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Article
Ultrastructural and morphometric study of the glomerular filtration slit during neonatal period
دراسة التركيب المستدق وقياس الشكل لفلعة الترشيح الكبيبي خلال الدور الوليدي

Authors: عايدة حميد العبيدي --- انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 8-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundThe functional and morphological development of the glomerius is an essential part of nephrogenesis that takes place during Intra uterine life and early post-naiat days.ObjectivesTo study the morphometric parameters of the maturation of the glomerular filtration slit of the kidney during neonatal period and its implication on the function of the kidney.MemodRat litters are used as a mammalian model of the development during the first 8 days of post -natal life. Image analysis using Bell software system was used for morphmetric measurement of filtration silt as examined by electron microscope-ResultsThe width of the filtration slit of new born kidney was 11.24±1.6 nm which increased by increment to be 14.83+1,6 nm on 4th .post- natai day. Eventually reached 25.34±4.3 nm on day 8 post natally.ConclusionsIn New Born litters, the glomerular filtration slit is narrower than that of mature kidney. Glomerular development continues to take place during first post natal week to reach the adult mature parameters at the end of neonatal period. This explains the low GFR found in new born mammals.

Keywords

Glomerulus --- Development --- GFR


Article
Morphological development of the metanephric glomeruli in rat during peri-natal period
النماء الشكليائي لكبيبات الكلية البعدية في الجرذ خلال الفترة المحيطة بالولادة

Authors: عايدة حميد العبيدي --- انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 9-12
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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background"The metanephric glomeruli develop from the metanephric blastema and ureteric bud. The nephron anlage undergoes multiple differentiation stages, fusion and invagination that lead to the formation of nephron.objectiveTo describe the morphological changes and transformations that lead to formation of metanephric permanent glomerulus during peri-natal period.methodThe study was performed on albino rat as a model for mammalian embryonic development. Embryos of20-22 days of gestation and neonatal litters were investigated for renal development. The specimens were double fixed, plastic embedded and semi-thin sections stained with methylene blue were examinedresultit was shown that glomerular development oontinues during late pre-natal days and first week post-natally. Maturity was attended by the end of the 7lh post-natal day The developing glomerulus passes through the stages describes as vesicle, comma, S-shaped, double comma, elongation and ovale stage to become finally mature.conclusionThe metanephric glomerulus passes through sequential, mufti-stage, pleomorphic development during peri-natal period. These features should be considered during evaluation of kidney during this period.


Article
Effect of smoking on sex hormones, inflammatory markers and semen parameters in infertile men
تاثير التدخين على الهرمونات الجنسية ودالات الالتهاب ومعايير المني في الرجال العقيمين

Authors: انعم رشيد الصالحي --- ماجد احمد --- اسراء السامرائي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 9-15
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundInfertility is a common social and health problem. Male factor is a major cause in 30% of infertile couples. Smoking is common at reproductive age and its effect on fertilitiy is still in controversy. Studying its effect on fertility helps in the management of infertility.ObjectivesTo assess the effect of smoking on serum sex steroidal hormones as well as on seminal plasma (SP) IL-2, IL-6 and conventional semen parameters in infertile men and their correlations between each other.MethodsSeventy male partners of infertile couples (30 smokers and 40 non-smokers) were involved in this study. The man was considered smoker if he had history of smoking of more than 10 cigarettes per day for at least one year. Semen analysis was done according to world health organization (WHO) 2010. Specific kits were used for measurement of serum testosterone, serum estradiol II, SP IL-2, and SP IL-6.ResultsThe median of SP IL-2 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in smokers than in non-smokers group and positively correlated with SP IL-6 in them. In addition, IL-2 was negatively correlated with semen volume, sperm motility and morphology, while IL-6 was negatively correlated only with sperm motility. However, there was no significant difference of serum sex hormones level or on semen parameters between smokers and non-smokers.ConclusionCigarette smoking affect cytokine levels in the seminal plasma but has no effect on serum sex hormones level or semen parameters.


