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Article
Design of Neurofuzzy Self Tuning PID Controller for Antilock Braking Systems

Author: Ammar A. Aldair
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2014 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 775-787
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In this paper, a Neurofuzzy self tuning PID controller for wheel slip ratio control has been designed based on a quarter vehicle model. The proposed control structure consists of a Neurofuzzy controller and conventional PID controller, which has self tuning capabilities. The parameters of the PID controller (Kp, Kd and Ki) can be self-tuned on-line with the output of the system under control. Variations in the values of weight, the friction coefficient of the road, road inclination and other nonlinear dynamic parameters may highly affect the performance of the Antilock Braking Systems (ABS). The conventional PID controller with fixed parameters cannot overcome these effects; therefore, the PID controller with adaptable parameters has been used. The paper develops a self tuning PID control scheme with application to ABS via combinations of fuzzy logic systems and neural networks. The performance of the Neurofuzzy self tuning PID controller based ABS is demonstrated by simulation for different road conditions: Snowy road, Wet asphalt, Dry asphalt; and transitions between such conditions, e.g. when emergency braking occurs and the road switches from snowy to wet. Robustness against road conditions is examined via numerically test results of the ABS controlled by proposed scheme are compared with the results of the ABS controlled by optimal PID controller. Simulation results show good performance of the proposed controller.

في هذا البحث تم تصميم منظومة تحكم من نوع المنطق العصبي المضبب ذاتي الضبط لبرامترات المتحكم الكسب-التفاضلي –التكاملي لمنظومة المكابح ضد القفل لمركبات النقل. ان منظومة الكبح ضد القفل تتأثر بالعديد من العوامل اللا خطية منها معامل الاحتكاك مع الطريق والذي بدوره يعتمد على نوع الطريق سواء كان الطريق جاف او رطب او يحوي على ثلوج لذلك فان تصميمم منظومة تحكم من نوع الكسب-التفاضلي –التكاملي ذي قيم الثابتة لمنع انزلاق المركبة بتغير ضروف الطريق امر غير مجدي الا بتغير برامترات المتحكم مع تغير طبيعة الطريق. لذا تم في هذا البحث اقتراح اضافة منظومة اخرى من نوع المنطق العصبي المضبب وضيفتها تغير برامترات المتحكم الذي هومن نوع الكسب-التفاضلي –التكاملي بتغير ضروف الطريق لمنع انزلاق المركبة اثناء التوقف المفاجئ. تم اختبار منضومة التحكم المقترحة تحت انواع مختلفة للطريق كان يكون الطريق اسفلتي جاف او اسفلتي رطب او يحوي على ثلوج او خليط منها وقد اثبت النتائج المستحصلة كفائة المنضومه المقترحة مقارنة مع منضومة التحكم من نوع الكسب-التفاضلي –التكاملي ذات البرامترا ت الثابتة.


Article
Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Controller for Full Vehicle Nonlinear Active Suspension Systems

Authors: A. Aldair --- W. J. Wang
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 97-106
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The main objective of designed the controllerfor a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfortsensed by passengers which arises from road roughnessand to increase the ride handling associated with thepitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a veryfast and accurate controller to meet as much controlobjectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with anartificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) technique todesign a robust controller to meet the control objectives.The advantage of this controller is that it can handle thenonlinearities faster than other conventional controllers.The approach of the proposed controller is to minimizethe vibrations on each corner of vehicle by supplyingcontrol forces to suspension system when travelling onrough road. The other purpose for using the NF controllerfor vehicle model is to reduce the body inclinations thatare made during intensive manoeuvres including brakingand cornering. A full vehicle nonlinear active suspensionsystem is introduced and tested. The robustness of theproposed controller is being assessed by comparing withan optimal Fractional Order PIλDμ (FOPID) controller.The results show that the intelligent NF controller hasimproved the dynamic response measured by decreasingthe cost function.


Article
FPGA Based Modified Fuzzy PID Controller for Pitch Angle of Bench-top Helicopter
استخدام لوحة FPGA لتصميم منظومة سيطرة من نوع الكسب-التكاملي-التفاضلي المضبب المعدل للسيطرة على زاوية انقلاب الطائرة المروحية

Author: Ammar A. Aldair عمار عبدالشهيد الدير
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 & 2 Pages: 12-24
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Fuzzy PID controller design is still a complex task due to the involvement of a large number of parameters in defining the fuzzy rule base. To reduce the huge number of fuzzy rules required in the normal design for fuzzy PID controller, the fuzzy PID controller is represented as Proportional-Derivative Fuzzy (PDF) controller and Proportional-Integral Fuzzy (PIF) controller connected in parallel through a summer. The PIF controller design has been simplified by replacing the PIF controller by PDF controller with accumulating output. In this paper, the modified Fuzzy PID controller design for bench-top helicopter has been presented. The proposed Fuzzy PID controller has been described using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and implemented using the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The bench-top helicopter has been used to test the proposed controller. The results have been compared with the conventional PID controller and Internal Model Control Tuned PID (IMC-PID) Controller. Simulation results show that the modified Fuzzy PID controller produces superior control performance than the other two controllers in handling the nonlinearity of the helicopter system. The output signal from the FPGA board is compared with the output of the modified Fuzzy PID controller to show that the FPGA board works like the Fuzzy PID controller. The result shows that the plant responses with the FPGA board are much similar to the plant responses when using simulation software based controller.

