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Article
Dental Arch and Mesiodistal Crown Dimensions in Normal, Crowded, and Spaced Samples

Author: Manar Y Abdul-Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 18 Pages: 211-218
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To investigate the contribution of both tooth size and dental arch dimensions to dental crowding and spacing. Materials and Methods: ninty one pairs of dental casts of subjects aged 15–25 years with Cl I molar occlusion were selected for this study. The sample was divided into 3 groups: the spaced (29 pairs), the normal (32 pairs), and the crowded (30 pairs) groups. For each pair of dental casts the follow-ing parameters were measured: individual and combined mesiodistal tooth dimensions, intercanine and intermolar widths, arch perimeter, and arch length. One way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: significant difference was noticed among the three groups for tooth dimension both individually and combined. The spaced group showed the smallest tooth size, while the crowded group was found to have the largest tooth size among the three groups. The crowded group showed a significantly smaller upper and lower arch widths and arch perimeter when compared with the spaced and normal groups. The spaced group showed larger upper and lower intercanine widths and upper arch perimeter when compared with the normal group, but this difference was significant only for upper intercanine width. Correlation analysis revealed that spaced group has significant correlation between the space discrepancy and the sums of 6 anterior and 12 teeth in the low-er arch. While, space discrepancy in the crowded group showed significant correlation with the sum of 12 upper teeth and upper intercanine width and with lower intercanine width and arch perimeter. Con-clusions: variations in mesiodistal tooth size and dental arch dimensions do exist among crowded, spaced, and normal dental arches. These variations should be taken into consideration when choosing orthodontic treatment techniques used for resolving problems related to space discrepancy.

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Article
Assessment of Anterior Alveolar Bone Dimensions in Adolescents and Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion

Author: Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 25 Pages: 161-172
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To investigate alveolar bone dimensions in the anterior segment of maxilla and mandible in 2 age group samples; adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 60 adolescent (30 males and 30 females) and 60 adult subjects (30 males and 30 females) with Class I normal occlusion were included in this study. The anterior alveolar segment was assessed using several parameters that measure the thickness (labial and lingual) and height of alveolar bone surrounding upper and lower incisors. Upper and lower incisor inclination and palatomandibular plane (PMP) angle were also measured. Independent samples t– test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Sexual dimorphism was noticed in labial and palatal alveolar bone thickness of maxilla for both adolescent and adult subjects. Adult males also demonstrated significantly higher values for lower alveolar height and symphysis width than females. The comparison between 2 age groups revealed no significant difference for most variables and the most evident finding was the significantly higher values reported for upper and lower alveolar heights and symphysis width in adult males compared to adolescent males. The results of correlation analysis showed that upper incisor inclination has positive correlation with upper labial alveolar width and negative correlation with palatal alveolar width indicating that thinner palatal bone thickness is associated with more proclined upper incisors. Labial alveolar bone thickness at apical level of maxilla and mandible showed negative correlation with upper and lower alveolar heights in both age groups and with PMP angle in adults only. While, symphysis width showed positive correlation with the width of lingual alveolar bone and with alveolar heights. Conclusions: No significant differences were found between the 2 age groups, however in both adolescents and adults anterior alveolar dimensions showed sexual dimorphism and correlations with other cephalometric parameters.


Article
Evaluation of the variation of skeletofacial angles(facial,mandibular,and gonial angles) among the pubertalage groups: (A cephalometric study).

Authors: Manar Y Abdul-Qadir --- Hussain A Obaidi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2007 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 101-106
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The skeletofacial growth pattern changes among pubertal age could or could not associate with the change in skeletofacial angles. These angles have a definite influence on skeletal relationships. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the skeletofacial angles among the four pubertal age groups.
Materials and method: The sample subjects were aged between 11-14 years. The criteria for the sample selection were normal class I molar occlusion with normal overbite and over jet (1- 4 mm), no detectable dental crowding or spacing, no rotations and no history of previous orthodontic treatment and/or craniofacial surgery. All the subjects were radiographed with lateral cephalometric films. The radiographs were traced and the skeletofacial angles were measured and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance, Duncan multiple range test and t-test at p < 0.05 for gonial (Ar-Go-Me) and Mandibular plane angles (FH/GoMe).
Results: The facial angle (FH/NPog) showed no significant difference among the age groups in males only, while in females the facial angle displayed a significantly higher value at 13 years group as compared with both 11 years and 12 years groups. Comparison between the genders revealed a significantly lower value in males than females for the facial angle at 13 years group only.
Conclusion: The skeletofacial angles gonial and Mandibular plane angles demonstrated no significant change among the four age groups for both gender and no significant difference was noticed between males and females at 11, 12, and 14 years age groups for all angles.
Key words: skeletofacial angles, pubertal age. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 101-106).

