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Article
Incomplete Vaccination among Children below Two Years in a sample of urban Primary Health Care Centers at Al-Karkh Baghdad City

Authors: Lamia Dhia AlDeen --- Lena Mustafa Abbas
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2016 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 139-145
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Vaccines are among the most cost effective tools available for preventing some infectious diseases and their possible complications and squeals. A target of (90%) of immunization coverage is necessary for sustained control of vaccine preventable diseases.Objectives of The Study: To determine the reasons of incomplete vaccination as well as to identify factors that contributed to missed opportunities for vaccination among children less than two years of age in Baghdad city. Method: A cross sectional study with an analytic element, was conducted in the period from the beginning of March to the end of July 2015. A convenient sample of. Data were collected from a sample of children attending the Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Al-Karkh Baghdad city for immunization by a direct interview with their mothers using a special structural questionnaire sheets, the immunization card was utilized to check for completeness of immunization schedule for each child.Results: A sample of 820 children was collected. The proportion of incomplete vaccination was (22.3%). Males showed higher proportions of incomplete vaccination (55.7%) than females (44.3%). There were direct and indirect reasons for incomplete vaccination, the main direct reasons were Social events and busy family (63.4%), change the place of residence; internal and external displacement (35.5%), and child illness (24.6%). Indirect reasons include low mother`s and father`s education, and large family size. Missed opportunities for vaccination represent (15.8%) and were mainly due to sick child or unavailable vaccine. (Children might have more than one reason)Conclusion: The study revealed that the percentage of vaccination was higher than that found in Iraq at 2015, but still did not reach the level of the developed countries.


Article
Taking Advantage of the Prophet's Recommendations
تلقيح الأفهام في وصايا خير الأنام جمع العلامة السيد الإمام شيخ الإسلام عبد الرحمن بن سليمان بن يحيى بن عمر مقبول الأهدل المتوفى 1250هـ _ رحمه الله تعالى دراسة وتحقيق

Author: Hassan Bin Muhamad Bin Ali Shbala حسن بن محمد بن علي شبالة
Journal: Anbar University Journal of Islamic Sciences مجلة جامعة الأنبار للعلوم الإسلامية ISSN: 20716028 Year: 2009 Volume: 1 Issue: 4 Pages: 456-511
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Praise be to Allah, we praise and seek His help, seek forgiveness from Him, and seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves, and the deeds of our deeds, whoever is guided by Allah is not misleading to him, and who misleads not guides him, and I bear witness that there is no God but Allah alone and no partner. It is upon him and his family and companions and their followers who have held his sunnah until the day of religion. After:The realization of heritage and the publication of manuscripts, which scientists and researchers must take care of, especially if that heritage is beneficial to the nation and helps to advance and progress in various aspects of life, scientists and researchers have made many efforts in this way, but there are still many books of heritage and manuscripts await the light Especially in Yemen, the coffers of Yemeni manuscripts contain many books, letters and parts for a number of Yemeni scholars who are still locked in the drawers waiting to be served and brought to light. I have stood on a number of manuscripts of various sizes in the indexes of the coffers of Yemeni manuscripts, and selected some of them to serve, including this letter collected by the marker updated Yemen and its support in his time, and Jaya al-Din Abdul Rahman bin Suleiman bin Yahya Al-Ahdal, who died Bzabid, in 1250 AH, tagged with: Vaccination of understandings in the commandments of the best Anam "in which the author collected forty-three newly, as the officer in the selection of the Hadith to include the mention of a prophetic commandment, and recommended by the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him one of his companions, listed by the author without a specific order, and presented to her with a brief introduction, and stamped Concluding conclusion.In view of the importance of the letter and the position of its author and firm footing in the science of Hadith and Archeology, I saw that I study and achieve, after receiving two copies of this letter from the "Library of Al-Ahqaf, Tarim, Hadramaut province." The nature of the study and investigation necessitated dividing the research into two parts:First: the study section, which includes two topics: The first topic: Definition of the author.The second topic: Definition of the book and description of manuscript copiesSection II: Verified text, as it served the text in accordance with the method of investigation adopted by researchers. The research is then appended to scientific indexes.I ask God to benefit him, and to write to me his reward, that he is an answerer.

