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Article
Presence of Entamoebagingivalis in dental patients

Authors: Wssam M AL-SAEED --- Hind J MAHMOOD
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 65-68
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

This study has been carried out to investigate the presence of E. gingivalis in dental patients in Mosul. Soa total of 115 patients with different oral pathological conditions (dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis & abscess) were examined. The result revealed 52 (45.2%) were positive for the presence of Entamoebagingivalis. In addition 55 healthy individuals with good oral hygiene were also examined as control group, 3 of them (5.4%) were seen positive for the presence of parasite. Examination Was carried out by direct wet smear method.Results shows the highest incidence (53.3%) of this parasite was found in patients with dental caries, they were 24 out of 45, while the lowest incidence (26%) Was found in patients with tooth extraction, they were 4 out of 15. The present of this parasite was (46.7%) in males and (43.3%) in females, the percentage are approximately similar in both sexes


Article
Detection of Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 in Serum of Periodontitis Patients

Authors: Saja GH. Hussien سجى حسين --- Basima Gh. Ali باسمة غفوري علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 122-127
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis defined as “an infectious inflammatory disease within supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment loss and bone loss". Aggressive periodontitis is rare which in most cases manifest themselves clinically during youth. It characterized by rapid rate of disease progression .Pro-inflammatory chemokines organized inflammatory responses. Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 is involved in neutrophil gathering and movement. The purpose of the study is to detect serum of Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 2 and correlate to periodontal condition in patients with chronic periodontitis, Aggressive periodontitis and Healthy Control subjects and measurement the count of neutrophils for the studied groups.Subjects and methods: Eighty four male and female were enrolled in this study .They were divided into three groups (18) patients with Aggressive periodontitis with age range (20-45) years, (33) chronic periodontitis patients and (33) Healthy control with an age range (30-50). Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded for each group. The concentration of granulocyte chemotactic protein- 2 in serum was quantified by a high-sensitivity enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Blood neutrophils count were detect for five subjects from each group using light microscopeResult: ANOVA analysis revealed high significant differences in Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 means between aggressive, chronic and controls. Neutrophils count in aggressive periodontitis is higher than chronic and controls .No significant difference in neutrophils count between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, while significant difference when correlate them with controlsConclusion The concentration of granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 increased with the increase in severity of periodontitis. Higher neutrophils count was found in aggressive periodontitis than chronic and controls. As higher granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 that chemoattract more neutrophils recruitment to the site of inflammation


Article
Occurrence of Entamoeba gingivilis in patient with chronic periodtonitis

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Abstract

Recent studies have pointed the importance of Entamoeba gingivalis (E .gingivalis) as an active protozoa in periodontal pathology , its presence associated withthe presence of pathological pockets , thus a clinical survey of E, gingivalis wasconducted in patients with chronic periodontitis . A total of 240 specimens were takenHom 48 patients (20 male and 28 female) , their age ranged from 38 up to 60 years old .A direct smearing technique of deepest periodontal pocket (> 4mm) with a sterileuniversal curettes to pickup the plaque material and to be placed in phosphate — buffered `saline pl-{7.4, then stained with Heidenhair hematoxilyne modified technique, studiedunder light microscope , the results shown 33.3% of our patients were positive .The occurrence of E. gingivalis appeared positively correlated with the pocketdepth, 13.93% of 4-6mm pockets depth was positive, while in pockets of 7-8mm depththe percentage rises up to 38% .


Article
roduction of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) in the non surgical periotherapy of aggressive periodontitis

Author: *.Abdullatif Al-Juboury B.D.S., Ph.D د. عبد اللطيف الجبوري
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 268-278
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The non surgical periotherepy are based on the baeteriologic back ground ofperiodontal diseases. More than 46 different verulant species were composing thebacterial flora. Tetracyclin , Doxycyline , Minocyline were used systemically and / ortopicaly in association with conventional scaling and root planning , as wellchlorhixidine and wide variety of antiseptics were used . Generalized and localizedaggressive periodontitis being a complex disease showing a specific entity and acomplex bacterial flora, a curative non surgical remedy not yet well realized. The,polyvinyl pynolidone (PVP) a highly effective wide broad spectrum bactericidalfungycidal and virocidal antiseptic used in low concentration (3%) as an intrapocketirrigation solution accompanied with conventional ultrasound scaling and rootplanning . Eight patients having aggressive were involved in this study, 12 therapeuticsessions were performed during 6 months. Once a week , in the first month , twice amonth in the next 3 months , then once a month in the later 2 months . The resultshowed a significant improvement of the clinical parameters, gingival bleeding indexGBI), clinical pocket depth (CPD) , and clinical tooth mobility (CTM) , with(. radiologic evidences of bone formationThe result suggests that PVP could be the promising effective, save clinically. applicable , easy to use , and cheap remedy of complex periodontal diseases


