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Levels of Interleukine Levels of Interleukine Levels of Interleukine Levels of Interleukine Levels of Interleukine Levels of InterleukineLevels of Interleukine Levels of Interleukine-8 and 8 and Some ome ome Antioxidants in ntioxidants in ntioxidants in Serum of erum of erum of Patients with Osteoarthritis.atients with Osteoarthritis. atients with Osteoarthritis.atients with Osteoarthritis. atients with Osteoarthritis. atients with Osteoarthritis.atients with Osteoarthritis. atients with Osteoarthritis. atients with Osteoarthritis.atients with Osteoarthritis. atients

Author: Abdulnasser M. Al-Gebori
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 485-489
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that features the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a "cushion" between the bones of the joints. Among the over 100 different types of arthritis conditions, osteoarthritis is the most common, affecting over 25 million people in the United States. Osteoarthritis occurs more frequently as we age. Osteoarthritis is abbreviated as OA or referred to as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease (DJD). Osteoarthritis commonly affects the hands, feet, spine, and large weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. Osteoarthritis usually has no known cause and is referred to as primary osteoarthritis. When the cause of the osteoarthritis is known, the condition is referred to as secondary osteoarthritis.OBJECTIVE:The main objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the levels of Interleukin-8 and some antioxidant in patients with OA.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study was performed during the period from April 2010 to February 2011, and included 50 patients with OA according to the American College of Rheumatology ACR 1990; their age range from 40-60 years with mean age of 46.66 ± 2.83 years. These patients were matched by age and sex to 25 healthy control subjects with the mean age of 48.32 ± 2.92 years. Blood samples were taken from each individual and separated for the estimation of IL-8 and some antioxidants levels using enzyme – liked immunosorbent assay (ElIZA) technique and colorimetric method. The laboratory tests were done in Teaching Laboratories of the Medical City and the Department of Physiological Chemistry / College of Medicine University of Baghdad.RESULTS:The level of IL-8 and Ceruloplasmin (CP) in serum of patients with OA was significantly higher than in serum of healthy control while the level of Glutathione (GSH) and S.uric acid in serum of OA patients was significantly higher than healthy control and there is no significant difference in level of serum albumin between the patients and control.CONCLUSION:It is clear from this study that there is a relationship between the levels of IL-8, CP, GSH, and S.uric acid concentrations and OA while there is no relationship between S.albumin concentration and OA disease.


Article
Interleukine-6, Vitamins A, E, and C Levels in Serum of Iraqi Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS)
مستويات أنترليوكين -6 وفيتامينات A، E، C في مصل مرضى عراقيين مصابين بمتلازمة الألم الليفي العضلي

Author: Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 49-57
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The main objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of Interleukine-6, Vitamins A, E, and C in patients with FMS. This study included 60 patients with FMS were diagnosed according to the American college of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 criteria. They were obtained from the people attending the Rheumatology & Rehabilitation Consultation Unit / Out Patient Clinic/ Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Medical City. Their ages range were 20-60 years and their ages range were then matched by age and sex to 30 healthy control persons with mean age 43.25 ± 3.16 years. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean value of IL-6 in serum of patients with FMS, while vitamins A, and E concentrations in serum of patients with FMS were significantly decreased as compared to the level in serum of healthy controls (p>0.05), and the mean values of Vitamin C concentration in serum of patients with FMS were significantly increased than the level in serum of healthy control (p< 0.05).

الدراسة تشمل 60 من المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة الألم الليفي العضلي تم تشخيصهم بموجب معيار كلية الروماتيزم الأمريكية لعام 1990 تتراوح اعمارهم بين 20-60 سنة، تتطابق أعمار وجنس المرضى مع 30 من الأشخاص الأصحاء وبمعدل عمر يتراوح بين 43،25± 3،16 سنة. النتائج تشير الى أنه ليس هناك أختلاف في متوسط قيم تراكيز أنترلوكين-6 بين المرضى والأصحاء بينما متوسط قيم تراكيز فيتامينات A، E في أمصال المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة الألم الليفي العضلي تنخفض بصورة مؤثرة (p>0.05) مقارنة بالمستوى في الأشخاص الأصحاء، بينما متوسط قيم تراكيز فيتامين C في أمصال المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة الألم الليفي العضلي تزداد بصورة مؤثرة (p< 0.05) مقارنة بالمستوى في الأشخاص الأصحاء.


