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Article
نظرية المعرفة عند الفلاسفة دراسة تحليلية مقارنة

Author: . نعمة محمد إبراهيم
Journal: Jurisprudence Faculty Journal مجلة كلية الفقه ISSN: 19957971 Year: 2005 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-45
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

كان البحث في مجال نظرية المعرفة مثاراً للجدل بين المفكرين والباحثين، فاعتقد بعضهم إن هناك اتفاقا بينهما وبين علم المنطق، على اعتبار إن المنطق يبحث في القوانين الأساسية للمعرفة الإنسانية، وذهب قسم إلى تحديد مجالها على كيفية تحصيل العلم أو كسب المعلومات،ومن ثم كانت في رأيهم فرعاً من فروع علم النفس المعاصر الذي يعرض لدراسة العمليات العقلية التي يقوم بها العقل واعياً في كسب معلوماته- كالإدراك الحسي والتخييل والتذكر ونحوه- وترتب على هذا إن اعتبرت نظرية المعرفة علماً لان علم النفس الذي ألحقت به قد أصبح اليوم في عداد العلوم الجزئية وان تقوم على علم النفس وتدعي لصحة قضاياه،إن ترفض العلوم الجزئية التسليم بها أو اتخاذها أساسا لمباحثها.(1)


Article
منطق القضايا وأحكامها عند ابن سينا

Authors: رويدة جاسم عبيد --- نعمة محمد إبراهيم
Journal: kufa studies center journal مجلة مركز دراسات الكوفة ISSN: 19937016 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 53 Pages: 1-18
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

In concluding to what we have reached from our research (the logic of the cases and the provisions of Ibn Sina) it is clear to us that the issue is a complete compound statement that has the truth or lie to itself, and this definition of the issue is from the full drawing; because it consists of the near and special gender. The reason for adding a self-limitation in this definition is the removal of some constructions from the definition which is fancy in its right to seek truth and lies.The case is generally divided into two basic parts of the logical: simple and complex. Simple is the bearing; it is the ratio of the rule of sincerity or falsehood; the composite case consists of two or more bearing issues associated with a particular binding instrument. One of which is called the condition case, and the condition is divided into a continuum and a separate. The continuum is also divided into an obligatory and a convention. The obligatory means: the one in which the sincerity of the following is based on the estimate of the sincerity of the applicant. For example: [Either this number is a pair, or this number is individual], your saying: [This number is a pair], and saying: [this number is individual] each one is an issue and linked between them with clear and opposition and strained.

عُنِيَ ابن سينا بمباحث القضايا بوصفها من الموضوعات المنطقية المهمة وقد حدد للقضية دراسة واسعة في منطق الشفاء كتاب بـ بعنوان العبارة وكذلك في مؤلفاته المنطقية محددا مسار القضية بوصفها حلقة وصل ما بين الحد والاستدلال وأن أهمية هذا الموضوع ليس في المنطق الارسطي بل حتى في المنطق الرياضي المعاصر وبالرغم من الاختلاف الكبير بين المنطق التقليدي والمنطق المعاصر الا أن القضية تعتبر المادة الاساسية للمباحث المنطق الرئيسية مبحث الحد والاستدلال.ولأهمية هذا الموضوع في الدراسات المنطقية وما بذله ابن سينا من جهداً كبير من خلال الشرح والنقد والإضافة على منطق اليونان ولكشف هذا الجهد تم اختيار الموضوع وذلك لبيان اصالة الجهد الاسلامي العربي في المنطق.هذه الدراسة تحدد خيارها المنهجي فهي تعتمد على آلية المنهج التحليلي الذي اتبعناه في تحديد آلية الدراسة.أما الكتب التي اعتمدت عليها لابن سينا هي: الشفاء، والنجاة، والاشارات والتنبيهات، وعيون الحكمة، ومنطق المشرقيين.وجاءت دراستي مكونةً من مقدمة، وتمهيد، وثلاث مطالب تضمن المطلب الأول: (البناء المنطقي للقضية) والمطلب الثاني: (أصناف القضايا)، وأنهينا البحث بخلاصة والمصادر والمراجع.