Article
USE OF SOME ANTIOXIDANT TO MINIMIZE OCHRATOXIN ATOXICITY IN RATS
استخدام بعض مضادات الأكسدة لخفض سمية الاوكرا توكسين في الجرذان

Authors: عبد الغني ابراهيم يحيى --- تفريد عبد الناشى --- انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية ISSN: 00750530/24100862 Year: 2008 Volume: 39 Issue: 2 Pages: 54-67
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to minimize ochratoxin A toxicity by use of oral administration of two types of antioxidants, first was a -tocopherol at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight and the second was the extract of Hibiscus subdariffa at two concentrations 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight, respectively, Five groups of mature albino rats were used, group 1 was fed on a semi-synthetic feed without toxin, called control group , while group 2 was given ochratoxin A, group 3 was given ochratoxin A with a -tocopherol, group 4 and 5 was also given ochratoxin A with the extract of Hibiscus subdariffa .These groups were fed on a constant semi-synthetic feed free from antioxidants , with daily oral administration of ochratoxin A and antioxidants for a period of 30 days .The efficiency of the antioxidants were then evaluated by monitoring the changes in the serum values of some biochemical parameters. Moreover histopathological examination of tissue specimens obtained from the kidney, liver and skeletal muscle of the rats by the use of light microscope, The group that was treated only with ochratoxin A and without antioxidants showed elevations in the serum biochemical parameters, these were the Malonydialdehyde, glucose , triglycerides , atherogenic index (AI), liver enzymes (Aspartate Amino Transferase , Alanine Amino Transferase), creatinine and blood urea level, but caused a reduction in serum cholesterol level. Other groups which were treated with ochratoxin A and antioxidants showed changes in the above biochemical parameters that were insignificantly differed from that of the control group. The kidney specimens from Group 2 showed changes in proximal convoluted tubules and the liver specimens of the same group showed involvement at the peripheral region of the hepatic lobule. Skeletal muscle specimens showed normal architecture .No changes were observed in all other groups investigated throughout the study regarding kidney and liver specimens, with normal anastomosing columns of hepatocytes that were having normal homogenous cytoplasm

هدفت الدراسة الحالية ألي سمية الاوكرا توكسين A‏ باستخدام نوعين من مضادات الأكسدة وهي فيتامين E بتركيز 10 ‏ملغم/ كغم من وزن الجسم و مستخلص زهرة نبات الكجرات Hibiscus subdariffa بتركيزين هما 10 و20 ‏ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم على التوالي. استخدم خمس مجاميع من الجرذان الناضج من نوع Albino ‏ اعطيت المجموعة الأولى عليقه فقط ومسيت بمجموعة السيطرة , أما المجموعة الثانية فقد تم إعطانها سم الاو كرا A ‏ وقد أعطيت المجموعة الثالثة السم مع فيتامين E وأعطيت المجموعة الرابعة والخامسة السم مع مستخلص زهرة نبات الكجرات . تم تغذية هذه المجاميع الخمسة بعليقد خالية من مضادات الأكسدة وتم تجريع السم ومضادات الأكسدة فمويا ويوميا لمدة 30 ‏يوم. تم تقييم كفاءة مضادات الأكسدة عن طريق قياس بعض المتغيرات الكيموحيوية في بلازما الجرذان. بالإضافة إلى دراسة مقاطع لعينات انسجة الكلى والكبد والعضلات الهيكلية باستخدام المجهر الضوني.اظهرت المجموعة التي عوملت بسم الاوكراA ‏قفط وبدون مضادات الاكسدة ارتفاعا في قيم Malonyldialdehyde الكلوكوز , الدهون الثلاثية , النسبة التعصدية A )( l ,انزيمات الكبد (ALT ) Alanine Amino Transferase Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST).وكذلك في الكرياتينين واليوريا ولكن سببت انخفاضا في مستوى الكولسترول. لم تظهر المجاميع الأخرى والتي عوملت بسم الاوكرا A مع مضادات الأكسدة تغيرات معنوية في قيم المتغيرات الكيموحيوية المذكورة .اعلاه عند المقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. اظهر نموذج الكلى للمجموعة التي عوملت بالسم فقط دون إعطاء مضادات الأكسدة تلف في القنيات الملتوية الدانية , وأظهرت عينة نسيج الكبد تلف في المنطقة المحيطية لفصيص الكبد ولم تظهر تغييرات في عينات العضلات الهيكلية. لم يلاحظ اي تغييرات في كل المجاميع التي بحثت في هذه الدراسة فيما يتعلق بعينات الكلى و الكبد .