Article
Levels of Interleukin-6 and Certain Antioxidants in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Author: Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 164-168
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most aggressive common tumors in humans. It is known that development and progression of tumors is associated with deviations in the human immune system.Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine that it is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response, during infection and after trauma. Antioxidants catalase (CAT), Glutathion (GSH), Ceruloplasmin (CP) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) are substances that when present at low concentrations compared to those of an oxidizable substrate significantly delays or inhibits oxidation of that substrate.OBJECTIVE:The main objective of this study is to determine the frequency of IL-6, CAT, GSH, CP and MDA in patients with CRC.PATIENTS & METHODS: This study included 40 healthy control donors (20 male and 20 female) and 60 patients with CRC (20 smokers male, 20 non smokers male and 20 non smokers female). They were obtained from the people attending the out Patient Clinic/ Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Medical City. Ages ranges were 40-60 years and matched by age and sex to healthy control donors with mean age 53.24 ± 2.32 yearsRESULTS: The mean values of IL-6 and CP in sera of patients (smoker and nonsmoker groups) with CRC were significantly increased as compared to healthy control donors (P<0.01) and the mean values of CAT, GSH and MDA in sera of patients (smoker and nonsmoker groups) with CRC were significantly decreased as compared to healthy control donors (P<0.01) and results analysis shows that the IL-6, CAT, GSH, CP and MDA of female with CRC are less than of a male.CONCLUSION: It is clear from this study that there is a relationship between the levels of IL-6, GSH, CAT, CP, and MDA concentrations and CRC patients and may be a good indicator to evaluate this disease.r


Article
Determination of Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (ACCP) and C-Reactive Protein (C-RP) Concentrations in Serum of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS)

Authors: Abdulnasser M. Al-Gebori --- Tarik M, Ali Rajab --- Mohammad H. Al-Osami --- Kisma M. Turki
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 106-109
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal syndrome; almost invariably, symptoms persist at 5- and 10-year follow-ups. The degree of functional impairment is similar to that seen in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing is particularly useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, with high specificity, in the early disease process, with the ability to identify patients who are likely to have severe disease and irreversible damage. CRP is a member of the class of acute-phase reactants that its levels rise dramatically during inflammatory processes occurring in the body.OBJECTIVE:the main objective of this study is to determine the frequency of anti CCP- in patients with FM and the association of anti-CCP level with C-RP.PATIENTS & METHODS:This study included 60 patients with FMS according to the ACR 1990 criteria. Their age range was 20-60 years. These patients were then matched by age and sex to 30 healthy control persons with mean age 42.81 ± 2.16 years.RESULTS:The mean values of ACCP antibodies concentration in serum of patients with FMS were no significant difference as compared to the level in serum of healthy controls (p>0.05), while the mean values of C-RP concentration in serum of patients with FMS were significantly increased than the level in serum of healthy control (p< 0.05).CONCLUSION:It is clear from this study that there is no relationship between the levels of ACCP concentration and FMS while C-RP concentration in patients with FMS may be a good indicator to evaluate this disease.