في هذا البحث تم تقليل عدد القواعد المستخدمة لبناء منظومة الكسب-التكاملي-التفاضلي المضبب وذلك منخلال بناء منظومة كسب-تفاضلي مضبب على حدة وبناء منظومة الكسب-التكاملي المضبب على حدة ثم ربط المنظومتيينمعا. كما تم استبدال منظومة الكسب-التكاملي المضبب بكسب تفاضلي مضبب واضافة مركم عند الاخراج لتقليل تعقيدالمنضومة الكلية. تم بناء المنظومة المقترحة باستخدام لوحة وتم اختبارها للسيطرة على زاوية انقلاب الطائرةالمروحية. اثبتت النتائج المستحصلة ان استخدام منظومة السيطرة من نوع الكسب-التكاملي-التفاضلي المضبب المعدليكون فعلا مقارنة مع اسنخدام الكسب=تاتكاملي-التفاضلي التقليدي. كما تم مقارنة النتائج المستحصلة عملا مع النتائجالنضرية وقد اثبتت تطابقا ملحوظا في كلا الحالتين.


Article
A Self Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller for Ship Steering System
تصميم منظومة تحكم من نوع المنطق المضبب ذاتية التعليم للسيطرة على دفة السفينة

Author: Ammar A. Aldair عمار عبدالشهيد الدير
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 & 2 Pages: 25-34
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A self learning fuzzy logic controller for ship steering systems is proposed in this paper. Due to the high nonlinearity of ship steering system, the performances of traditional control algorithms are not satisfactory in fact. An intelligent control system is designed for controlling the direction heading of ships to improve the high efficiency of transportation, the convenience of manoeuvring ships, and the safety of navigation. The design of fuzzy controllers is usually performed in an ad hoc manner where it is hard to justify the choice of some fuzzy control parameters such as the parameters of membership function. In this paper, self tuning algorithm is used to adjust the parameters of fuzzy controller. Simulation results show that the efficiency of proposed algorithm to design a fuzzy controller for ship steering system.

بسبب الخصائص الاخطية لمنظومة دفة السفينة فأن تصميم منظومة تحكم تقليدية للسيطرة عليها يعد امرا غيرفعال. لذا لابد من اقتراح منظومة تحكم ذكية لتحسين السيطرة على اتجاه ابحار السفينة وكفائة المناورة . تم اقتراح تصميممنظومة تحكم من نوع المنطق المضبب ذاتية التعليم لتغير استجابة المتحكم مع تغير الضروف الخارجية المسلطة علىالسفينة. ولقد اثبتت النتائج المستحصلة كفائة وفعالية منظومة التحكم المقترحة للسيطرة على دفة السقينة.


Article
DESIGN NEUROFUZZY WITH PID CONTROLLERS FOR AN AUTONOMOUS MINI-HELICOPTER SYSTEM
تصميم منظومة تحكم من نوع الشبكات العصبية المضببة مع منظومة الكسب- التكاملي – التفاضلي للسيطرة على الطائرة المروحية ذاتية التحكم

Author: Ammar A. Aldair عمار عبدالشهيد الدير
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-68
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In this paper a combining Neurofuzzy and PID controllers have been employed for controlling the positions and rotational motions of the mini-helicopter system. Due to the strong coupling between the state variables of the mini-helicopter model, therefore, it is not suitable to design single controller for regulating the positions and rotational motions of the given model. To solve this problem, three neurofuzzy controllers are designed for the lateral, longitudinal and heave motion; and three classical PID controllers are proposed for attitude control. Nine rules are suggested for each neurofuzzy network depends on the previous knowledge/experiences of expert human pilot. The simulation results show that the proposed controllers are very effective to control the hovering, position and forward flight of the mini-helicopter system.

في هذا البحث تم تصميم منظومة تحكم من نوع الشبكات العصبية المضببة مع منظومة الكسب-التكاملي- التفاضلي للسيطرة على الحركات الدورانية والخطية للطائرة المروحية ذاتية التحكم. بسبب الترابط الوثيق ما بين متغيرات الحالة التي تصف منظومة الطائرة المروحية, لذا اصبح من الغير الممكن من تصميممنظومة تحكم واحدة للسيطرة على كل الحركات الخاصة بطائرة المروحية )الحركة العامودية والحركة الافقية والحركة الدورانية(. ولحل هذة المشكلة تم تصميممنظومة تحكم من نوع الشبكات العصبية المضببة للسيطرة على المتغيرات السريعة مثل الحركة الجانيية والحركة الافقية. اما الحركات البطيئة مثل الارتفاع للاعلىفتم السيطرة عليه باستخدام منظومة تحكم من نوع الكسب- التكاملي- التفاضلي. بينت النتائج المستحصلة كفائة وقوة المنظومة المقترحة للسيطرة على حركةالطائرة


