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Article
New Formula of Linear Interpolation
صيغة جديدة للاندراج الخطي

Authors: سمية عبد العباس صيفي --- محمد يحيى عبد
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 258-262
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

In this paper we have developed the method of Linear Interpolation which is considered the simplest way of the interpolation methods. We have been able to deduct a new interpolation formula that termed (New Formula of linear Interpolation). It has been proved, through the new formula that the results obtained are more accurate than the results obtained by using the Linear Interpolation. Moreover there is no need to reduce the value of (h) to have a good approximate value.For comparison purposes, other methods were used like: Lagrange Interpolation, Taylor Interpolation and Linear Interpolation.On the other hand, the researchers have used the Law of Error of interpolation.

في هذا البحث قمت بتطوير طريقة الاندراج الخطي (Linear Interpolation ) والتي تعتبر من ابسط طرق الاندراج فتمكنا من الحصول على قانون جديد في الاندراج أسميناه صيغة جديدة لاندراج الخطي (New Formula of linear Interpolation ) ولاحظنا ومن خلال القانون الجديد أن النتائج التي حصلنا عليها أكثر دقه من النتائج التي نحصل عليها عندما نستخدم قانون الاندراج الخطي, بالإضافة إلى ذلك فأننا لا نحتاج إلى تقليل قيمة (h)كي نحصل على تقريب جيد. ولأجل المقارنة استخدمنا طرق أخرى مثل(Lagrange Interpolation) ,(Taylor Interpolation) بالإضافة إلى(Linear Interpolation). من جهة أخرى استخدمنا قانون الخطأ (Linear Interpolation) كما سيأتي توضيح ذلك من خلال الأمثلة حيث ان نتائج قانون الاندراج الخطي المطور أكثر دقة وأحيانا تضاهي طريقة الاندراج لاكرانج.

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Article
Etiologies of chronic cough in adult patients: Is it hard to be diagnosed?

Author: Mohammad Yahya Abdul-Razaq محمد يحيى عبد الرزاق
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 45-50
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic cough is often the key symptom not only of chronic pulmonary diseases but for other important extrapulmonary pathologies, in particular upper airway and gastrointestinal diseases. Objective: This study was designed to determine the etiology of chronic cough and the usefulness of the available diagnostic tests in reaching its causes. Methods: One hundred patients presenting with chronic cough at Baghdad Teaching Hospital Outpatient Clinic were enrolled in this study. The patients underwent a full clinical interview, physical examination with indicated diagnostic test(s) (such as chest x ray, bronchoscope, PFT, GIT study, sinus X ray or CT). Results: An etiology of chronic cough was determined in 93% of the patients. Post nasal drip is the leading cause of chronic cough reported in 31% of the patient, while asthma gastro-esophageal reflux disease, and chronic bronchitis seen in (26, 20, and 6 % respectively). The diagnosis of chronic cough can be reached by comprehensive history, proper physical examination, and chest X ray findings in 66 % patients, further more sophisticated and invasive tests like: PFT, upper GIT study , expectorated sputum examination (AFB, Gram staining, cytology), fibrooptic bronchoscope, and full ENT evaluation including sinuses X ray or sinuses CT scanning, are need in the rest. Conclusion: The etiology of chronic cough can often be diagnosed safely with a simple initial evaluation (history, physical examination and chest X-ray). Postnasal drip, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease account for the etiology in more than three quarter of the patients.


Article
CERTAIN TYPES OF SEPARATION AXIOMS IN TRI-TOPOLOGICAL SPACES
بَعْض أنواعِ بديهياتِ الفصل في الفضاءات التبولوجية الثلاثية

Authors: Mohammed Yahya Abid محمد يحيى عبد --- Najlae Falah Hameed نجلاء فلاح حميد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2011 Volume: 52 Issue: 2 Pages: 212-217
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this paper, we introduce and study new types of separation axioms in tri-topological spaces, where we defined it using new types of closed set but not necessarily closed sets. Several properties of these concepts are proved.

في هذه الورقةِ، نُقدّمُ ونَدْرسُ أنواعَ جديدةَ مِنْ بديهياتِ الفصل في الفضاءات التبولوجية الثلاثية، حيث عرّفنَاه بإستعمال أنواعَ جديدةَ مِنْ المجموعةِ المُغلقةِ لكن لَيستْ مجموعاتَ مُغلقةَ بالضرورة. كما سنثبت مجموعة من القضايا المقترحة على تلك المفاهيم.

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