Keywords

ACCP --- C-RP --- FMS


Article
Levels of Magnesium, Zinc, Calcium and Copper in Serum of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Authors: Abdulnasser M. Al-Gebori --- Tarik M, Ali Rajab --- **,Mohammad H. Al-Osami --- Kisma M. Turki
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 180-183
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal syndrome; almost invariably, symptoms persist at 5- and 10-year follow-ups. Several studies reported the importance of trace elements on the immune system. It plays an important role in physiological processes that are crucial for normal functioning of the immune system. Fibromyalgia could be the result of an over-active immune system, the immune system works to protect the body by attacking bacteria, viruses, and other foreign cells. When over-active, the immune system can cause severe inflammation and pain.OBJECTIVE:The main objective of this study is the association between the levels of Magnesium, Zinc, Calcium and Copper in patients with FMS.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study was performed during the period from April 2009 to February 2010, and included 60 patients with FMS according to the ACR 1990 criteria, these criteria, a history of widespread pain has been present for at least three months affecting all four quadrants of the body, i.e., both sides, and above and below the waist, and there are 18 designated possible tender or trigger points. During diagnosis, four kilograms-force (39 newtons) of force is exerted at each of the 18 points; the patient must feel pain at 11 or more of these points for fibromyalgia to be considered. Four kilograms of force is about the amount of pressure required to blanch the thumbnail when applying pressure. Their age range was from 20-60 with the mean age of 39.95 ± 1.10 years. These patients were matched by age and sex to 30 healthy control subjects with the mean age 42.81 ± 2.16 years. Blood samples were taken from each individual and separated for the estimation of Mg, Zn, Ca and Cu levels using atomic absorption technique. The laboratory tests were done in Teaching Laboratories of the Medical City and the Department of Physiological Chemistry / College of Medicine University of Baghdad.RESULTS:The level of Mg, Zn and Ca in serum of patients with FMS was significantly lower than in serum of healthy control while the level of Cu in serum of FMS patients was significantly higher than healthy control.CONCLUSION:Thelevels of Mg, Zn, Ca concentrations in serum of patients with FMS were significantly lower than healthy control subjects, while Cu concentration in patients with FMS was significantly higher than healthy control subjects and levels of Mg, Zn, Ca and Cu may be a good indicator to evaluate this disease.

Keywords

Mg --- Zn --- Ca --- Cu and fibromyalgia syndrome


Article
Synthesis and Theoretical Study of Some 2,4,6 Trihydroxyacetophenone Schiff base Ligandes
تحضير ودراسة نظرية لبعض ليكندات وقواعد شف لـ 6،4،2- ثلاثي هيدروكسي اسيتوفينون

Authors: Rashed Taleb Rashee --- Mahammed Shamil Ali --- Hadeel Salah Mansoor --- Hasan R.Obayes --- et al.
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 1 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 45-51
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Schiff bases have been synthesized, identified by FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) spectroscopy. The theoretical calculations of Schiff base were studied through the optimized structures of the Schiff base ligand was obtained by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G level. Also total energy, heats of formation, dipole moment, point group, molecular orbital's energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) , energy gaps (Eg) and ΔG reaction were calculated. Here we suggest the optimized structure for the studied Schiff base. The theoretical study and based on the results of density function theory (DFT), L1 possess higher stability state compared with other Schiff bases studied.

تم تحضير وتشخيص قواعد شف بواسطة مطيافية الاشعة تحت الحمراء (FTIR) والاشعة الفوق البنفسجية المرئية (UV-Visible). درست الحسابات النظرية لقواعد شف من خلال التركيب الامثل لهذه القواعد والتي تم الحصول عليها بواسطة نظرية الكثافة الالكترونية للمستوى B3LYP/6-31G . كذلك تم قياس الطاقة الكلية ، حرارة التكوين ، عزم ثنائي القطب ، نقطة المجموعة ، طاقات الاوربتالات الجزيئية للـ HOMO و LUMO ، فجوات الطاقة و طاقة كبس، ومنها تم التكهن بافضل تركيب ممكن لقاعدة شف. حسب النتائج لدالة الكثافة الالكترونية (DFT)، فان الليكند L1 يملك اعلى حالات الاستقرارية مقارنة مع بقية قواعد شف التي تمت دراستها.

Keywords


Article
Test of Soybean Extract to Eliminat the Harmfull Effects of MMC using Head Sperm Abnormalities Test in Albino Mice (Mus musculus)
فحصقدرة المستخلصالكحولي لفول الصویا في أزالة تأثیرات الضارة للمایتوماسین –سي- بأستخدام أختبار التشوھات في رؤوس النطف الفئران المختبریة