Article
The Effectof the Procedural Mind Criticism on Aderno
أثر نقد العقل الأداتي على أدورنو

Authors: Ni`ama Mohammed Ibraheem نعمة محمد إبراهيم --- Rwaida Jasim Obed رويدة جاسم عبيد
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 20 Pages: 105-126
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Can be drawn from the study of the impact the philosophical project (Adorno) cash a through tracing the philosophical approach the cash has opened the philosophies of a broad prospect has gleaned Adorno for his critique of reason Alodhati of Marx's critique of societiesdominated by capitalism has made Adorno of the Marxist critique an important reference criticism of reason Alodhati As well as gleaned (Adorno) in his critique of the mind of Alodhati (Max Weber) in the concept of rationality has found that the heritage of the Enlightenment but the triumph of rationality Alodhatip with specific purposes. This form of rationality dig deep into the phrase of our social and cultural rights, including economic structures, laws, and bureaucratic management, and even the arts. Accordingly, there is no driving the growth of rationality Alodhatip - premise to achieve a tangible freedom and comprehensive but rather to find (an iron cage) which belongs to the Authority and also confirmed with (Heidegger) in his critique of what the technology, it represents in the eyes (Heidegger) the awarding of things, tools and equipment, and instruments. As these latter are only manifestations of the technology and what technology is in its consideration of metaphysics, any pattern of relationship between man and existence since the beginning of metaphysics Bank took a mean man turned only at the level of the existing has been omitted thought to exist, and focused on existing, and the fundamental difference between these AlmstweinAlontologiin is located can be confined, and measured, and subjected to study the existence: it can not be confined to, and measured, and represented as a single issue, and forget about this difference is ontological is the one who made the metaphysics thought forgotten because, no matter reached technical, they end up against the human existence


Article
Historical way for twining from Arsti logic
المسار التاريخي للجدل وموقع الجدل من المنطق الأرسطي

Authors: Nama M. ibrahem نعمة محمد إبراهيم --- Marwan A. hussien مروان علي حسين أمين
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 24 Pages: 11-38
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The researcher to a number of results that serve as a conclusion to this letter, can be summarized as follows: The controversy though the practice and application of age-old, but arthroscopy and rationing did not begin only with Greece .We note that Aristotle had been influenced philosophers Greeks who preceded him, through the definition and introspective when Socrates and measure back when Light, not to mention the method of dialogue and discussion to reach the truth that we find when Socrates, and all these concepts helped fuel the controversy when Aristotle, to complete the final form him.. Note that the concept of the controversy might take grants logically when Aristotle, is an industry, St. measurement on the basis of Article not his image, unlike the controversy when Plato, who took grants philosophical science curriculum together, and this is what we have observed when Plotinus and when Hegel. That although evidence was connected to the truth when Aristotle, but it may require conditions not be taken, as provided in the message, as well as the a dialectical reasoning wider body of the inference Borhani, involving controversy as well as measurement, extrapolation..

The researcher to a number of results that serve as a conclusion to this letter, can be summarized as follows: The controversy though the practice and application of age-old, but arthroscopy and rationing did not begin only with Greece .We note that Aristotle had been influenced philosophers Greeks who preceded him, through the definition and introspective when Socrates and measure back when Light, not to mention the method of dialogue and discussion to reach the truth that we find when Socrates, and all these concepts helped fuel the controversy when Aristotle, to complete the final form him.. Note that the concept of the controversy might take grants logically when Aristotle, is an industry, St. measurement on the basis of Article not his image, unlike the controversy when Plato, who took grants philosophical science curriculum together, and this is what we have observed when Plotinus and when Hegel. That although evidence was connected to the truth when Aristotle, but it may require conditions not be taken, as provided in the message, as well as the a dialectical reasoning wider body of the inference Borhani, involving controversy as well as measurement, extrapolation..


