحصيل الدراسي والسكن) بالاعتماد على النتائج والاستنتاجات لهذه الدراسة, أوصى الباحث بدراسات أخرى التي ستُحسن الأداة المبينة عن طريق هذه الدراسة من جوانب المصداقية والثبات ونوعية الأسئلة


Article
A study of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients and its relation with diabetic progression
دراسة لاعتلال الشبكية السكري في مرضى السكري من النوع 2 وعلاقته بالتقدم السكري

Author: Ikhlass Ali Hussein Al-Hilaly اخلاص علي
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-34
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients and its relation with the glycemic control represented with the glycatedhaemoglobin (HbA1c). The study performed in the diabetic and endocrinology center at Al-Sader medical city in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf. The study included 102 subjects, divided into a (10) healthy subjects ascontrol group and two groups of diabetic patients attended to the diabetic and endocrinology center at Al-Sader medical city and diagnosed as type 2 diabetic patients, divided into two groups with and without retinopathy. The type of retinopathy was determined by physicians, there are three retinopathy subtypes: diabetic retinopathy in early stages, proliferative retinopathy and macular edema.Most DR patients were in early stages of retinopathy 37.25%, proliferative diabetic retinopathy 11.76%, and macular edema 11.76%.The results shows a significant increase of diabetic retinopathy DR prevalence with increasing diabetic duration, the incidence of DR was highest in patients of 15-20 years of diabetes mellitus,and the highest were the proliferative , then macular edema 12.33 ± 18.6 and 14.16 ± 2.32 respectively. The level of fasting plasma glucose among control, DM and DR groups increased significantly (P < 0.05), while there was no significant differences (P < 0.05) in FPG levels between these subtypes of DR.

هدفت الدراسة إلى التحقق من اعتلال الشبكية السكري في مرضى السكري من النوع 2 وعلاقته بالسيطرة على نسبة السكر في الدم والمتمثلة في glycatedhaemoglobin (HbA1c). أجريت الدراسة في مركز السكري وأمراض الغدد الصماء في مدينة الصدر الطبية في النجف الأشرف. شملت الدراسة 102 شخصًا ، مقسمين إلى (10) أشخاص أصحاء كمجموعة للتحكم ، ومجموعتين من مرضى السكري حضروا إلى مركز السكري وأمراض الغدد الصماء في مدينة الصدر الطبية وتم تشخيصهم على أنهم مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني ، مقسمين إلى مجموعتين مع أو بدون اعتلال الشبكية. تم تحديد نوع اعتلال الشبكية من قبل الأطباء ، وهناك ثلاثة أنواع فرعية لاعتلال الشبكية: اعتلال الشبكية السكري في المراحل المبكرة ، اعتلال الشبكية التكاثري والوذمة البقعية. كان معظم مرضى الداء السكري في المراحل المبكرة من اعتلال الشبكية 37.25 ٪ ، اعتلال الشبكية السكري التكاثري 11.76 ٪ ، وذمة البقعة الصفراء 11.76 ٪ تظهر النتائج زيادة معنوية في اعتلال الشبكية السكري لدى داء البول السكري مع زيادة فترة السكري ، كان معدل الإصابة بالـ DR أعلى في المرضى الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 15-20 سنة من داء السكري ، وكان أعلىها التكاثري ، ثم الوذمة البقعية 12.33 ± 18.6 و 14.16 ± 2.32 على التوالي. زيادة مستوى الجلوكوز في البلازما الصيام بين السيطرة ، ومجموعات DM و DR بشكل ملحوظ (P <0.05) ، في حين لم يكن هناك اختلافات كبيرة (P <0.05) في مستويات FPG بين هذه الأنواع الفرعية من DR.

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