Authors: Abbas A.Mohammad عباس عبدلله محمد --- Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori عبدالناصر عبدلله محمد --- Mohammed K. Amin محمد كمال امین
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 5 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 17-23
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of methanolic extract of soybean to eliminat the harmfull effects of mitomycin C. By using sperm abnormalities test of male mice (Mus musculus).Seventyfive mice were used and divided into five groups by 15 mice for each group and each group was divided in turn into five groups: group 1 used as negative control , group 2 as positive control, were treated with mitomycin C (MMC) at 2mg/kg b.wt. intraperitonealy (i.p.) , while tested the remaining three groups with alcohol extract in concentrations ranged (2, 4, 8) mgheadday within periods (1, 3, 5) week. The results don’t show presence of abnormal change in the form of the heads of sperm in the stages of spermatids ,spermatocytes and spermatogonia in sperm cells and. So we cann’t conclude that doses of soybean extract may permanently sterilize mice, and so cann’t ability to recovering the effects of MMC.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية الكشف عن قابلية المستخلص الميثانولي لفول الصويا (Soybean) في أزالة التأثيرالضار للمايتومايسين سي في رؤوس النطف لذكور الفئران (Mus musculus) ، تم استخدام 75 فأرا موزعين على خمسة مجاميع بواقع 15 فأرا لكل مجموعة وكل مجموعة قسمت بدورها إلى خمسة مجاميع حيث اعتبرت الأولى مجموعة السيطرة (control) في حين اختبرت الثلاث المتبقية بالمستخلص الكحولي وبتراكيز ترواحت ما بين (2، 4، 8) ملغم/حيوان/يوم وللفترات (1، 3، 5) أسبوع.بينت النتائج عدم وجود تغير جوهري في شكل رؤوس النطف في مراحل الخلايا المنوية والخلايا الأمية وسلفيات الخلايا النطفية عند مقارنتها مع العينة القياسية الموجبة ، لذا نستنتج ان جرع المعينه من مستخلص فول الصويا ، ليس لها القدرة على أزالة التأثيرالضارللمايتومايسين سي .


Article
Levels of Lead and Chromium Ions in Different Brands of Lipstick Sold at Local Markets in Iraq

Authors: Shaymaa H. Khazaa --- Khalida F. Al-Azawi --- Hamsa A. Eessa --- Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori --- et al.
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (B) Engineering Pages: 147-151
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Lead and Chromium ion samples of five commercial samplesof each of twenty brands of lipstick sold at locally markets in Iraq weredetermined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples ofdigested Lipstick were used, acid digestion method using acids HCl:HNO3 in ratio 1:3 were used before analysis. Average for analyzedsamples were Pb, 0.10-4.85 ppm; Cr, 0.18-5.2 ppm. Samples No.9 andNo.4 showed the least concentrations of Pb and Cr respectively. Thesevalues are not expected to be toxic to humans. However, exposure overlong periods might cause accumulation of the elements in the body andeven at low concentration; some metals could initiate allergic reactions.

Keywords

Samplesof Lipsticks --- Pb --- Cr and AAS


Article
Correlation of Total Cholesterol and Glucose in Serum of Iraqi Patients with Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
علاقة الكولستيرول الكلي والكلوكوز في مصل المرضى العراقيين المصابين بتصلب الشرايين و مرض البول السكري من النوع 2

Authors: Abbas A. Mohammed --- Nidal Al Derzi --- Rashed Taleb Rasheed --- Hasan R. Obayes --- et al.
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 6 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 801-808
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Cholesterol is a fatty substance (lipid) classified as a waxy steroid of fat. It is absorbed by the intestine into blood stream and is packaged inside a protein coat a chylomicron. Blood glucose is a simple monosaccharide absorbed directly into the blood stream during digestion. The level of blood glucose normally represents a balance between the inflow of glucose into blood and it is uptake by the tissue. Atherosclerosis is a general term for a number of different medical conditions that affect the heart, this is occurs when the blood supply to a part of heart is interrupted, must commonly due to plaque, is build up in the coronary arteries consist of lipid cholesterol and calcium. It causes a damage of potential disease of heart muscle due to thickening and hardening of arteries. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the level of blood glucose is persistently elevated above the normal range due to decrease secretion of insulin. The main objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of total cholesterol and glucose into blood serum of Iraq patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2. This study included 60 specimens of patients with atherosclerosis and 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; their age range was 45-65 years. These patients were then matched by age and sex to 30 healthy individuals. Results revealed that there was highly significantly increased in the mean value of total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in patients of atherosclerosis (p<0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p<0.001) as compared with healthy individuals.