Keywords


Article
Evaluation of Different Cryopreservation Protocols of the Testis Using 8-Hydroxy 2-Deoxyguanosine as Marker of DNA Damage.
تقييم الانظمة المختلفة لحفظ الخصية بالقري باستخدام 8 هيدروكسي 2 دي اوكسي كوانوسين كمؤشر لضرر الدنا

Authors: استبرق عبد الرسول الكروي --- مصطفى جواد خليل --- انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 5 Pages: 16-23
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can destroy or severely reduce spermatogenesis and thereby jeopardize fertility in the long term. There is still no medical treatment that guarantees fertility preservation after chemo- and radiotherapy. Now with recent improvement of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and possibility of using testicular spermatozoa or epididymal spermatozoa at in vitro fertilization (IVF) by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of testicular tissue is an option in fertility preservation for males who will lose spermatogenic cells as a result of chemo-and radiotherapy and for males with azoospermia.Objective:This study is an attempt to evaluate oxidative DNA damage in the mice testicular tissue after cryopreservation/thawing cycle when using different types of cryoprotectants as well as to investigate the changes that occur in mice testicular tissue after cryopreservation/thawing cycle as a model for human being.Methods:Fifty mature fertile male mice between 8- 12 weeks old were used in the current study. For each mouse, one testis was evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically (using 8-Hydroxy 2>-Deoxyguanosine as marker of oxidative DNA damage) without cryopreservation (control group). The other testis was evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically (using 8-Hydroxy 2>-Deoxyguanosine as marker of oxidative DNA damage) after six weeks of cryopreservation using different types of cryoprotectants (cryopreserved group).Results:The microscopically observation of slides obtained from cryopreserved testis differs according to the type of cryoprotectant (glycerol, 1,2 propanediol and dimethylsulfoxide), in the dimethylsulfoxide group, tissue sections showed no major differences versus control group, but in the histological sections obtained from tissue cryopreserved by glycerol as cryoprotectant showed moderate morphological and structural changes as compared with the control group. While, the tissue samples subjected to 1,2 propanediol as cryoprotectant displayed the severest morphological and structural changes as compared with the control group.Immunchistochemical results of the present study showed a highly significant (P<0.001) increase in oxidative DNA damage in the cryopreserved testis (46.78%, 63.45% and 32.59% represent cryoprotectant glycerol, 1, 2 propanediol and dimethylsulfoxide, respectively) compared with control group (19.27%) after six weeks of cryopreservation.Conclusion:From the results of the current study, it was concluded that there was alteration in testis histology after cryopreservation/thawing cycle and increase the level of oxidative DNA damage after cryopreservation/ thawing cycle. As well as dimethylsulfoxide cryoprotectant provide good protection for testis histology and DNA.