Article
Evaluation of periodontal status in type 2diabetic patients on statin therapy
تقييم حالة دواعم السن عند مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني الذين يعالجون بأدوية السـتاتينات

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Abstract

Background: Dyslipidemia is prevalent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Statin drugs were first used to treat hypercholesterolemia and later to treat dyslipidemia particularly in DM. However, it was found that they also have an anti-inflammatory pleiotropic effect. Chronic periodontitis is a continuous inflammatory process whose progression is modulated by the presence of DM.Aim of study: To assess the association between the use of statin drugs and any improvement in periodontal status.Materials & methods: Eighty (40 males and 40 females) type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were selected consecutively but with consideration of sex and exclusion criteria to compose two groups: - Forty (20 males and 20 females) patients who were on a statin drug for at least six months and were assigned as the ( Statin group ).-Forty (20 males and 20 females) patients who received no statin drug at any time and were assigned as ( Non statin group ).Periodontal status was evaluated by periodontal disease index (PDI) which includes plaque, calculus, and periodontal components of this index.Assessment of glycemic control included serum glucose assay and HbA1c assay.Lipid profile assay included estimation of serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and calculation of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Results: The difference between the mean levels of HbA1c in statin group and non statin group was statistically non significant (8.61±1.82% vs. 9.10±1.26% respectively). There were no significant differences between statin group and non statin group in regard to the mean levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C. The mean level of TG was higher in statin group and the difference was statistically of high significance (151.10±55.02 vs. 122.43±34.39 mg/dl, P<0.01). The mean values of plaque, calculus, and periodontal disease index were lower in statin group than in non statin group. The difference in plaque index was statistically highly significant (1.31±.0.57 vs. 1.70±0.50, P<0.01), while the differences in calculus index and periodontal disease index were statistically significant (0.61±0.47 vs. 0.87±0.65, and 2.75±0.89 vs. 3.16±.0.78 respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusion: Diabetic patients on statin therapy exhibited fewer clinical signs of periodontal disease than those without statin therapy. Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Statins, Periodontitis

الخلفية: أن شذوذ شحميات الدم هو حالة منتشرة في مرضى السكّري من النوعِ الثاني . أن ادوية الستاتينات ( Statins ) قد اَستعملت في البدايةًً لمعالجة فَرْطُ كوليستيرولِ الدَّم ولاحقاً لمُعَالَجَة شذوذ شحميات الدم خصوصاً في السكّري. لقد وُجِدَ بأنّ لهذه الادوية تأثيرات متعددة المظاهر و منها تأثيرها المُضادُّ للالْتِهاب ً. أن الْتِهابُ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ المُزمن هو عملية ألتهابية مستمرة يتأثر تقدمها بوجود السكري هدف الدراسةِ: تَقييم العلاقة بين إستعمالِ ادوية الستاتينات وأيّ تحسن في الْتِهابُ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ.المواد والطرق: ثمانون من مرضى السكري (40 ذكر و40 أنثى)قد سُجّلوا في هذه الدراسةِ. المرضى إختيروا لإعْداْد مجموعتين:- أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى كَانوا يعالجون بادوية الستاتينات لستّة شهورِ على الأقل. - أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى لم يعالجوا بأدوية الستاتينات. تم تقييم حالة دواعم السن باستخدام دالة مرض دواعم السن والتي تشتمل على دالة اللوحة السنية، دالة القلح أو التكلس السني، ودالة دواعم السن.أن تقدير تضبيط سكر الدم قد تضمن قياس الكلوكوز في مصل الدم والهيموغلوبينِ الغليكوزيلاتي في الدم. أن تقدير مرتسم الشحوم قد تضمن قياس الكوليسترول الكلي وثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد وكوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ رَفيعُ الكَثافَة في مصل الدم وحساب كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ خفيض الكَثافَة. النَتائِج: كانت الفروقات بين متوسط مستويات الهيموغلوبينِ الغليكوزيلاتي في مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات مقابلْ مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات لايعتد بها أحصائيا ( 8.61 ± 1.82 % مقابل 9.1 ± 1.26 % على التوالي ). لم يكن هنالك فرق يعتد به أحصائيا في متوسط مستويات مكونات مرتسم الشحوم لمجموعتي الدراسة بأستثناء ثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد الذي كان أعلى في مجموعة مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات مقابلْ مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات ( 151 ± 55 مقابل 122.4 ± 34.4 ملغرام % على التوالي ، P < 0.01 ).أن متوسط القِيَم لدوال اللوحة السنية ِ،القَلَحٌ أوالتكلس السِنِّيّ ، و الْتِهابُ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ كَانْ أوطأ في مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات مِنْ مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات وكان 1.31 ± 0.57 مقابل 1.7 ± 0.5 ، P < 0.01 لدالة اللوحة السنية وكان 0.61 ± 0.47 مقابل 0.87 ± 0.65 ، P < 0.05 لدالة القلح السني وكان 2.57 ± 0.89 مقابل 3.16 ± 0.78 ، P < 0.05 لدالة دواعم السن على التوالي.الا ستنتاج : أن مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات أظهروا علامات سريريةَ خاصة بمرضِ الْتِهابِ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ أقل مِنْ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات.