Article
Maze Maneuvering and Colored Object Tracking for Differential Drive Mobile Robot

Authors: Ammar A. Aldair --- Auday Al-Mayyahi
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-52
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In maze maneuvering, it is needed for a mobile robot to feasibly plan the shortest path from its initialposture to the desired destination in a given environment. To achieve that, the mobile robot is combined withmultiple distance sensors to assist the navigation while avoiding obstructing obstacles and following the shortestpath toward the target. Additionally, a vision sensor is used to detect and track colored objects. A new algorithm isproposed based on different type of utilized sensors to aid the maneuvering of differential drive mobile robot in anunknown environment. In the proposed algorithm, the robot has the ability to traverse surrounding hindrances andseek for a particular object based on its color. Six infrared sensors are used to detect any located obstacles and onecolor detection sensor is used to locate the colored object. The Mobile Robotics Simulation Toolbox in Matlab isused to test the proposed algorithm. Three different scenarios are studied to prove the efficiency of the proposedalgorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that the mobile robot has successfully accomplished the tracking andlocating of a colored object without collision with hurdles.


Article
Design Tunable Robust Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Baqir Nasser Abdul- Samed --- Ammar A. Aldair
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 89-100
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

PID controller is the most popular controller in many applications because of many advantages such as its high efficiency, low cost, and simple structure. But the main challenge is how the user can find the optimal values for its parameters. There are many intelligent methods are proposed to find the optimal values for the PID parameters, like neural networks, genetic algorithm, Ant colony and so on. In this work, the PID controllers are used in three different layers for generating suitable control signals for controlling the position of the UAV (x,y and z), the orientation of UAV (θ, Ø and ψ) and for the motors of the quadrotor to make it more stable and efficient for doing its mission. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed in this work. The PSO algorithm is applied to tune the parameters of proposed PID controllers for the three layers to optimize the performances of the controlled system with and without existences of disturbance to show how the designed controller will be robust. The proposed controllers are used to control UAV, and the MATLAB 2018b is used to simulate the controlled system. The simulation results show that, the proposed controllers structure for the quadrotor improve the performance of the UAV and enhance its stability.


Article
Design and Implementation of Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Using FPGA for Sun Tracking System

Authors: Ammar A. Aldair --- Adel A. Obed --- Ali F. Halihal
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 123-136
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Nowadays, renewable energy is being used increasingly because of the global warming and destruction of the environment. Therefore, the studies are concentrating on gain of maximum power from this energy such as the solar energy. A sun tracker is device which rotates a photovoltaic (PV) panel to the sun to get the maximum power. Disturbances which are originated by passing the clouds are one of great challenges in design of the controller in addition to the losses power due to energy consumption in the motors and lifetime limitation of the sun tracker. In this paper, the neuro-fuzzy controller has been designed and implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board for dual axis sun tracker based on optical sensors to orient the PV panel by two linear actuators. The experimental results reveal that proposed controller is more robust than fuzzy logic controller and proportional-integral (PI) controller since it has been trained offline using Matlab tool box to overcome those disturbances. The proposed controller can track the sun trajectory effectively, where the experimental results reveal that dual axis sun tracker power can collect 50.6% more daily power than fixed angle panel. Whilst one axis sun tracker power can collect 39.4 % more daily power than fixed angle panel. Hence, dual axis sun tracker can collect 8 % more daily power than one axis sun tracker.


Article
Implementation and Design of Fuzzy Supervisory Controller for Mobile Robot Manipulator

Authors: Ramzy S. Ali رمزي سالم عبي --- Ammar A. Aldair عمار الدير --- Ali K. Almousawi علي الموسوي
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2016 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The Mobile Manipulator Robot (MMR) has manyapplications in different aspects of the life, for example,grasping and transporting, mining, military, manufacturing,construction, and others. The benefits of MMR rise in a dangerous place where the human cannot reach such asdisaster areas and dangerous projects sites. In this work, thePID controller is combined with Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC)to structure the Fuzzy Supervisory Controller (FSC) toovercome the drawbacks of PID controller and to obtain theadvantages of FLC. Two approaches are suggested for thenavigation of Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR). These are;goal reaching fuzzy control (GRFC) and the obstacle avoidancefuzzy control (OAFC). The hardware implementation of theAMR is performed using AVR ATmega32 microcontroller, twoDC motors, light dependent resistor (LDR) and five Infra Redsensors. While the Laboratory robot arm with somefabrications is used as manipulator's arm with a five degrees-of-freedom. Then a microcontroller is employed to implement theproposed controller for MMR. The designed MMR is tested inreal environments and give a good navigation.

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