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Article
Prevention of Scale Formation in Heat Exchanger Pipesby Using Magnetic Field

Authors: Jassim M. Al-Kyayyat --- Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 39-44
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The possibility of using the magnetic field technique in prevention of forming scales in heat exchangers pipes using hard water in heat transfer processes, also the studying the effective and controllable parameters on the mechanism of scale formation.The new designed heat exchanger experimental system was used after carrying out the basic process designs of the system. This system was used to study the effect of the temperature (40-90 °C) and water flow rate (0.6-1.2 L/min) on the total hardness with time as a function of precipitation of hardness salts from water and scale formation.Different magnetic field designs in the heat exchanger experimental system were used to study the effect of magnetic field design and strength (200-500 Gauss) on the total hardness with time as a function of precipitation of hardness saltsfrom water and scale formation.


Article
Estimation of Critical Bed Depth in Fixed Bed Of Granular Activated Carbon

Authors: Waleed M. Abood --- Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد سلمون
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2007 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 1974-1981
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study is estimating the critical bed depth in adsorption process through a fixed-bed of granular activated carbon at different bed depths of 0.03, 0.05, 0.08and 0.11m at influent furfural concentration in waste water of 0.2 kg/m3, with constant flow rate of (16.66) × 10-5 m3/min and adsorbent particle size (0.5-1.5) mm. the changing of flow rate and furfural influent concentration had been studied to determine their effects on the critical bed depth value by using bed depth- service time method (BDST). Length of unused bed (LUB) and length of equivalent section of bed had been estimated mathematically during process of the adsorption at different bed depths and during changing the flow rate(8.3× 10-5 m3/min) and influent concentration at same bed depth (0.05m).

الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو احتساب عمق الحشوة الحرج لعملية الامتزاز في حشوة ثابتة من الفحم المنشط الحبيبي ذات اعماق متنوعة هي (0.03, 0.05 , 0.08, 0.11 ) م بثبوت كل من معدل الجريان بقيمة (16.66 ) × 10-5 م3/ دقيقة , وتركيز الفورفورال الداخل في المياه المختلفة (0.2) كغم/م3 وحجم حبيبات الفحم ( 1.5 – 0.5 ) ملم. تغير معدل الجريان وتغير تركيز المادة الداخلة تـم دراستها لغرض تحديد تأثير عمق الحشوة الحرج باستخدام طريقة عمق الحشوة – زمن الخدمة) . طول الحشوة الغير مستخدم والطول المكافئ للحشوة المستخدمة تم تحديدها رياضياً خلال عملية الامتزاز للظروف اعلاه ودراسة تأثير تغير معدل الجريان وتركيز المادة الداخلة عند ثبوت اعماق الحشوات المستخدمة.


Article
Drag Forces under Longitudinal Interaction of Two Particles

Authors: Sawsan A. M. Mohammed --- Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد سليمون
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Direct measurements of drag force on two interacting particles arranged in the longitudinal direction for particle ? numbers varying from 10 to are conducted using a micro-force measurement system. The effect of the interparticle distance and Reynolds number on the drag forces is examined. An empirical equation is obtained to dacribe the effect of the interparticle distance (l/d) on the dimensionless drag.


Article
Testing of Drinking Water Reservoirs Coating

Authors: Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد سليمون --- Ali A. Merdaw
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study refers to a ready-made three components epoxy based paint made by the Modern Paints Industries Company (Al-Za'farania, Baghdad) subjected to several tests in order to improve its specifications by optimizing the application conditions. The paint components are under the trade names: Resin (D-5547), Hardener (H-1457) and Thinner (P-851). The paint is used for painting drinking water reservoirs from inside. The main tests used in this study for optimizing and comparing between formulations and conditions, is the resistance to water absorption and the hardness of the coated film.