Article
The Arabic educative between cognitive and aedelje
المثقف العربي بين الأيدلوجي والمعرفي

Authors: Hasnen J. Hyeder حسنين جابر حيدر --- . Neama M. Ibrahem نعمة محمد إبراهيم
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2019 Volume: ج1 Issue: 38 Pages: 33-50
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The search for an intellectual formula approach to the reality of man needs us to deepen in the most outstanding issues between my ideological and cognitive challenges, which culminated in our research on the title of this matter, especially since the intellectual lives between the isolation of the community and the point of civilization, because the culture facing contemporary contemporary mutant culture Or a mobile as some call it because it was on the ideas of the past and came to the present to build a new character, and culture, which refers to the word (cultured) in our contemporary speech is not the culture as you learn from this word in the ancient Arab discourse, Modern and contemporary across the cultural dimensions of a group corresponding to the concept of a house speech emanating from the exclusive address of the variousities of the people who lived in that era from (Noah and Wa'd and Thamood) and others to end this speech home to another speech that mimics people in the era of world religious religious dimensions of human understanding of human reality . The common perception of Arab civilization and its cultures as a Bedouin people living in a vast desert and using sentences as a sole means to continue them, some say, is that the Bedouins, of course, are passionate about invasion, intolerance and looting, a vision made by sociologists in California, The image of Islam, its culture and the culture of its intellectuals were painted as proof of violence and love of fighting. Here we analyze the words of the West from the culture of the Arabs.First, that their portrayal of the Arabs as a Bedouin people living in a vast desert and frequent invasion and other, does this mean that they do not take the concepts of education, for example - because the Bedouin does not prevent the human in education as well as the desert as most of our Arab poets were going to the desert of calm and fluency of the tongue Perhaps IbnKhaldun said: Which abounds when the urbanization and civilization is greater) was within the framework of the development of society for the better. Second: Islam as a doctrine of love of war and fighting even when educated, and this is likely to two possibilities:1 - Islam is commanded to fight the enemies of God and his messengers only and does not declare violation of the human soul even on the religion of Islam.2- Some of the so-called intellectuals within the framework of the Arab civilization have no ability to answer questions and religious criticism, since the non-response occupies a culture of transparency, which has led them to fall into the labyrinths of the present and the slums of the future. In order to be able to put points on the characters in the face of this scene must be stopped, and here we must understand that the Arab civilizations of Islam and Western each of the history works with data, but our Islamic community within his civilization imposed it to be a messenger as it can not be a reality - if not He lights it The torch - If Sadra remained in the dark paths and immersed in the deviation and rebellion against the nature of existence and life, it is not underestimated that this torch works within civilization. What we need today is for our intellectuals to formulate scientific life and shape everyday situations on the basis of faith in God, and charity and not kneel before the perversion of deviation because society does not have mercy on it, because it is within a civilized society. While the other civilization is living in a state of loss and has become moaning the impact of deviation and anomalies and the vacuum of civilization, which deepened the manifestations of the modern city and the latest fire of the sexual revolution as it was caused by the conflicts of the biological (neurological, existential and pragmatic), which threatened the human existence and moral and human ideas - even abstracted by the annihilation and complete annihilation In these intellectual approaches under the name of a philosophy to illuminate a side in the edge of knowledge and reach to the end but occurred under the error of access to integrated approaches to thought prevents the error and error due to the lack of awareness of intellectuals with the concepts of roots and truth did not The problem of knowledge and the problem of civilization