الكولستيرول مادة شحمية (دهنية) تصنف كسترويدات شمعية للشحوم. تمتص الدهون بواسطة الأمعاء الى مجرى الدم وتغلف بالبروتين كما في البروتين الدهني الجايلومايكرون. كلوكوز الدم سكر أحادي بسيط يمتص مباشرة الى مجرى الدم خلال عملية الهضم. مستويات سكر الدم تمثل طبيعيا التوازن بين تدفق الكلوكوز الى مجرى الدم و أمتصاصه من قبل النسيج. تصلب الشرايين مصطلح عام لعدد من الحالات الطبية المختلفة والتي تؤثر بالقلب وهذا يحدث عندما ينقطع تجهيز الدم الى جزء من القلب وغالبا ما يحدث بسبب بقعة تبنى من الدهون في الشرايين التاجية. تتكون من دهون الكولستيرول والكالسيوم وتسبب هذه البقعة أو اللطخة تلف لعضلة القلب لأزدياد سمك الشريان وتصلبه. البول السكري أضطراب يحدث عندما تكون مستويات الكلوكوز مرتفعة بمقاومة أكثر من المستوى الطبيعي بسبب قلة أفراز الأنسولين. الهدف الرئيسي من الدراسة هو تحديد تراكيز الكولستيرول الكلي والكلوكوز في مصل المرضى العراقيين المصابين بتصلب الشرايين والبول السكري. شملت أو تضمنت هذه الدراسة على عينة 60 من المرضى المصابين بتصلب الشرايين و60 من المرضى المصابين بالبول السكري تتراوح أعمارهم من 45-65سنة. تم أخذ 30 من الأفراد الأصحاء مطابقين بالعمر والجنس لهؤلاء المرضى. أظهرت النتائج بان هناك زيادة معنوية عالية مؤثرة في القيمة المتوسطة لتراكيز الكولستيرول الكلي (p<0.001) والكلوكوز (p<0.001) في مرضى تصلب الشرايين والبول السكري عند مقارنتهم بالأفراد الأصحاء.


Article
Theoretical Study for the Preparation of Sub-Carbon Nano Tubes from the Cyclic Polymerization of Three Molecules from (Corannulene, Coronene and Circulene) Aromatic Compounds
دراسة نظرية لتحضير أنابيب كاربون نانوية من البلمرة الحلقية لثلاثة جزيئات من المركبات الأروماتية (الكوراننولين والكورونين والسيركولين)

Authors: Hasan R. Obayes --- Ghadah H. Alwan --- Abdulnasser M. AL-Gebori --- Samah S. Adeeb --- et al.
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 238-250
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Corannulene, coronene and circulene are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds were chosen to study the preparation of carbon tubes with diameters smaller fraction of nano-meter theoretically may achievable using the density function theory (DFT). The results showed that the stability of the molecules are; corannulene molecule is bowl-shaped, coronene molecule is planar, circulene molecule has a unique saddle-shaped structure. Upon to molecular polymerization a tube for three of the molecules selected results a sub-nanotubes formation. The results showed thermodynamic all preparations reactions are spontaneous and exothermic; the tubes prepared have high efficiency in the gap energy, making it potentially useful for solar cell applications

الكوراننولين والكورونين والسيركولين هي مركبات هيدروكاربونية أروماتية متعددة الحلقات أختيرت في هذا البحث لدراسة تحضير أنابيب كاربونية ذات أقطار أصغر من النانومتر نظرياً بأستخدام نظرية دوال الكثافة. أظهرت نتائج الحسابات ان الشكل المستقر للجزيئات المحسوبة هو: جزيئة الكوراننولين ذات شكل يشبه تقعر الطاسة، وجزيئة الكورونين ذات شكل مستوي، وجزئية السيركولين ذات شكل يشبه سرج الحصان (محدب). نحصل على الأنابيب نتيجة لتفاعل البلمرة الحلقي لثلاثة جزيئات من الجزيئات المختارة، وأظهرت النتائج الثرموديناميكية ان جميع تفاعلات التحضير الانابيب الكربون النانوية هي تلقائية وباعثة للحرارة، وان الأنابيب المحضرة هي ذات كفاءه عالية بالنسبة لطاقة الفجوة مما يجعلها مفيدة في الخلايا الشمسية.

Keywords

Corannulene --- Coronene --- Circulene --- Dft --- Polymerization

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