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The Effect of Promoters on the Activity of Prepared Zeolite Catalyst in FCC Process

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Abstract

Faujasite type NaY zeolite catalyst was prepared from locally available kaolin, then the prepared NaY zeolite have been modified by exchanging of sodium ion with ammonium to produce NH4Y zeolite. NH4Y zeolite was converted to HY zeolite by ion exchanging with oxalic acid. Zinc and nickel promoters have been added to the prepared HY zeolite catalyst, and the effect of these promoters on the catalytic activity of the prepared HY catalyst was studied in fluid catalytic cracking process using light gas oil as a feedstock. The experimental results show that the promoted catalyst gives higher gas oil conversion and gasoline yield than HY zeolite catalyst at the same reaction temperature and WHSV. It was also found that the promoted catalyst gives gasoline with lesser olefin content and higher aromatics compared with the gasoline produced by HY catalyst.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Some Pyranopyrazoles and Pyranopyrimidines Derivatives as Antioxidants for Lubricating Oils
تحضير وتشخيص وتقييم بعض مشتقات البايرنوبايرزل والبايرنوبيرميدين كمضادات أكسدة في زيوت التزييت

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Abstract

6-Amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1, 4-dihydropyrano [2,3-c] pyrazole (compound 2) was prepared by condensation of 2-(4-hydroxylbenzylidine) malononitrile (compound 1) [which was prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of malononitrile with 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde ] with 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one. Reactions of compound 2 with different reagents formic acid, formamide, and ammonium thiocyanate under microwave irradiation leads to the synthesis of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,6-dihydro- pyrazolo [3', 4':5,6] pyrano [2,3-d] pyrimidine-5-one (compound 3), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4, 6-dihydro- pyrazolo [3', 4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-imine (compound 4) and N-[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-7-thioxo-7,8- dihydropyrazolo [3', 4':5,6] pyrano [2,3-d] pyrimidine-5-yl] thiourea (compound 5) respectively. Moreover a series of Schiff bases 6(a-f) were prepared by reaction of compound 2 with different aromatic aldehydes. The prepared compounds were characterized by FTIR, and most 1HNMR,13CNMR and evaluated as antioxidant additives by blending 1% of each compound with base lubricating oil 60 stock supplied by Midland Refineries Company, Baghdad, Iraq. The formulated blend of compound 6a showed better oxidation stability compared with the base oil (blank), while the oil blend of compound 5 gave higher oxidation stability than the blend with standard antioxidant supplied by Midland Refineries Company.

حضر المركب (2) 6-Amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyrano [2,3-c]pyrazole من تكاثف 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one مع المركب (1) ] 2-(4-hydroxy-benzylidine) malononitrile ]المحضر بوساطة تكاثف Knoevenagel لمشتق 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde مع malononitrile [. تم مفاعلة المركب (2) مع كل من حامض الفورميك والفورمامايد وثايوسيانات الامونيوم باستخدام المايكروويف لتحضير 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,6-dihydro- pyrazolo[3', 4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-one (compound 3), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,6-dihydro- pyrazolo[3', 4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-imine (compound 4) and N-[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-7-thioxo-7,8- dihydropyrazolo [3', 4':5,6] pyrano [2,3-d] pyrimidine-5-yl] thiourea (compound 5) على التوالي. كما حضرت قواعد شيف 6(a-f) من تفاعل المركب (2) مع الديهايدات مختلفة.شخصت المركبات المحضرة بوساطة مطيافية الاشعة تحت الحمراء وقسم منها بمطيافية الرنين النووي المغناطيسي للبروتون والكربون كما تم تقييمها كمضادات للاكسدة بخلط 1% من كل مركب مع زيت الاساس من نوع 60 stock المجهز من شركة مصافي الوسط. أظهر خليط الزيت مع المركب 6a ثباتية عالية تجاه الاكسدة مقارنة مع زيت الاساس بينما مزيج الزيت مع المركب المحضر 5 اظهر ثباتية تجاه الاكسدة اعلى من مزيج الزيت مع المادة المضادة للاكسدة المستخدمة في شركة مصافي الوسط.

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