بعد استعراض اهم ما جاء في هذا الموضوع كان ولابد ان نقف عند قضية مفصلية مهمة الا وهي قضية التعامل ضمن سياقات الثقافة في واقعنا اذ تعد الثقافة من أهم وسائل الاعلام عن طبيعة النظام الاجتماعي لكل مجتمع, ومتابعتها باطار حقيقي متداخل مع اكبر نسبة مع افراده, لأنها تخدم المجتمع عندما تمكن الجمهور من الاطلاع على النواحي العلمية والاجتماعية في مكان ما, تستطيع بفضل ادراج هذه الوضعية الثقافية وبشكل مدروس أن تحقق نتائج مطلوبة في مجالي العلم والعمل, ولكن مما يبدو ان مركز النظام الاجتماعي لم يفد الا قليلا من رفع نسبة هذه الثقافة لجعلها وسيلة له, وعلى الرغم من ان أي شخص في مجتمع ما يستطيع ان يتأقلم مع ثقافته ولكن هل تستطيع الثقافة ان تدخل الى المجتمع وتؤثر بالفرد من دون متاعب وأذى, وهناك ثمة اسلوب تستطيع به الثقافة ان تدخل المجتمع بدون أذى.ولاسيما إن مركز الثقافة الشرقية في مجتمعنا هو نابع من فكر مجتمعنا ونابع عن اصالته ولا يمكن للغير التعالي عليه حيث ان الثقافة الشرقية يجب ان تكون موحدة بين دول الشرق وهي الدول المحصورة بين الهند والصين وما يسمى الشرق الاوسط كلهم مطالبون بحفظ هذه الثقافة التي هي هياكل اجتماعية وانسانية قائمة يمكن الاستفادة منها لغرض تعزيز الواقع بين الاقطار العربية وتوسيع دائرة المنهجية للوصول الى التكامل الفكري بينها عن طريق التخطيط الذي يسير على اساس الانشطة العامة (والمشتركة) من اجل تحقيق نجاح الهدف الاني في تحقيق ايجاد ثقافة شرقية حقيقية تستحوذ على قدر كبير من اصالة مجتمعنا بمفهومه الانساني, وهنا يجب التأكيد على ان ثقافات الشرق كلها تسير في وجهة نظر واحدة. مؤداها هذا الذي اسلفناه لأن للكون روحا واحدا ازليا ابديا. تنبثق منه هذه الافراد لتقيم على اسطح الظاهر حينا ثم تعود فتندمج كما كانت في ذلك الروح الواحد الخالد وان هذه الكائنات التي تعيش ضمن هذا الاطار الاجتماعي ومن خلال حيثيات الثقافة الشرقية التي لبثت ان تعيد ما اخرجته الى جوفها من جديد، لأنها جعلت الفضيلة والرذيلة ضدين لا يجتمعان, كالجمال والقبح والتقوى والفجور: حيث ان الثقافة الشرقية الاصيلة النابعة من رسالة الانسان لا يوجد في جوفها الغضب والجشع والفتك والاجرام. بل هي صورة معبرة عن روح العالم وهو في سكونه وصمته.وهنا لابد من حلول ناجعة منها:1-التعمق في الواقع لفهم مشكلاته عن طريق هدم بعض المركزيات التي اخطأت في وضعها بين موروث خاطئ وحديث وافد، وعدم الخلط بينهما.2-تعدد الثقافات يعني تعدد في المتلقي والشخصيات مما يجعلنا بين فرضيتي المقدس والعادي، لأنها تبدأ قبلية وتتمركز بيئيا وتتقوقع مجتمعيا .3-يجب افشال محاولات الاخر بما يملك من قبيل الغزو الثقافي ولاسيما في مجالي التربية والتعليم .4-خلق جو ثقافي قادر على فهم متطلبات الحالة العربية وتضامنها في داخل المجتمع بمختلف نشاطاته وتعاملاته.5-إيضاح مفهوم المثقف العربي الباحث عن مغزى للحياة بتجلياتها المختلفة بعيدا عن الخوف من الموجود او المجهول .