Article
Detection of specific IgG and IgA anti Epstein-Barr virus in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subjects

Authors: Wasan A. Abid Aun وسن عبد عون --- Maha Shukri مها شكري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 125-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth.Recent studies have demonstrated that various human herpesviruses especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play apart in the pathogenesis of human chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to detect anti EBV IgG and IgA in saliva ofchronic periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and todetermine the differences between males and females regarding the periodontal condition and the levels of antiEBV IgG and IgA .Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of sixty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (32 malesand 28 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (16 males and 14 females) with age ranged from30 to 50 years. Both groups without any systemic disease.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP),probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected fromall subjects and examined by ELISA test for EBV IgG and IgA antibodies detection.Results: The results of the present study observed that there was no significant difference of PLI and GI betweenmales and females in chronic periodntitis patients. Concerning BOP the number of bleeding sites in females wasmore than in males. For PPD and CAL, there was increased PPD with its different scores (0, 1, 2) in males comparedwith females and there was increased CAL with its different scales (scales 0, 1, 2, 3) in males than females. Thepercentage of control group who were positive for anti- EBV IgG was (36.7%) and in chronic periodontitis was (81.7%). Concerning IgA, 40.0% of healthy group and 68.3% of chronic periodontitis patients showed a positivereaction for anti- EBV IgA .Conclusions: The present study showed that EBV Abs (IgG and IgA) were detectable in saliva from healthy individualsbut they were significantly more frequently found in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients. The present study showedthat there was no significant gender difference regarding the salivary level of anti- EBV IgG and IgA.

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- EBV --- IgG --- IgA


Article
Inorganic ions level in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects

Author: Wasan A. Abid Aun وسن عبد عون
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 93-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth.Inorganic ions have been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease in saliva. The aims ofthe study were the detection of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions levels in saliva of chronicperiodontitis patients and healthy subjects and correlate the mean salivary levels of these ions with clinicalperiodontal parameters [plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachmentlevel (CAL)].Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of thirty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (18 malesand 12 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (15 males and 15 females) with age ranged from30 to 50 years. Both groups were without any systemic disease.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD)and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all subjects and the levels ofcalcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in each specimen were analyzed. For each group a statistical analysiswas done to estimate the levels of these ions in saliva and to correlate the mean of salivary inorganic levels withclinical periodontal parameters.Results: The present study showed that there was highly significant difference in the levels of salivary inorganic ions(Ca=2, Mg+2, K+1, Na+1) between chronic periodontitis patients and control group with increase in Ca+2, K+1, Na+1 ionslevels in saliva of chronic periodontitis and decrease in level of Mg+2 ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis than incontrol group. There was no correlation between the mean of PLI and Ca+2, Mg+2, K+1 and Na+1 ions in saliva ofchronic periodontitis and there was no correlation between the mean of GI and Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+1 ions and anegative significant correlation with K+1 ions. Concerning PPD and CAL there was no correlation between them andthe mean salivary inorganic levels in chronic periodontitis patients.Conclusions: Estimation of these electrolytes or inorganic ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis may be used aspotential diagnostic markers of active disease status in periodontal tissues and to predict the effective methods ofprevention and treatment


Article
The correlation between hemoglobin level and generalized moderate chronic periodontitis