إنَّ الحمدَ لله، نحمدُهُ ونستعينهُ، ونستغفرهُ، ونعوذُ باللهِ من شرور أنفسنا، وسيئات أعمالنا ، من يهده الله فلا مضل له ، ومن يضلل فلا هادي له ، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ، وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله ، صلى الله عليه وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ وَتَابِعِيْهِمْ مِمَّنْ تَمَسَّكَ بِسُنَّتِهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الدِّيْنِ . أما بعد : فإن تحقيق التراث ونشر المخطوطات مما يجب على العلماء والباحثين العناية به، وخاصة إذا كان ذلك التراث مما ينفع الأمة ويساعد على رقيها وتقدمها في جوانب الحياة المختلفة ، وقد بذل العلماء والباحثون جهودا كثيرة في هذا السبيل ، لكن مازال هناك الكثير من كتب التراث والمخطوطات تنتظر النور ، وخاصة في اليمن ، فخزائن المخطوطات اليمنية فيها الكثير من الكتب والرسائل والأجزاء لعدد من علماء اليمن ما زالت حبيسة الأدراج تنتظر من يخدمها ويخرجها إلى النور . وقد وقفت على عدد من المخطوطات بأحجام مختلفة في فهارس خزائن المخطوطات اليمنية ، وانتقيت بعضها لخدمته ، ومنها هذه الرسالة التي جمعها العلامة محدث اليمن ومسندها في عصره ، وجيه الدين عبد الرحمن بن سليمان بن يحيى الأهدل ، المتوفى بزبيد ، عام 1250هـ ، والموسومة بـ :"تلقيح الأفهام في وصايا خير الأنام " جمع فيها مؤلفها ثلاثا وأربعين حديثا ، إذ جعل الضابط في اختيار الحديث أن يشتمل على ذكر وصية نبوية ، وصى بها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أحد أصحابه ، سردها المؤلف بدون ترتيب معين ، وقدم لها بمقدمة موجزة ، وختمها بخاتمة موجزة .ونظر لأهمية الرسالة ومكانة مؤلفها ورسوخ قدمه في علم الحديث والأثر ، رأيت أن أقوم بدراستها وتحقيقها ، بعد حصولي على نسختين خطيتين لهذه الرسالة من " مكتبة الأحقاف ، تريم ، بمحافظة حضرموت ". وقد واقتضت طبيعة الدراسة والتحقيق تقسيم البحث إلى قسمين : الأول : قسم الدراسة ، وفيه مبحثان : المبحث الأول :التعريف بالمؤلف .المبحث الثاني :التعريف بالكتاب ووصف نسخ المخطوطة القسم الثاني : النص المحقق ، إذ خدمت النص وفق منهج التحقيق المعتمد عند الباحثين . ثم ذيلت البحث بفهارس علمية .أسال الله أن ينفع به ، وأن يكتب لي أجره ، إنه سميع مجيب .


Article
THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO DIPHTHERIA TOXOID IN CHILDREN VACCINATED WITH DPT VACCINE
الاستجابة المناعية لذوفان الخناق في الأطفال الملقحين باللقاح الثلاثي

Authors: غنيمة صادق محمد --- كريم مؤمن ليلو --- غصون علي عبد الحسن السوداني
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 88-99
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, 64 blood samples were taken from the healthy children after2-4 weeks of vaccination by DPT. The children were divided into three groupsaccording to the number of the doses of vaccine .The aged of children of thefirst three groups ranging from 6-55 months while the age of the fourth groupranging from 6-12 years, received the fifth dose of vaccine before 2-8 years. Thecontrol group included fifteen healthy children. They were aged between 11-85months and they had not been received DPT vaccine before. Neutralization testwas used to assess the concentration of the diphtheria antitoxin (DAT). Theresults showed that the serum first three groups of children contain aconcentration of DAT higher than 0.1 IU/ml at the percentage 98.4% while theresults of the fourth and control groups showed reduce of the DATconcentration less than 0.1 IU/ml at the percentage 60.86% and 100%respectively. Also the result showed an increase in the concentration of DAT asthe number of the vaccine doses increased. Where the fifth dose showedsignificant differences in DAT concentration (p ≤ 0.001, 0.01, 0.05) incomparison with control, the third and the fourth doses respectively. The resultsshowed negative direct correlation between the age of fourth group and theconcentration of DAT (r= -0.730) and also there was positive direct correlationbetween the number of days after the vaccination and the concentration of DAT(r = 0.532) for the first three groups of the vaccinated children.

