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Article
The Tolerance of Lime mud to Effect of Salt From Lower Faris Formation Missan Oil Fields

Author: Faleh H.M. Almahdawi
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2016 Volume: 120 Issue: 12th Pages: 105-119
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

In our study we have used several concentration of sodium chloride salts ( Nacl ) to test a tolerance of lime – treated mud prepared in laboratory in order to predict the conditions and amount of salt that may be occurred when we pass through salt formation or salty – formation as we have in Missan oil fields. We tried to show the effect of salt concentrations and variation of amount of lime on rheological properties of lime treated mud. Many samples were prepared for this goal. The main result of this study was, we can‟t use this type of mud to drill the interval( lower Faris formation ) because of its pressure abnormality, but as an inhibitive acting lime treated mud appeared good properties to drill like this lithology with normal pressure.


Article
Addition of Super Absorbent Polymer for Upgrading of Cement Quality in Iraqi Oil Wells

Authors: Faleh H. M. Almahdawi --- Dhorgham Skban Ibrahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 83-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study focuses on the use of an optimum amount of Sodium Polyacrylate (SP) for designing cement slurry with the high performance of rheological properties and displacement efficiency. A laboratory study has been carried out on the cement slurry which prepared with SP as superabsorbent polymer. SP has been providing an internal water source that helps in the hydration process, and curing and ultimately increases the cement strength. Also improves the cement performance by improving the cement stability. Several batches were prepared to determine the proper amount of SP to add it in the cement slurry. Also, we studied its effect on cement density, amount of free water in order to observe the rheological properties, and thickening time. Results indicate that the designed cement rheological properties are directly influenced by the shear rate and shear stress on the mix and pump of the cement with the increase of the SP concentration for the rheological improvement. Laboratory data are presented to highlight Polyacrylate’s positive effect on compressive strength, fluid loss control, and free water.


Article
Plum Tree Gumsas Local Alternativesfor Foreign Drilling Fluid Materials

Authors: Faleh H.M. Almahdawi --- Mohammad N. Hussain --- Haider Salim Jasim
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 15 Pages: 51-65
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

A few years ago oil well drilling cost increased due to using modern technique such as equipment and materials that are used by specialist companies so studies and researches were required to decrease these costs. In this study we tried to find local alternatives for foreign drilling fluid materials that are aimed to decrease oil well drilling cost although the cost of drilling fluid materials reach to 30 % of totalmaterials cost ofdrilling oil well. In the first part of this study seven local materials and it's tested under API Specification 13A for Drilling Fluids Materials were investigated. Plum Tree Gum was succeeded in this test among several other materials as drilling fluid materials. The second part of this study was a comparison between these local alternative and similar foreign materials for same sample to show physical and rheological properties.The third part of this study was tested this local alternative under different values temperature to show effect the temperature on physical and rheological properties of this local alternative. The results approved that; Plum Tree Gum, local alternative, can use as filtration control materials for water based drilling fluid. Also this local alternative increased viscosity as minimal for water based drilling fluids, So it can be used as part alternative for Bentonite to increase viscosity by increasing Yield point and decreasing solids concentration in drilling fluids so it has positive effect on Rig equipment’s and Pay-zone.Plum Tree Gum is Ore polymers (plant origin)

خلال السنوات القليلة الماضية لقد ازدادت كلف حفر الابار النفطية نتيجة استخدام التقنية الحديثة من المعدات والمواد من قبل الشركات المختصة لذا اصبحت الحاجة ضرورية الى اعداد دراسات وبحوث لتقليل هذه الكلف ومن هذه الدراسات هو ايجاد بدائل محلية لمواد سوائل الحفر الاجنبية المستخدمة حاليا في الحقول النفطية ( علما ان كلفة مواد سوائل الحفر تصل الى % 30 من الكلفة الكلية للمواد المصروفة على حفر البئر النفطي .في الجزء الاول من هذا البحث تم تهيئة سبعة بدائل محلية وفحصها حسب الفحوصات القياسية العالمية API Specification 13A for Drilling Fluids Materials ولقد اثبتت التجارب نجاح هذا البديل المحلي من بين عدة بدائل اخرى . في الجزء الثاني تم مقارنة هذه البدائل الناجحة مع اقرانها من المواد الاجنبية وذلك بإضافتها بتراكيز وزنية مختلفة لنفس النموذج من سائل الحفر لبيان الخواص الفيزيائية والريولوجية لسائل الحفر .في الجزء الثالث من البحث تم اجراء فحوصات عند درجات حرارة مختلفة لبيان تأثيرها على الخواص الريولوجية والفيزيائية للبدائل الناجحة علما ان الفحوصات اعلاه تم تنفيذها في مختبرات مركز البحث والتطوير النفطي. اثبتت النتائج ان البدائل المحلية :1-يمكن استخدامها كمواد مقللة للراشح وتؤدي الى زيادة لزوجة سوائل الحفر المائية القاعدة نسبيا .2-يمكن استخدامها كبديل جزئي للبنتونايت حيث انها تؤدي الى زيادة اللزوجة عن طريق نقطة المطاوعة وبالتالي تقليل نسبة الاجزاء الصلبة في السائل وهو عمل ايجابي للحفاظ على معدات جهاز الحفر والمكامن المنتجةالبدائل المحلية هي مواد اولية وهي عبارة عن بوليمرات من اصل نباتي وهي :صمغ اشجار فاكهة الالو.