Article
Removal of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury Ions Using Biosorption

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Abstract

The biosorption of Pb (II), Cd (II), and Hg (II) from simulated aqueous solutions using baker’s yeast biomass was investigated. Batch type experiments were carried out to find the equilibrium isotherm data for each component (single, binary, and ternary), and the adsorption rate constants. Kinetics pseudo-first and second order rate models applied to the adsorption data to estimate the rate constant for each solute, the results showed that the Cd (II), Pb (II), and Hg (II) uptake process followed the pseudo-second order rate model with (R2) 0.963, 0.979, and 0.960 respectively. The equilibrium isotherm data were fitted with five theoretical models. Langmuir model provides the best fitting for the experimental results with (R2) 0.992, 0.9987, and 0.9995 for Cd (II), Pb (II), and Hg (II) respectively. The effect of various influent adsorbates concentrations, and flow rates on the performance of fixed bed adsorber was found for the three heavy metals. A mathematical model was formulated to describe the breakthrough curves in the fixed bed adsorber for each component. The results show that the mathematical model provides a good description of the adsorption process for Cd (II), Pb (II), and Hg (II) onto fixed bed of baker’s yeast biomass.

Keywords

Biosorption --- yeast --- Cd --- II --- Pb --- II --- Hg --- II --- fixed bed --- mathematical model --- mass transfer coefficient.


Article
A Quantitative Analysis of the Mixing of Three Solids Different in Density by an Air Fluidized Bed

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Abstract

Three cohesionless free flowing materials of different density were mixed in an air fluidized bed to study the mixing process by calculating performance of mixing index according to Rose equation (1959) and to study the effect of four variables (air velocity, mixing time, particle size of trace component and concentration of trace component) on the mixing index and as well as on mixing performance. It was found that mixing index increases with increasing the air velocity, mixing time and concentration of trace component until the optimum value. Mixing index depends on the magnitude of difference in particle size The first set of experiments (salt then sand then cast iron) give higher mixing index and better performance of mixing than the second set of experiments (sand then salt then cast iron). Box-Willson method was used to minimize number of experiments and to represent the relationship between the variables.


Article
Diffusion kinetics of Furfural adsorption onto Activated Carbon

Authors: Ammar Waadallah Ahmed --- Kawther W. Alhayali --- Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A range of batch experiments were carried out for the estimation of the key process parameters in adsorption of Furfural from aqueous solution onto activated carbon in fixed-bed adsorber. A batch absorber model has been used to determine the external mass transfer coefficient (kf) which equal to 6.24*10-5 m/s and diffusion coefficient (Dp) which equal to 9.875*10-10 m2/s for the Furfural system. The Langmuir model gave the best fit for the data at constant temperature (30oC). The pore diffusion mathematical model using nonlinear isotherm provides a good description of the adsorption of Furfural onto activated carbon.

تم إجراء تجارب من النوع النمطي لإيجاد القيم اللازمة في تصميم عمود ذو الحشوة الثابتة لامدصاص الفورفورال بواسطة الكاربون المنشط. تم اقتراح موديل رياضي لمنظومة الامدصاص من النوع النمطي لاحتساب معامل انتقال الكتلة الخارجي(kf) و معامل الانتشار(Dp) للفورفورال في الكاربون المنشط. تبين أن استخدام موديل لانكماير هو الأنسب في وصف عملية الامدصاص عند درجة حرارة ثابتة 30 مئوي حيث وجد ان معامل انتقال الكتلة الخارجي (kf) يساوي 6.24*10-5 m/s و معامل الانتشار للفورفورال في الكاربون المنشط (Dp) يساوي9.875*10-10 m2/s ، وان استخدام الموديل الرياضي لمنظومة الامدصاص من النوع النمطي والذي يعتمد على وصف الانتشار داخل الكاربون المنشط من النوع الفجوي يعطي وصفا" صحيحا" و دقيقا" لعملية امدصاص الفورفورال على الكاربون المنشط.


Article
Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide by Batch Distillation Column

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted to study the concentration of hydrogen peroxide by vacuum distillation. The effect of the process variables (such as vacuum pressure, pa lime of distillation and packing height of the column used in the distillation process) on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. During the third stage of distillation (95 wt. %)concentration was obtained.Box-Wilson central composite rotatable design is used to design the experimental work for the mentioned variables. It was found that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases with:Jncreasing vacuum pressure, decreasing reflux ratio, increasing the time of distillation and increasing the packing height.The second order polynomial regression analysis of the objective response (concentration of hydrogen peroxide).