الخلاصةشملت الدراسة 64 عينة دم أخذت من أطفال أصحاء ملقحين باللقاح الثلاثي4 أسابيع من التلقيح، وقد قسمت الى ثلاث - بعد 2 (Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus; DPT)55 شهر، فضلاً عن شمول الدراسة - مجموعات إعتماداً على عدد جرع اللقاح تراوحت أعمارهم مابين 68 سنوات. أما - 12 سنة تلقوا الجرعة الخامسة من اللقاح قبل 2 - مجموعة رابعة أعمارهم مابين 685 شهراً لم يسبق لهم - مجموعة السيطرة فضمت 15 من الأطفال الأصحاء وبأعمار تراوحت بين 13التلقيح باللقاح الثلاثي. أستخدمت طريقة فحص التعادل المصلي لتعين تركيز ضد ذيفان الخناق. أظهرتالنتائج أن المجاميع الثلاثة الأولى احتوت مصولهم على تركيز من ضد ذيفان الخناق يفوق 0.1 وحدةعالمية/مليلتر وبنسبة 98.4 %. بينما أظهرت المجموعة الرابعة والسيطرة انخفاض التركيز الى أقل من0.1 وحدة عالمية/مليلتر بنسبة 60.86 % و 100 % على التوالي، كما أظهرت النتائج زيادة تركيز ضدذيفان الخناق بازدياد عدد الجرع حيث أظهرت الجرعة الخامسة زيادة في تركيز ضد ذيفان الخناق بفروقمعنوية (الاحتمالية ≤ 0.05,0.01,0.001 ) مقابلة بمجموعة السيطرة والجرعة الثالثة والرابعة علىالتوالي. كما لوحظ وجود علاقة عكسية قوية بين عمر أطفال المجموعة الرابعة وتركيز ضد ذيفان الخناقمع وجود علاقة قوية مباشرة بين عدد الأيام بعد التلقيح وتركيز ضد ذيفان الخناق (r=-0.730)للمجاميع الثلاثة الأولى من الأطفال الملقحين بجرع اللقاح الثلاثي


Article
Assessment of Pregnant Women's Knowledge about Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination in Karbala City
تقييم معارف النساء الحوامل حول تطعيم ذيفان الكزاز في مدينة كربلاء

Authors: Iqbal M. Abbas --- Hadeel R. Seger
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2014 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Objectives of the study: Assess pregnant women's knowledge about tetanus toxoid vaccination, to find out the relationship between pregnant women's knowledge and some variables which included: (age, level of education, occupational status, socio-economic level, gravidity, parity, following visits of antenatal care, tetanus toxoid vaccination coverage).Methods and Materials: Descriptive analytic study conducted on multistage probabilistic sample of 130 pregnant women during period from 30th January 2012 to the 24th April 2013 was carried out in the six primary health care centers at Karbala city. The questionnaire was consisted of four parts which include of: socio- demographic characteristics, reproductive information, knowledge about tetanus toxoid vaccination, sources of information regarding tetanus toxoid vaccine. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were determined through pilot study, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: The results of the study showed that highest percentage (29.2%) of study sample were at age group (20-24) years, (31.5%) of them were not read and write, and (97.7%) of them were housewives. The highest percentage (68.5%) of them were living in low socio-economic level, the highest percentage (50.8%) of study sample were had (2–4) pregnancies, and (40.8%) of them were had (2-4) deliveries, (72.3%) of them have irregular visits to antenatal care, (76.2%) of them have partial vaccination coverage. Their knowledge were adequate in some items ,and inadequate in other items, (72.3%) of them were not provided with information about tetanus toxoid vaccine about it, (61.11%) of women that provided with information answered ; doctors were source of their information. There were statistical significant association between level of knowledge and (Level of education and Tetanus toxoid vaccination coverage) with probability value ≤ 0.05. Recommendations: The study recommended to enhance women's knowledge on tetanus by using the various mass media to increase the coverage of tetanus toxoid. Encouraging the pregnant women to have regular antenatal care visits which consider the cause to contact with sources of tetanus toxoid and hence increase the chance of vaccination.