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Article
Upper lip profile changes

Authors: Manar Y Abdul–Qadir --- Hussain A Obaidi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 10 Pages: 153-159
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To explore the upper lip thicknesses, height and it's relationship to the esthetic line. Materialsand Methods: The studying sample included 48, 41, 50 and 44 individuals of age 11, 12, 13 and 14years respectively. The subjects were Iraqi individuals of Class I normal occlusion, who live in centerof Mosul City. All subjects were radiographed with lateral cephalometric films, these films weretraced, the tracing included the upper lip thickness at skeletal points (A–A´ ), upper lip thickness atlabrale superius (Ls–Ls´), upper lip height at stromion superior to palatal plane and the upper liprelationship to the esthetic line. All these measurements were measured and then subjected to thestatistical analysis. Results: The results were demonstrated that the upper lip thickness (A–A`) and(Ls–Ls`) were only significant increase at 14 year age groups as compared with 11 years age group inmales. In female the upper lip thickness was only significant at 13 years group as compared with 11years age group, while the upper lip relationship to esthetic line showed only significantly greater valueat 14 years age group as compared with 13 years age group. Sex variation appeared a significantgreater value in male than female for the (Ls–E line) at 11 years age group, (A–A`) and (Ls–E line) at12 years age group, (Ls–Ls`) at 13 years age group and upper lip height at 14 years age group andupper lip height at 14 years age group. Conclusions: The soft tissue of upper lip profile parameterswere increased with increasing age group, and the upper lip significantly larger behind the esthetic linein female than male at 11, 12 and 14 years age groups.

Keywords

Endosteal Lip --- thickness --- height --- esthetic.


Article
The Skeletal Posterior Facial Heights Change Among Adolescent Subjects (A Cephalometric Study)

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 12 Pages: 151-156
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To find out the changes among four age groups for total posterior facial height, upper anterior facial height and lower posterior facial height. Materials and Methods: The sample subjects were having normal class I molar relationships. The sample included: age 11 years (23 males and 25 females),age 12 years (19 males and 22 females), age 13 years (22 males and 28 females), and age 14 years (22 males and 22 females). All subjects were radiographed with lateral cephalometric films and the films were traced. The traced parameters of facial heights were measured. The results were subjected to the descriptive statistics and to the ANOVA And Duncan’s Multiple Range tests to detect the changes among the four age groups and to student's t–test to explore the sex variation fort these parameters.Results: The total posterior facial height displayed no significant change between 13 and 14 years groups, however, the values at both 13 and 14 years groups were significantly greater than that at11 year. The lower posterior facial height in males demonstrated a significantly higher value at 14 years group as compared to both 11 and 12 years groups, while females showed significantly higher value for both 13 and 14 years groups than 11 years group. The sex variation of the facial heights showed that males possessed significantly greater values than females for the lower anterior facial height at 11 years group, the changing also displayed significantly greater value for the total posterior facial heights at 14 years group. Conclusions: Both sexes tend to show an increase in the facial heights with the increase in the age groups and there are significant changes in facial heights between males and females except for total posterior facial height at 14 years age group.


Article
Facial soft tissue convexity changes

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 9 Pages: 88-95
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To find the soft tissue changes of the total facial convexity, facial convexity and nasolabial convexity among four age groups. Materials and Methods: The studying sample subjects included 48, 41, 50 and 44 individuals of age 11, 12, 13 and 14 years respectively. The subjects were Iraqi individ-uals of class I normal occlusion, who lived in center of Mosul City. All subjects were radiographed with lateral cephalometric films, these films were traced, the tracing included the total facial convexity (Gl–Prn–Pgs angle), facial convexity (Gl–Sn–Pgs angle) and nasolabial convexity (Cm–Sn–Ls angle). Results: Displayed that the total facial convexity angle in both sexes appeared that no significant change among the four age groups, the facial convexity appeared insignificant differences among the four age groups in males, while in females showed significant increase between the 14 years age group as compared with 11 years age groups, and the nasolabial convexity demonstrated no significant changes among the four age groups for males, whereas in females showed no significant di-fference between 11 and 12 years age group and between 13 and 14 years groups, meanwhile, the 13 and 14 years age group explained significant decrease as compared with 11 and 12 years age groups. The sex variation showed the only significant increase in females than males at 11 years age group for the nasolabial angle. Whereas no significant change between males and females in all the angles at the 12 and 13 years age group. In 14 years age group, the facial convexity angle only showed a significant increase in females as compared with males. Conclusion: No significant change in total facial con-vexity, facial convexity and nasolabial convexity angles among the four age groups in males. Whereas, in females there were a significant increase at 14 years age group, than 11 years age groups for facial convexity and nasolabial convexity angles.