Article
Prediction of Equilibrium Mixing Index and Optimum Mixing Time for Three solid materials in Fluidized Column
التنبؤ بمعامل الخلط عند التوازن وزمن الخلط الامثل لثلاثة مواد صلبة في عمود التميع

Authors: Rasha H. Salman رشا حبيب سلمان --- Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس --- Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد سليمون
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 21-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Equilibrium and rate of mixing of free flowing solid materials are found using gas fluidized bed. The solid materials were sand (size 0.7 mm), sugar (size0.7 mm) and 15% cast iron used as a tracer. The fluidizing gas was air with velocity ranged from 0.45-0.65 m/s while the mixing time was up to 10 minutes. The mixing index for each experiment was calculated by averaging the results of 10 samples taken from different radial and axial positions in fluidized QVF column 150 mm ID and 900 mm height.
The experimental results were used in solving a mathematical model of mixing rate and mixing index at an equilibrium proposed by Rose. The results show that mixing index increases with increasing air velocity and mixing time until it reaches an optimum value then decrease to an equilibrium value. The results also show the dependency of the mixing index on the particle size of the tracer component.
The statistical analysis of the obtained theoretical mixing index versus the experimental mixing index shows that the standard error is 0.92 % (about 1 %) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9857 and the total residual of 0.002 for the ninth observation of the mixing index (theoretical versus experimental) over 95% confidence level.

تم دراسة معامل الخلط عند الاتزان ومعدل الخلط لمواد حرة الجريان بأستخدام عمود هواء متميع. المواد التي تم خلطها هي الرمل ( قطر الجسيمات 0.7 ملم) والسكر (قطر الجسيمات0.7 ملم) وبرادة الحديد وهي تمثل المادة الكاشفة بتركيز 15% وزنا. معدل سرعة الهواء كان بين 0.45 و 0.65 م/ثا بينما زمن الخلط كان لحد 10 دقائق. معامل الخلط لكل تجربة كان يحسب بأخذ عشرة نماذج ذات مواقع مختلفة قطريا وخطيا من عمود التميع ذو القطر الداخلي 150 ملم وأرتفاعه 900 ملم.تم أستخدام النتائج العملية في حل موديل رياضي لمعدل الخلط ومعامل الخلط عند الأتزان مقترح من قبل Rose. النتائج التجريبية أستعملت لحل موديل رياضي لمعدل الجريان و معامل الخلط عند الاتزان أقترح من قبل .Rose النتائج بينت ان معامل الخلط يزداد بزيادة سرعة الهواء وزمن الخلط حتى يصل للقيمة المثلى ثم ينخفض الى أن يصل للاتزان. نتائج معدل الخلط بينت أعتمادها على مقدار الفرق بين حجم جسيمات المادة الكاشفة. أشار التحليل الإحصائي لكل من معامل الخلط النظري و العملي إلى أن الخطأ المعياري كان 0.92 % (حوالي 1 %) و معامل ارتباط 0.9857 ومجموع المتبقيات لتسع مشاهدات كان 0.002 لمستوى ثقة 95%.


Article
The Factors Affecting the Absorption of Ozone in Water

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Abstract

This study was concerned with using ozone gas in drinking water treatment plant at Ibn-Sina Company. The main purpose of this research is to find the best contactor for ozone unit proposed. An investigation was conducted to study the absorption of ozone by water in two type of absorber. The effects of the process variables (such as height of water column, contact time, and pH) on the amount of ozone absorbed were investigated. Box-Wilson central composite rotatable design is used to design the experimental work for the mentioned variables. It was found that the optimum value of the variables studied was:i) Height of water column (90 cm)ii) Contact time (17-18 min)iii) PH (7 - 7.5)

لقد اهتم هذا البحث بدراسة استخدام الاوزون في مجال معالجة مياه الشرب لصالح شركة ابن سينا العامة/وزارة الصناعة والمعادن العراقية.الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو ايجاد افضل الطرق لانتقال الاوزون للماء باستخدام نوعين من ابراج الامتصاص ,البرج الفقاعي وبرج ذو حشوة.تم دراسة عدة متغيرات هي ارتفاع عمود الماء في البرج ,زمن التماس ,والدالة الحامضية للماء المستخدم(PH).تم تحديد التجارب حسب طريقة (Box-Wilson Central Composite Rotatable Design) للمتغيرات المبينة اعلاه وقد وجد بان افضل امتصاص للاوزون يكون عند القيم التالية:1-طول عمود الماء في البرج (90 سم).2-زمن التماس (17-18 دقيقة).3-الدالة الحامضية (7-7.5).

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