أهداف الدراسة: تهدف الدراسة إلى تقييم معارف النساء الحوامل حول تطعيم ذيفان الكزاز ولإيجاد علاقة بين معارف النساء و بعض المتغيرات (العمر, المستوى التعليمي ،الحالة الوظيفية، الحالة الاقتصادية، عدد مرات الحمل، عدد مرات الولادة، المتابعة للزيارات للرعاية ما قبل الولادة، تغطية التطعيم بلقاح ذيفان الكزاز).منهجية البحث: دراسة وصفية تحليلية أجريت على عينة احتمالية متعددة المراحل لمائة وثلاثين امرأة حامل خلال الفترة من 30 كانون الثاني / 2012 إلى 24 نيسان / 2013 أجريت في ست مراكز صحية في مدينة كربلاء. تكونت الاستبانة من (4( أجزاء شملت المعلومات الديموغرافية، الخصائص الإنجابية، معارف النساء حول التطعيم بلقاح ذيفان الكزاز ،مصادر المعلومات بخصوص لقاح ذيفان الكزاز. وتم تحديد صدق المحتوى وثبات الاستبانة من خلال دراسة استطلاعية. تم استخدام التحليل الوصفي والاستدلالي في تحليل البيانات. النتائج: تبين نَتائِجَ الدراسةِ بأن ّأعلى نسبة (29.2 %) من عينة الدراسة كَانتْ تتراوح أعمارهن بين (20-24) سنة ، (31.5 %) منهن لا يقرأن ولا يكتبن، (97.7 %) منهن ربّاتَ بيوت. أعلى نسبة (68.5 %) مِنْهن يعيشون في مستوى اقتصادي منخفض. أعلى نسبة (50.8 %) مِنْ عيّنةِ الدراسةِ لديها (2-4) حمل و (40.8 %) منهن كَانَ لديهن (2-4) ولادات. (72.3 %) منهن كَانتْ متابعتهن للزياراتَ غيرمنتظمة للرعاية ما قبل الولادة. (76.2 %) منهن كَانتْ تغطيةَ التطعيمِ جزئيةِ. معارفهن كَانتْ كافية في بَعْض الفقرات وغير كافية في فقرات أخرىِ. (72.3 %) منهن لم يزودن بالمعلوماتِ حول لقاح ذيفان الكزاز. (61.11 %) مِن النساء اللواتي زوّدت بالمعلوماتِ أجابتْ الأطباء كانوا مصدر معلوماتهن . هناك علاقة إحصائية ذات دلالة معنوية بين مستوى المعرفة ِ و (المستوى التعليميِ وتغطية لقاح ذيفان الكزاز) بمستوى معنوية ≤0.05التوصيات: أوصت الدراسة بزيادة معارف النساء عن الكزاز من خلال وسائل الإعلام المختلفة لزيادة تغطية لقاح الكزاز. تشجيع النِساءِ الحوامل بالزيارات المنتظمة للرعاية أثناء فترة الحمل التي تَعتبر ُسبب َللاتصال بمصادرِ لقاح الكزاز وبذلك زيادة فرصة التطعيمِ.