Article
RELATION OF ANTIMÜLLERIAN, FOLLICULAR STIMULATING HORMONE AND ANTRAL FOLLICLE COUNT ON INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION OUTCOME IN INFERTILE PATIENTS

Authors: Menal F. Farhood منال فاضل فرهود --- Farqad B. Hamdan فرقد بدر حمدان --- Anam R. Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 261-266
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Studying some of fertility-related hormones is of major benefit to identify the causative factors and to search for an appropriate treatment. Anti-müllerian hormone regarded as quantitative markers for ovarian reserve. Basal follicular stimulating hormone provides a picture of how well the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is functioning and is the most commonly used tests for predicting success in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.Objective:To evaluate the level of serum and follicular fluid antimüllerian hormone, serum follicular stimulating hormone and antral follicle count and its relation to ICSI outcome in infertile patients.Methods:Seventy four infertile women were selected randomly from those attending the Fertility Centre, Al-Sader Teaching Hospital, Al-Najaf /Iraq. Ultrasound was performed for antral follicle count and their measurement at cycle day 2. Hormonal analysis is done for serum follicular stimulating hormone at cycle day 2 and for serum and follicle fluid antimüllerian hormone at day of ovum pickup.Result:The fertilization rate was positively correlated with follicular fluid antimüllerian hormone (r = 0.303; P = 0.048) but not with serum follicular stimulating hormone, serum antimüllerian hormone and antral follicle count.Conclusion:Follicular fluid antimüllerian hormone level was positively correlated with fertilization rate, while serum antimüllerian hormone level does not affect the fertilization rate in ICSI cycle. The basal follicular stimulating hormone level do not relate to fertilization rate, and the same thing regarding antral follicle count.Keywords:Anti-müllerian hormone, follicular stimulating hormone, antral follicle count, intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


Article
EFFECT OF CYP19 GENE ON POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME PHENOTYPE IN IRAQI WOMEN

Authors: Anam R. Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي --- Farqad B. Hamdan فرقد بدر حمدان --- Manal T. Mutib منال طه متعب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 272-278
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Ovarian androgen overproduction is the key physiopathologic feature of polycystic ovary syndrome and the bulk of evidence points to the ovary being the source of excess androgens, which appears to result from an abnormal regulation (dysregulation) of steroidogenesis. Aromatase is an enzyme complex responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogen. It is encoded by CYP19.Objective:To examine whether the rs2414096 of CYP19 gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to the polycystic ovary syndrome hyperandrogenism in Iraqi women.Methods:A Case control study was conducted in the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Al-Nahrain University and Al-Nahrain Forensic DNA Unit, Baghdad, Iraq for the period from February 2012 to February 2013. Sixty-five healthy women serves as the control group and eighty-four infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome, divided into two subgroups depending on the body mass index (< and ≥30 kg/m2) were studied. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to determine the genotypes of rs2414096 of CYP19. Clinical, anthropometric, hormonal and biochemical parameters were also estimated.Results: Genotypic distribution of rs2414096 of CYP19 was significantly different in polycystic ovary syndrome patients from that of control women. The frequency of GG genotype was higher in the patients, while AA genotype was higher in control women. Those with GG genotype have lower estradiol, estradiol/testosterone and higher testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicular stimulating hormone than those with AA genotype.Conclusion:The present data suggests that single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene is associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome hyperandrogenism in Iraqi women.Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP19 gene, reproductive hormones, Iraqi women.


Article
EVALUATION OF LEPTIN IN SERA AND FOLLICULAR FLUIDS OF INFERTILE WOMEN UNDERGOING INTRA-CYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME

Authors: Menal F. Farhood منال فاضل فرهود --- Farqad B. Hamdan فرقد بدر حمدان --- Anam R. Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 146-152
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Leptin may serve as the critical link between the body’s adipose tissue and the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, thus it is considered a possible link between nutrition and reproduction.Objective:To evaluate leptin in the serum and follicular fluid and its effect on fertilization rate and pregnancy outcome in infertile female patients undergo intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection cycle.Methods:Seventy four infertile women who agreed to participate in the study were selected randomly from those attending the Fertility Centre in Al-Sader Teaching Hospital, Holly Najaf. Hormonal analysis was done for serum and follicular fluid leptin hormone at the day of ovum pickup.Result:Serum and follicular fluid leptin hormone levels were increased above its normal cutoff level according to the kit used. There was a relationship between the fertilization rate and leptin in serum and follicular fluid. Fertilization rate was significantly (p = 0.049) different depending on the serum leptin level while it has nothing to do with follicular fluid leptin hormone. On the other hand, follicular fluid leptin significantly (p = 0.04) affect pregnancy outcome.Conclusion: Leptin provides possible impact on oocyte and/or embryo quality leading to impaired endometrial bed preparation that may be involved in pregnancy failure.Keywords: Leptin, ferilization rate, pregnancy outcome.