Author: Suzan Ali سوزان علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 85-88
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: As the periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products,systemic challenge with these agents also induces a major vascular response. Certain inflammatory cytokinesproduced during periodontal inflammation, can depress erythropoietin production leading to the development ofanemia. (1) This study aimed to investigate the association between hemoglobin level and generalized moderatechronic periodontitis.Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 60 systemically healthy male of an age ranged (30-60 years old)30 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontitis (CAL =3-4 mm at ≥ 30% of sites) and 30 of them withhealthy periodontium as control group. Full mouth examinations (excluding third molars) were conducted for allpatients. Four sites were examined for each tooth (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal). Plaque index (PI) (2) ,GingivalIndex(GI) (3) , bleeding on probing index (BOP) (4), Probing Pocket depths (PPD), and Clinical attachment level (CAL)were recorded using a marked periodontal probe (Williams probe) and measurement of hemoglobin (Hb)concentration in the blood by colorimetric cyanomethemoglobin method(22)Results: Mean of hemoglobin level was (12.527) for the study group whiles its (14.72) for the control group, highlysignificant differences were apparent between the two groups regarding the hemoglobin level (P- value P<0.01).About the Correlation between the hemoglobin level and the periodontal parameters, the PLI, CAL scores werepositively but non-significantly associated with the hemoglobin level. (P> 0.05).Correlation coefficient (r) between PLIand hemoglobin level was (0.30). For the CAL The correlation coefficient (r) was (0.159).Strong and significantcorrelation were found between BOP and the hemoglobin level (r = 0.343, P value = 0.049).Conclusion: There is an association between hemoglobin levels and periodontal status


Article
Early detection of periodontitis among young adult cigarette smokers and non-smokers using cone beam computed tomography

Authors: Maisam A. Kadhem ميسم كاظم --- Basima GH. Ali باسمه علي --- Shifa H. Al-Naimi شفاء النعيمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 116-121
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth; Smoking is animportant risk factor for periodontitis induces alveolar bone loss and cause an imbalance between bone resorptionand bone deposition. The purpose of this study is to detect and compare the presence of incipient periodontitisamong young smokers and non-smokers by measuring the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolarcrest (CEJ-Ac) using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).Material and methods: The total sample composed of fifty two participants, thirty one smokers and twenty one nonsmokers(age range 14-22 years). Periodontal parameters: plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI) were recorded forall teeth except the third molar while the radiographic analysis using CBCT was recorded on the Ramfjord teeth, theunit of measurement was from cement-enamel junction to alveolar crest distance (CEJ-Ac distance) per site inmillimeters.Results: The results obtained were a non significant difference for PLI, a significant difference of mean of GI betweenyoung smokers and non smokers. There was a highly significant difference in the general mean of CEJ-Ac distancebetween both groups. There was a significant difference between maxillary and mandibular teeth, a non significantdifference between right and left sides among young smokers and non smokers.Conclusion: The CBCT device plays an important role in detection the incipient form of periodontitis among youngsmokers and non-smokers, so we concluded that there is a highly significant difference in the general mean CEJ-Acdistance between young smokers and non smokers with increase distance in the maxillary teeth than that in themandibular teeth


Article
Correlation between Visfatin and Creatine Kinase Levels with Periodontal Health Status of Patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Basma R. Omer بسمة عمر --- Maha Sh. Mahmood مها محمود
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 121-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Visfatin is a novel adipokine that mainly secreted by visceral adipose tissue, had an important role ininflammation and immune system. Creatine Kinase (CK) which is an enzyme that is involved in energy metabolism,found in large amounts in myocardium, brain and skeletal tissues.This study is carried out To evaluate the periodontal health status of the study groups (chronic periodontitis andchronic periodontitis with coronary atherosclerosis) and control groups, to measure the salivary levels of visfatin andCreatine Kinase in these groups and compare between them, and to determine the correlations between salivaryvisfatin and Creatine Kinase levels with the periodontal parameters in the three groups.Materials and Methods: eighty participants, males and females were recruited in this study with age ranged from (30-60) years, they were divided into three groups: the first study group was the Chronic periodontitis group (n=30), thesecond study group was chronic periodontitis and coronary atherosclerosis (n=30) and the control group(n=20)which was healthy systemically with healthy periodontium. Periodontal health status was determined by measuringplaque index(PLI),gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth(PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinicalattachment level (CAL),salivary samples were taken from each participants, salivary visfatin levels were determinedby enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay(ELISA) while the activity of salivary Creatine Kinase was determinedspectrometrically by using the International Federation of the Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method on Hitachi 911Automatic analyzer.Results: The results of the study showed that the mean values of PLI, GI, visfatin, Creatine Kinase and the percentagesof sites according to PPD scores, CAL scores, BOP were higher in the second study group with chronic periodontitisand coronary atherosclerosis than in the other groups with highly significant differences between the groups at(P≤0.01). Also by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, salivary visfatin levels were correlated positively with allclinical periodontal parameters with a strong and positive correlation between salivary visfatin levels and CAL scoresand PPD scores. Salivary Creatine Kinase levels were correlated positively with all clinical periodontal parameters witha strong and positive correlation between its levels and mean values of GI and percentages of BOP.Conclusion: The present study showed that salivary visfatin can be used as a marker for the development ofcoronary atherosclerosis and its levels are associated with the degree of periodontal destruction and showed thatCreatine Kinase may be used as a marker for coronary atherosclerosis and chronic periodontitis.

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