Article
Evaluation of the Nurses’ Practices Concerning Vaccination at Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Amarah City
تقويم ممارسات الممرضين المتعلقة باللقاحات في مراكز الرعاية الصحية الاولية في مدينة العمارة

Authors: Ghazwan Abd Al-Hussein Abd Al-Wahid --- Arkan Bahlool Nagi
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 175-183
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Objective: To evaluate the nurse’s practices and to find out association between practices and their demographic characteristics of age, gender, education, and training crosses. Methodology: An evaluative descriptive study was conducted at primary health care centers in Al-Amara city during Nov 17th, 2013 to 10th August 2014, in order to evaluate the nurse’s practices concerning vaccination in immunization units. The sample was selected a non-probability (purposive) consist of (70) nurses and the data collection process has been performed from February 9th to the May 13th 2014. The data were described analyzed through use of the descriptive (frequencies, percentage,…) and inferential (Chi-square) statistical analysis procedures. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the majority of the sample within (40-49) years-old age group (54.3%). In regard to their gender, most of participants were males (70 %). Concerning to their educational level, the highest percentage of the sample was technician institute graduate who represented (58.6%). Concerning the number of training courses (63.3%) of the subjects had between 1 to 3 training courses regarding to vaccination. Conclusion: Findings of the study had demonstrated that majority of the participants had correct practice concerning vaccination; and showed there were a significant association between the nurse’s practices and their demographic characteristics of age, gender, education, and training crosses. Recommendation: The study recommended the need to develop the skills necessary to perform the process of vaccination for nurses in order to improve their practices; in addition, the study recommended the establishment of scientific conferences and development courses for nurses working in immunization units.

الهدف : تقويم ممارســات الممــــرضين المتعلقة باللقاحات وأيجادعلاقة مابين الممارسة و الخصائص الديموغرافية التي تشمل العمر، الجنس، والمستوى التعليمي و الدورات التدريبية. المنهجية : أجريت دراسة وصفية تقويمية في مراكز الرعاية الصحية الاولية فــي مدينة العمارة للفتره مــــن ١٧ تشرين الاول ٢٠١٣ لغــاية ١٠ أب ٢٠١٤، وذلك لتقويم ممارسات الممرضين المتعلقة باللقاحات في وحدات التحصين. أختيرت عينة غيراحتماليه (غرضيه) مكونه من (٧٠) ممرض وقد تم جمع البيانات خلال الفترة من ٩ شباط لغاية ١٣ أيار. تم تحليل البيانات من خلال تطبيق الوسائل الإحصائية الوصـفيه التـي تتضمن ( تكرارات، النسبة المئوية،..) والاستدلاليه ( اختبار مربع كاي). النتائج : واشارت النتائج التي توصلت اليــها الــدراسة بأن غالبية افــراد العينــة هم ضمن الفئــة العمــرية (٤٠ الى ٤٩) سنة، حيث شكلوا (٥٤.٣%). فيما يتعلق بالجنس، تبين ان معظم المشـاركين من الذكور حيث شكلوا (٧٠%). فيما يتعلق بالمستوى التعليمي، ظهر ان أعلى نسبة من افـراد العينة هم خريجي المعهد الفني الذين مثلوا (٥٨.٦%). أما بخصوص عـدد الدورات التدريبية في اللقاحات، فأن غالبية افراد العينة (٦٣.٣%) لــديهم مـن واحــد الى ثلاثة دورات تدريبية. الاستنتاج: وأظهرت نتائج الدراسة بـأن الغالبية العظمى من المشاركين كانت لـديهم الممارسة الصحيحة فيما يتعلق باللقاحات؛ وأظهرت الدراسة بوجود علاقات ذات دلالة معنوية بين ممارسات الممرضين والخصائص الديموغرافية التي تشمل العمر، الجنس، والمستوى التعليمي و الدورات التدريبية. التوصيات: أوصت الدراســة إلى ضرورة تطويــر المهارات اللازمــة فــــي أداء عمليـــة التلقيح للممـرضين بهــدف تحسـين ممارساتهم ، بالإضافة إلى ذلك أوصت الدراسـة بإقامة مؤتمرات علمية ودورات تطويرية للممرضين العاملين فــي وحدات التحصين.