Article
Averus classification of the proof according to ontology and cause./ An analytic comparative study.
تصنيف ابن رشد البرهان على أساس الوجود والسبب (دراسة تحليلية مقارنة)

Authors: Ni`amah Mohammed Ibraheem نعمة محمد إبراهيم --- . Hader abdul- Zahra Al- Khaza`ly. حيدر عبد الزهرة رحيم الخزعلي
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 19 Pages: 13-40
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Averus has a criterion for classsifying evidence, and this factor is the motivation for classifying the evidence in to its main branches other than its secondary onse, because the secondary classes have their owm bases which are different from the main ones. The researcher studies both typed of classification in this paper.According to this, the title of the paper becomes (Averus Classification of evidence according to Being and Reason: An analytic comparative study). It is clear that the researcher uses three basic methods in this study: descriptive, analytic and comparative comparative methods,

إنّ من أهم النتائج التي توصل إليها الباحث في هذه الدراسة هي ما يأتي:-1- إنّ ابن رشد يصنف البرهان على ثلاثة أصناف رئيسة هي برهان الوجود وبرهان السبب والبرهان المطلق.2- إنّ ابن رشد يشترط أربعة شروط للبرهان المطلق.3- إنّ ابن رشد يصنف برهان الوجود على صنفين فرعيين اثنين، أحدهما هو برهان ذوات الأوساط، والآخر هو برهان غير ذوات الأوساط.4- إنّ ابن رشد يصنف برهان غير ذوات الأوساط على صنفين فرعيين، أحدهما هو برهان الوجود المكون من أوساط منعكسة، والآخر هو برهان الوجود المكون من أوساط غير منعكسة.


Article
Proof for Abiel-Brakat Al- Baghdadi
البرهان عند أبي البركات البغدادي

Authors: . Ni`ama Mohammed Ibraheem نعمة محمد إبراهيم --- Naba`a Abd- Al-Sattar Jaber al- Rabe`a نبأ عبد الستار جابر الربيع
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 18 Pages: 79-108
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Praise be to God alone the Lord of Worlds, Prayer and peace be upon His Prophet and his pure Ahlul-Bait.Abi Al- Barakat Al-Baghdady occupied a n important position in the history of our Arab Islamic philosophy, he had an original critic ability to which we can hardly find a peer. He comprehended all the different intellectual trends of his period, this is exhibited clearly in his ( Al-Mo`atabar fi Al-Hikmah ) where he put his philosophical project and critical attitude towards his period intellectual trends , this book had considered all the tiny details of these trends and directions, we can say that it is the intellectual encyclopedia of Abi Al- Barakat Al-Baghdady period.Throughout this research, it became clear that Abi Al- Barakat was able to establish the bases of the rational critical method in his ( Al-Mo`atabar fi Al-Hikmah ), this indicates the originality and deepness of this philosopher thought, just like the other Muslim philosophers such as Al-Gazzaly , Averroes and other. The researchers has many reasons to choose this subject such as :- what had been published for Abi Al- Barakat is only a small part of his works , he still in need for more and more of the deep study, a number of the researchers had studied his works before, yet the field of logic is still unstudied, as I believe, hence I decided to study this subject.The thesis is divided into three chapters , an introduction and a conclusion.The first chapter is a an introductory approach for Abi Al- Barakat Al-Baghdady, it includes the philosopher`s life and works as well as his philosophical method, within the first topic, while the second topic deals with Logic before Abi Al- Barakat Al-Baghdady which is represented by the Greek philosophers, with a brief exhibition for Aristotle Logic, and the Logic for the Philosophers of Islam.In the second chapter the researcher studies the logical terms for Abi Al- Barakat Al-Baghdady through their significances and meanings and their different positions, the five predicates ( al kuliat alkhams ), definitions and their division within the first topic. The second topic deals with the direct deduction with its opposition of propositions and contradiction as well as the direct deduction with its analogy, induction and representation within the third topic.The five craft (al sinaat alkhams ) for Abi Al- Barakat Al-Baghdady, had been studied in the third chapter by dividing it into three topics; the evidence, debate or argument and sophist, speech and poetry respectively.This study is an attempt to penetrate truth in the thought of the philosopher Hibtallah bin Malkah , only a step on truth path, with guidance intuition, to throw light on one aspect because it is about to be impossible to obtain the whole truth.Our last prayer is Praise to be God alone the Lord of Worlds.

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