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النحو العربي محاولات تيسيره وطرائق تدريسه

Author: محمود حبيب شلال المشهداني
Journal: journal of islamic sciencec collge مجلة كلية العلوم الاسلامية ISSN: 20578626 Year: 2011 Issue: 27 Pages: 441-485
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract
This research deals with the importance of grammar among other disciplines of Arabic, the necessity of learning it to let native and nonnative speakers pronounce it correctly, and correct their speech and writing. In addition, it covers the reasons that make it difficult in teaching it, some of which are:

1. Misunderstanding the function of grammar and the ambiguity of the goals of teaching it.
2. Shortage of suitable grammatical texts, prepared especially for its learners.
3. Weakness in qualification of teachers and sterility of teaching methods.
The research concludes that the most serious cause of the difficulty of grammar and the failure of its facilitation through the ages is that rules of grammar do not apply to people's colloquial speech. This means the disappearance of the function of grammar, also, an indiscrimination of two levels in teaching grammar: theory of grammar (concept) and instructional grammar (practice).
The research covers the study and analysis of the most serious efforts of simplification by ancients and moderns, beginning with the experiment of Ibn Mudha'a al- Qurtubi and ending with Al-Jewary's. Also covered are the most important phases of simplification and its forms, stating my own point of view on its simplification and facilitating its methods of teaching.
I tried my best to cover the most widely used and spread methods of teaching it, which are: 1. Comparative method, 2.Inferential method, 3. Solution of problems method, 4. The 'what' method, 5.Modulated method (Integrational texts method) which is a form of integration in teaching Arabic.
It is indispensable to refer to significant modern trends in teaching grammar, focusing on Ibn Khaldoon's concept of forming fluency by studying beautiful texts analytically and the adoption of US and European designed programmes for teaching language, for these programmes influenced most of the international trends in teaching grammar.

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Article
Analysis of the academic content Surah Yusuf is a model
تحليل المحتوى الدراسي سورة يوسف أنموذجا

Author: Prof. Mahmoud Habib Shalal Al Mashhadani أ.د.محمود حبيب شلال المشهداني
Journal: Journal of The Iraqi University مجلة الجامعة العراقية ISSN: 18134521 Year: 2013 Volume: 2 Issue: 31 Pages: 57-84
Publisher: Iraqi University الجامعة العراقية

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Abstract

The importance of the skill of analyzing the content of the study of the role it plays in helping the teacher to identify educational goals, and work to achieve, as well as determine the appropriate method of teaching, and activities, and teaching methods used in the educational situation, and thus enables to determine the quality of the appropriate calendar. Which makes it able to organize the total knowledge and skills necessary, so that he can walk his lesson in accordance with regular and steady steps, leading to the success of educational learning process. This means that content analysis is the first step a teacher takes when planning a lesson. He reads the lesson well (carefully) before planning his lesson mentally or in writing. This critical reading enables the teacher to know the aspects of learning included in the lesson: the cognitive side - the skill side - the emotional side. Content analysis is one of the methods of scientific research aimed at the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the apparent content. It is defined as: a process by the teacher intended to read a particular content carefully read, to know what it includes: knowledge, skills, and sensuality. It is a set of knowledge, skills, values, and trends that can achieve educational purposes. The analysis process aims to identify all the main and subsidiary skills that the student needs to learn in order to achieve the desired goal. Despite the importance of this subject, many teachers - unfortunately - neglect or ignore this skill, on the pretext of frequent lessons, and increase the number of lectures, and the teaching of more than one course. And with the validity of their point of view, we tell them that it is inevitable, because the educational process remains incomplete, and does not achieve the desired learning, no matter how the teacher of skill and ability to excel in teaching ... And God is the best.

تأتي أهمية مهارة تحليل المحتوى الدراسي من الدور الذي تلعبه في مساعدة المعلم على تحديد الاهداف التعليمية، والعمل على تحقيقها، وكذلك تحديد الطريقة المناسبة للتدريس، والأنشطة، والوسائل التعليمية التي يستخدمها في الموقف التعليمي، وبالتالي تمكنه من تحديد نوعية التقويم المناسب. مما يجعله قادرا على تنظيم مجموع المعارف والمهارات اللازمة، ليتمكن من السير في درسه على وفق خطوات منتظمة وثابتة، تؤدي الى نجاح العملية التعليمية التعلمية. ويعني هذا ان تحليل المحتوى يعد أول خطوة يقوم بها المعلم عند تخطيطه للدرس. فيقوم بقراءة الدرس قراءة جيدة (متأنية) قبل ان يخطط لدرسه تخطيطا ذهنيا او كتابيا. وهذه القراءة الناقدة تمكن المعلم من تعرف جوانب التعلم المتضمنة في الدرس وهي: الجانب المعرفي- الجانب المهاري- الجانب الوجداني. وتحليل المحتوى هو أحد أساليب البحث العلمي الذي يهدف الى الوصف الموضوعي والمنظم والكمي للمضمون الظاهري. ويعرف بأنه: عملية يقوم بها المعلم تهدف الى قراءة محتوى معين قراءة متأنية، لتعرف ما يتضمنه من: معارف، ومهارات، ووجدانيات. فهو مجموعة المعارف، والمهارات، والقيم، والإتجاهات التي يمكن أن تحقق الأغراض التربوية. وتهدف عملية التحليل إلى تحديد كل المهارات الرئيسة والفرعية التي يحتاج الطالب إلى تعلمها لكي يتحقق الهدف المنشود. وعلى الرغم من أهمية هذا الموضوع فان الكثير من المعلمين- مع الاسف- يهملون هذه المهارة، أو يتجاهلونها، بحجة كثرة الدروس، وزيادة عدد المحاضرات، وتدريس أكثر من مقرر دراسي. ومع صحة وجهة نظرهم ووجاهتها، فاننا نقول لهم انه لا مناص من ذلك، لان العملية التعليمية تبقى ناقصة، ولا يتحقق التعلم المنشود، مهما أوتي المعلم من مهارة وقدرة فائقتين في التدريس... وبالله التوفيق.

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