Article
Soft Tissue Nasal Profile Changes

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: SpIss Pages: S24-S29
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To reveal the changes of the soft tissue profile of the nose, that include; length, height and depth of the nose among four age groups. Materials and Methods: The studying sample subjects included 48, 41, 50 and 44 individuals of age 11, 12, 13 and 14 years respectively. The subjects were Iraqi individuals of class I normal occlusion, who live in center of Mosul City. All subjects were radiographed with the lateral cephalometric films, these films were traced and drawing the linear parameters of the nose, the tracing involve the length (N` – Prn), width (N – Sn) and depth (Prn – Prn`). The results were subjected to the descriptive and variance analyses. Results: The results appeared in males the length of the nose increase in dimension with no significant differences when compared among the four age groups, whereas in females showed significant increase when compared the 11, 12 years with 13 years and with 14 years age groups. While, the h weight of the nose (N`– Sn) appeared in males and females significantly increase at 14 years age group when compared with other age groups. But significantly increased at 12 years age group as compared with 11 years age group, in males only. Mean while, the depth of the nose (Prn – Prn`) displayed significantly increase at age 14 years group when compared with 11 and 12 years age groups for both sexes. The comparison between sexes for the nose parameters demonstrated that the length, width and depth of the nose displayed significantly increase in males than females at 11 years age group and no significantly differences at other age groups. Conclusions: The conclusions of the study are that the nose have significantly increase between 11 and 14 years age group in both sexes, the nasal profile parameters have insignificant difference in dimensions among 12, 13 and 14 years age groups.


Article
The Mandibular Dimension Changes Among Four Age Groups

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: SpIss Pages: S109-S113
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: the study was planned to assess the value of the change among four pubertal age groups of Class l occlusion. Materials and Methods: The sample subjects were comprise of the flowing groups: 11yeas(23 males&25 females), 12years(19 males &22 females), 13years(22 males &28 females) and 14years(22 males &22 females). Each individual radiographed with cephalometric film. The cephalometric films traced and the mandibular lengths ( Ar–Pog, & Go–Gn & Ar–Go) were measured. The data subjected to the descriptive and variance statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results: The findings disclosed that the mandibular lengths (Ar–Pog, Go–Gn &Ar–Go) were significantly greater value at 14years age group as compared with 11,12,&13 years age groups. The sex variation appeared insignificant change among the four age groups for the mandibular lengths. Conclusion: The increase mandibular length at age 14 years can be regarded in relive the crowding at 11,12, &13 years age groups for both sexes


Article
Assessment of Sagittal Jaws Relationship in skeletal Class I Adolescents

Authors: Manar Y Abdul–Qadir --- Alaa' D Al-Dawoody --- Fadhil Y Jasim
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2010 Volume: 10 Issue: 16 Pages: 231-237
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To establish a cephalometric standard for sagittal jaw relationships for Iraqi adolescents in Mo-sul city by using three linear measurements, also to compare &correlated the three methods. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiograph were taken for 120 adolescents (52 boys and 68 girls). The age range was 12–15 years with a mean of 13.4 years. Wits appraisal (Ao–Bo), App–Bpp (distance between points A&B projected to the palatal plane), and AF–BF(distance between points A and B pro-jected to the Frankfort Horizontal plane) were measured. Results: Significant differences were found between boys and girls for Ao–Bo, and App–Bpp measurements. No significant difference was ob-served for AF–BF between girls and boys. Conclusions: Among the three measurements taken, the AF–BF distance appeared to be the most dependable one followed by App–Bpp distance.

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Article
Evaluation of Holdaway Soft Tissue Analysis for Iraqi Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion

Authors: Ne'am F Agha --- Alaa' D Al-Dawoody --- Manar Y Abdul–Qadir
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 12 Pages: 231-237
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine cephalometric standards for Iraqi adults using Holdaway soft tissue analysis. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 60 individual (31 males and 29 females), aged 18–23years. Ten linear and tow angular parameters were measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs, using the definitions provided by Holdaway. For each variable mean and SD were calculated, in additionindependent samples t– test was performed to detect sexual dimorphism. Results: Some differences were determined when the measurement obtained for Iraqi sample were compared to Holdaway norms.Iraqi adults showed a more obtuse H angle, less nose prominence, more upper lip strain, more skeletal convexity, and greater soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, a comparison between males and femalesrevealed a significant sexual dimorphism for upper lip sulcus depth, upper lip thickness, basic upper lip thickness, and soft tissue chin thickness. Conclusions: soft tissue cephalometric norms are specific foreach ethnic group. The normative data for Iraqi population should be used as a guide for diagnosis and planning of orthodontic treatment

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