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MORPHOLOGICAL AND HORMONAL STUDIES RELATED TO AGEING CHANGES OF HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY GLAND IN RABBITS

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Abstract

Background: The hypothalamic - pituitary axis is an auto-regulating system that realizes a tight integration among the endocrine, nervous and immune systems.Objective: To identify anatomical and microscopical age changes of hypothalamus-pituitary gland.Methods: Eighteen female rabbits are divided into 3 groups, group A (4-6 months), group B (12-24 months) and group C (36-60 months). The rabbits are sacrificed and dissection of hypothalamus, pituitary gland is done, anatomical position, their weight, measurements and histological study of their sections regarding the number of different cell types.Results: The weight and number of cells in different parts of hypothalamus and pituitary gland are negatively correlated with age.The serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), prolactin hormone (PRL), and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) hormones almost remain unchanged while the level of leutinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) were increasing with age, and the prolactin hormone level primarily increases with age then decreases with advancing age.Conclusion: The weight of the Hypothalamus and pituitary gland is primarily increased before age of 24 months, and then it started to decrease. The effects of aging inversely on the function and structure of hypothalamus and pituitary gland.Key words: Aging, hypothalamus, pituitary, HPA axis

Keywords

Aging --- hypothalamus --- pituitary --- HPA axis


Article
THE EFFECT OF AGING ON HUMAN TESTIS: ANATOMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDY

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Abstract

Background: Aging of testis is gradual dysfunction of body organs and tissues due to reduction of cell number and loss of cell capacity for reproduction and regeneration of its structural elements.Objective: To study the age related changes of the human testes anatomically and histologically.Methods: Forty testes of twenty adult Iraqi male cadavers, with age ranged from 20-69 years were taken from the Forensic Medicine Department of Tikrit and Azadi Teaching Hospital in Salahddin and Kirkuk province, respectively during the period from November 2006 to September 2007. The testicular specimens were divided into five groups according to cadaver age. Tunica albuginea was removed to investigate the lobular and tubular structures of the testis, by anatomical and histological procedures.Results: The gross metrical measurement and anatomical inspection revealed that a negative correlation was existed between the process of aging and the weight of the postmortem, testis. A strong directly proportional positive correlation was found between age and the thickness of basement membrane, interstitial spaces between seminiferous tubules. Tubular sclerosis was observed in some testis specimens of senescent cadavers associated with a decrease in the number of the lining epithelial cells of the seminiferous tubules and sclerotic changes in the walls of testicular blood vessels.Conclusion: The process of aging leads to testicular changes such as tubular diverticula and decrease in number of leydig cells.Key words: Aging, Leydig cells, senescent testis, seminiferous tubules.

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