Article
Effectiveness of Health Education on The Knowledge of The Mothers Toward Pertussis Disease and Vaccination in Al-Hashimiya District - Babylon Governorate

Authors: Makki Hasan Kadhim --- Nahida Mohammed Al Janabi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 283-292
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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The aim of this study is to study effectiveness of health education on the knowledge of the mothers toward pertussis disease and vaccination.A descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out during the period from 9th January till 10th of March 2014. Data were collected by the researcher, by using a special questionnaire format was constructed for this purpose, The sample of the study was 150 mothers visit Al-Hashimiya health centers. The results of the study shows that the majority of the participants 63 (42%) were between age groups (20 – 29) years, 148 (98.7%) were reported as married, related to the education 78 (52%) were read-write and primary, the majority of the sample are "Housewife", and they accounted 139 (92.7%). Additionally, the results have indicated that there are highly significant differences for all items of mothers knowledge concerning pertussis disease at pre-post test period. Regarding to source of information the results indicated that the mothers answered with health employees at pre-test were 125 (83.3%), while the mothers answered with health employees at post-test period were 142 (94.7%).


Article
IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO HEPATITIS B VACCINE IN END STAGE RENAL DISEASES

Author: Jawad K. Manuti جواد كاظم مناتي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-66
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:End stage renal diseases patients have lower seroconversion rates compared with the subjects with intact renal function. Moreover, even after the completion of vaccination schedule anti-hepatitis B titers of responder who kept on dialysis, patients are low and decline logarithmically with time.Objectives:To determine the response of patients with end stage renal disease undergone hemodialysis to hepatitis B virus vaccination and to identify the factors that could affect this response.Methods:One hundred patients with an age range from 21 to 75 years complaining of chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis. Patients negative for hepatitis B antigen and anti-hepatitis C were vaccinated with 40µg of Euvax B intramuscularly in the deltoid muscle by following a schedule of 0, 1 and 2 months. The antibody titer was tested at third month and if titer was <10 or 10-100IU/mL (patients whom regarded as non-responded or poor responded). Then they were given another fourth dose (40µg) of vaccine at sixth month.Results:The rate of seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccine among individuals with end stage renal disease is 63%. Thirty one (31%) patients were anti hepatitis C virus positive. Eighteen (58%) were responsive to hepatitis B vaccination and 13 (42%) did not response to Hepatitis B vaccination. Advanced age, sex and diabetes mellitus show no effect on response to vaccination. The response to hepatitis B vaccine is significant in patient's well control of hemoglbulin, calcium, albumin and long duration on hemodialysis.Conclusion:Patients on maintenance dialysis typically show a suboptimal immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccine compared with the non-uraemic population.Keyword: Hemodialysis, chronic renal failure, HBsAg, vaccination.


Article
Epidemiological Characteristics of Mumps Outbreak in the South Districts of Babylon province During the Years 2016-2017

Authors: Hasan Alwan Baiee --- Weli Hatif
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 585 -592
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Mumps virus is a highly infectious pathological agent, despite the use of vaccination, outbreaks continue to occur worldwide and affects all age groups. There is no specific treatment for mumps. The study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic features of a mumps outbreak in two districts located in the southern region of Babylon Governorate. The study was a cross sectional descriptive epidemiologic survey that included all notified cases of mumps reported by the primary health care authorities in southern region of Babylon Governorate during the year 2016–February 2017, a total of 693 clinically diagnosed mumps cases were studied from the records during this period in 4 primary health care centers (two in Al-Qasim district and two in AL-Showmaly district).Person Place Time epidemiologic model was applied to describe the occurrences of the disease. The Study results revealed that the male to female ratio of patients was 2:1 and most of the cases 26.4% occurred in January more than two thirds of cases were living in the city district (71%), about half of the patients (56%) were vaccinated against the disease. In conclusion Mumps occurs more among males and the frequency of this viral disease is high during January. The role of vaccination was limited in protection of patients against this disease, third booster dose of mumps vaccine is recommended after serological monitoring to evaluate the levels of antibodies to prevent future epidemics.