Article
Apparent Viscosity Direct from Marsh Funnel Test

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Abstract

Accurate and simple techniques for measurement of fluid rheological properties are important for field operations in the oil industry. Marsh Funnels are popular quality-control tools used in the field for drilling fluids and they offer a simple, practical alternative to viscosity measurement. In the normal measurements, a single point (drainage time) is used to determine an average viscosity; little additional information is extracted regarding the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Here, a new model is developed and used to determine the rheological properties of drilling muds and other non-Newtonian fluids using data of fluid density and drainage time collected from a Marsh Funnel as a function of viscosity. The funnel results for viscosity compare favorably to the values obtained from a commonly-used Fann 35 viscometer. Different quantities of bentonite, barite and other additives which have been used to prepare many samples. Empirical equations are obtained µapp. = ρ (t – 28) and µapp. = -0.0118t2 + 1.6175t - 32.168, where apparent viscosity (µapp.) in (cp), Marsh funnel time (t) in seconds and the density (ρ) in gm/cm3.

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Article
Abnormal Pressure Distribution of Tertiary age formations in Middle & South Iraqi Oil Fields

Authors: Faleh H. M. Almahdawi --- Kareem A. Alwan --- Ahmed K. H. Alhusseini
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 16 Pages: 33-45
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Prediction of formation pore pressure gradient is a very important factor in designing drilling well program and it help to avoid many problems during drilling operations such as lost circulation, kick, blowout and other problems.In this study, abnormal formation pressure is classified into two types; abnormal high pressure (HP) and abnormal low pressure (LP), therefore any pressure that is either above or below the hydrostatic pressure is referred to as an abnormal formation pressure.This study concerns with abnormal formation pressure distribution and their effect on drilling operations in middle & south Iraqi oil fields. Abnormal formation pressure maps are drawn depending upon drilling evidence and problems. Three formations are considered as abnormal formations in the region of study, these formations geologically existed in Tertiary age and they from shallower to deeper are: Lower Fars, Dammam and Umm ErRadhuma, Formations. The maps of this study referred to either high formations pressure such as (Lower Fars and Umm ErRadhuma) or the low formations pressure such as (Dammam) in middle and south of Iraq. Finally these maps also suggested and showed the area, where no field is drill until now, which may behave as high, low and normal formation pressure for every formation understudy.


Article
Abnormal Pressure Distribution of Tertiary age formations in Middle & South Iraqi Oil Fields

Authors: Ahmed K. H. Alhusseini --- Kareem A. Alwan --- Faleh H. M. Almahdawi
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 16 Pages: 46-63
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Prediction of formation pore pressure gradient is a very important factor in designing drilling well program and it help to avoid many problems during drilling operations such as lost circulation, kick, blowout and other problems.In this study, abnormal formation pressure is classified into two types; abnormal high pressure (HP) and abnormal low pressure (LP), therefore any pressure that is either above or below the hydrostatic pressure is referred to as an abnormal formation pressure.This study concerns with abnormal formation pressure distribution and their effect on drilling operations in middle & south Iraqi oil fields. Abnormal formation pressure maps are drawn depending upon drilling evidence and problems. Three formations are considered as abnormal formations in the region of study, these formations geologically existed in Tertiary age and they from shallower to deeper are: Lower Fars, Dammam and Umm ErRadhuma, Formations. The maps of this study referred to either high formations pressure such as (Lower Fars and Umm ErRadhuma) or the low formations pressure such as (Dammam) in middle and south of Iraq. Finally these maps also suggested and showed the area, where no field is drill until now, which may behave as high, low and normal formation pressure for every formation understudy.


Article
Distribution of pore pressure gradient for some deep formations in Iraqi Oil Fields

Authors: Dr. Kareem A. Alwan --- Dr. Faleh H. M. Almahdawi --- Ahmed K. H. Alhusseini
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 17 Pages: E7-E19
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Pore pressures are the fluid pressures in the pore spaces in the porous formations. Interactive Petrophysic (IP) software is used to determined the pore pressure gradient from log data. These data are (GR log, Bulk Density and Sonic log).Surfer software is used to create the formation pressure distribution maps. These maps show the pore pressure gradient (PPG) for sex formations in contour forms. The formations are chosen depending upon the availability of formation in 11wells/11 fields. These maps are provided the pore pressure distribution in middle and south of Iraq and eventually, give a clear imagination for high and low pressure regions for each formation separately.Six formation are considered in this research, these formations which existed in early Cretaceous and late Jurassic (deep formations) are Shuaiba, Zubair, Ratawi, Yammama, Sulaiy and Gotnia.Finally, the outputs of these software helps to explain the abnormal pressure location and their distribution for the formation under study, this assists to expected the drilling mud program for these formation.


Article
Tragacanth Gum As Local Alternatives To Improve Viscosity And Filtration Control

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Abstract

Today oil industry faces a lot of problems and lost money during drilling and completion operation, so that the studies and researches must including the ways and solutions that lead to decrease the costs. In this research we tried to find local alternative material instead of foreign drilling fluid materials that is used in drilling fluids and will help to save a lot of money by decrease oil well drilling cost because of the high cost of drilling fluid materials which represent now about 30 % of total cost for drilling oil well. The local alternatives is Ore polymers ( plant origin) called : TRAGACANTH GUM.In this study we investigated the local material and tested it under API Specification for Drilling Fluids Materials. Also tested sample of mud after add local material (TRAGACANTH GUM.) for weighted concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 gm.) to show physical and rheological properties. The third part of this study tested sample of mud after add local material (TRAGACANTH GUM.) under different temperatures values and up to 70°C (this temperature is near for some formations temperature in Iraqi oil fields ) to show temperature effect on this material. A comparison between the local alternative and similar foreign materials for same sample was done to show physical and rheological properties. The results approved that, the local alternatives can used as filtration control materials for water based drilling fluid. Also the local alternatives increased viscosity as minimal for water based drilling fluids, So it can be used as part alternative for Bentonite to increase viscosity by increasing Yield point and decreasing solids concentration in drilling fluids so it have positive effect to save Rig equipment’s and Pay-zone.

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