Article
INFLUENCE OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SEMINAL PLASMA SOLUBLE FAS AS A MARKER OF GERM CELL APOPTOSIS

Authors: Majid H Ahmed ماجد حميد احمد --- Isra'a F Ja'afar اسراء فائق جعفر --- Anam R Al-Salihi انعم رشيد الصالحي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-17
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Male infertility constitutes about 50% of overall causes of infertility and apoptosis is known to have an essential role in the control of germ cell number in testis. Cigarette smoking is common in males at reproductive age. Studying the influence of smoking on apoptosis in male genital tract and its influence on fertility helps in the management of infertility in smokers.Objectives:To assess the influence of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma (SP) soluble Fas (sFas) and the correlation between SP sFas and serum sex steroidal hormones and conventional semen parameters in males of infertile couples.Methods:Seventy male partners of infertile couples (30 smokers and 40 non-smokers) were enrolled in this study. A subject was considered smoker if he had history of smoking of more 10 cigarettes per day for at least one year. Semen analysis was done according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2010. Specific kits were used for the measurement of SP sFas and serum testosterone and estradiol (E2).Results:In smokers' group, SP sFas was significantly (p <0.05) negatively correlated with age and sperm motility and positively correlated with immotile sperm and round cell number.Conclusion:Germ cell apoptosis in smoker males of infertile couples is interrelated with sperm motility.Keywords:Male infertility, Smoking, Apoptosis, Seminal plasma sFas.


Article
3.THE EFFECTS OF DEXAMETHASONE ON TIBIA DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL CHICK- EMBRYO. I: COMPUTER-ASSISTED MORPHOMETRIC STUDY

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Background:Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid as a member of the steroidal anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. It has well documented effects on skeletal structures osseous and cartilaginous, commonly used to treat or control diseases.Objective:To evaluate by histomorphometric study the effects of dexamethasone on the embryogenesis of long bones in chick embryos.Methods:Forty-eight fertile chick eggs of Gallus gallus domesticus, were used. The eggs were divided into 2 groups; control and treated groups of 24 eggs each, these groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=6 eggs). On day 10 of incubation, the control group was injected with 25 µl of distilled water while the treated group was injected with 25 µl of distilled water contained 8 µg dexamethasone. In the next days (11, 12, 13, and 14 of incubation), 12 chick embryos were sacrificed in each day. A computer-assisted morphometric/ image analysis (Motic Image Plus version 2.0ML), was used to measure length, area, perimeter of tibiae, and the area and perimeter of the perichondral osseous collar of cross section in mid-diaphyseal zone of these bones.Results:These bones of chick embryos treated with dexamethasone, suffered shortening and retardation in length, weight, area and perimeter throughout the period of this study, decline area and perimeter to the perichondral osseous collar in the mid-diaphyseal zone.Conclusion:Dexamethasone given at day 10 of incubation caused tibial bones growth retardation at development stages 11, 12, 13, and 14-days; this was observed in the measured parameters: bone length, area, perimeter and weight.Keywords:Bones, chick-embryo, dexamethasone, histomorphometryCitation:Wathiq Q.S. Ali, Mohammad O. Selman, Insaf J. Al-Hasson, Imad M. Al-Ani, Anam R. Al-Salihi. The Effects of dexamethasone on tibia development of local chick-embryo. I: computer-assisted morphometric study. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 116-128. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.3

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