Article
Detection of Serum Hs CRP and C3 Complement Levels Following Immunization with Measles Containing Vaccine in Iraqi Young Adults

Authors: Ismail Ibrahim Latif --- Salwa S. Abdul –Wahid --- Arwa Mujahid Abdullah --- Zena Jassim Mohammed
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-56
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Measles remains a major cause of worldwide childhood mortality, and has been targeted by the WHO for global eradication following the eradication of poliomyelitis. Despite the implementation of mass school catch-up campaigns for measles, an outbreak of measles occurred mostly affecting the adult population.Objectives: To measurement of Highly Sensitive C Reactive Protein (Hs CRP) and C3 Complement levels in adult volunteers after vaccination with live attenuated measles containing vaccine, and to compare the results with that following vaccination. Subjects and methods: A sero-surveys for serum Hs CRP and C3 complement levels was conducted among [190] healthy young adults aged 18-25 years, randomly selected, and to compare after a national campaign with measles containing vaccine. Hs CRP and C3 complement were detected in volunteer’s sera prior to, 1, and 4 weeks after vaccination, measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Single Radial Immunodiffusion Assay respectively. Results: There was a significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the concentration of serum Hs CRP and C3 complement at week one following vaccination with measles containing vaccine, and returned to normal after four weeks. Conclusions: Raising Highly Sensitive C Reactive Protein and Complement C 3 Levels in the sera of adult volunteers after measles containing virus vaccine administration could play a role in increasing innate immune response against measles virus infection and may explain some mechanisms of immune response associated with measles infection.


Article
Effects of Newcastle disease vaccine on the liver and antioxidant enzymes of chicks
تأثير التحصين بلقاح النيوكاسل على الكبد والانزيمات المضادة للأكسدة في الأفراخ

Author: N.G. Mustafa نشأت غالب مصطفى
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2018 Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Pages: 243-247
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild birds result in huge economic losses due to extreme morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of the harmful impact of Newcastle disease vaccine on certain biochemical profiles regarded to chicken liver. This study conducted during January-April 2014, one day old - 53 chicks were divided into two groups; vaccinated (with Newcastle disease vaccine) group at the age of 1, 3, and 7 days and unvaccinated group. Results show damaging effects of vaccination on the liver glycogen and malondialdehyde concentrations, serum superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase activities. In contrast, studied parameters look to return to their usual range at the age of 30 days. From the convincing outcome of our investigation, it can be concluded that Newcastle disease vaccination has a detrimental influence on the liver of chickens, nonetheless this effect can be overwhelmed by the time.

يعد مرض النيوكاسل مرضاً فيروسياً معدياً جداً ويصيب الطيور الداجنة والبرية مسبباً خسائر اقتصادية كبيرة بفعل النسب العالية للاصابة والهلاكات. كان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو التقصي عن التأثيرات الضارة المحتملة والتي تنتج بفعل لقاح النيوكاسل على بعض المعايير الكيموحيوية لفروج دجاج اللحم. أجريت الدراسة الحالية خلال الفترة كانون الثاني- نيسان 2014 باستخدام 53 فرخ بعمر يوم واحد قسمت الى مجموعتين رئيسيتين; مجموعة التحصين حصنت بلقاح النيوكاسل بعمر 1، 3، 14 يوم ، ومجموعة السيطرة تركت بدون تحصين. أظهرت النتائج تأثيرات مختلفة للتحصين على تركيز كلايكوجين ومالوندايالديهايد الكبد، فضلاً عن قيم انزيمات مصل الدم؛ السوبر اوكسيايد ديسميوتيز، الكاتاليز، الكلوتاثيون بيروكسيديز، ناقل الكاما-كلوتاميل، ناقل أمين الالانين، وناقل أمين الاسبارتيت. على العكس من ذلك، في اليوم 30 من التجربة عادت القيم قيد الدراسة الى معدلاتها الطبيعية. نستنتج من هذه الدراسة أن لقاح النيوكاسل سبب أضرار في كبد أفراخ الدجاج، لكن هذه الأضرار تم التغلب عليها بمرور الوقت.

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