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Article
Inhibition of artificial secondary caries by fluoride – releasing restorative materials

Authors: Tara A. Al-Qutib --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Fluoride releasing restorative materials was developed to reduce the possibility of secondary caries. This study aims to examine the effects of fluoride-releasing restorative materials on the inhibition of artificial caries-around restorations.
Materials and Methods: The materials used in this study are conventional Glass-ionomer cement (Kavitan plus), Modified resin glass ionomer cement (photac-fill quick), compomer (Dyract), fluoride-releasing resin composite (crystal Essence) and Spectrum composite without fluoride (Dentsply). Forty extracted human mandibular and maxillary premolars were used and standardized CL V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual aspects of each tooth, the lingual cavities were restored with each of the fluoride-releasing materials while the buccal cavities were restored with Spectrum Dentsply composite act as a control according to the manufacturer's instructions. The restored teeth were incubated in the acidified gelatin gel at 4.0pH, and the artificial secondary lesion created around the restoration was observed by using poloraide light microscope.
Results: Glass ionomer cement created a thick-radio-opaque zone in the artificial lesion along the restorations-dentin interface, while the fluoride-releasing composite created a thin radio-opaque zone due to the formation of acid-resistance zone by bonding infiltration.
Conclusion: Fluoride-releasing restorative materials including conventional Glass-ionomer cement (GIC), Modified resin glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), compomer, and fluoride-releasing resin composite have the potential to inhibit secondary caries formation around restorations and the conventional GIC have a stronger effect than other material.
Keywords: Artificial caries, fluoride. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 6-11)

Keywords


Article
The influence of adhesive systems on bond strength between FRP post and packable composite resin (A comparative study)

Authors: Adel F. Ibraheem --- Hiba A. Salman
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 14-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the bond strength between the
packable composite core (Filtek P60) and the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) posts (Postec Plus, Ivoclar) which were
treated with different adhesive system by using pull out test.
Materials and methods: Sixty FRP posts were seated on the custom made aluminum mold leaving 3mm of post
exposed, the post specimens were then randomly divided into six groups (n=10), according to materials used as post
surface treatments:G: (A) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel only; G: (B) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel +
Silane coupling agents (Monobond- S); G: (C) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Silane coupling agents
(Monobond- S) + Total etch adhesives bonding agent (ExciTE); G: (D) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Total etch
adhesives bonding agent (ExciTE); G: (E) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Silane coupling agents (Monobond- S)
+ Self-etching adhesives bonding agent (AdheSE); G: (F) 37% wt phosphoric acid etching gel+ Self-etching
adhesives bonding agent (AdheSE). After that a cylindrical shaped transparent plastic matrix was then used as a
mold for Core build ups that was fitted on the elevation of aluminum mold, so that the composite, Filtek P60, can be
packed into the matrix in one increment (bulk technique). After curing and removing the cylinder plastic matrix from
the mold, a further irradiation of 60 seconds of composite was carried out from all sides. The specimen was stored in
an incubator at 37C° for one week, at 100% relative humidity. Testing was done by the Universal testing machine (WP
300) applying pulling out force until the core was separated from the post.
Results: The data were statistically analyzed using Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and student-t test revealed that
treating the post surfaces with Self-etching adhesive system only, produce the highest bond strength values between
the packable composite core material and the FRP posts with high significant difference While, the post surfaces
which were treated with phosphoric acid only produce the lowest bond strength values with high significant
difference. Also the examination of the bond surfaces by lens with 20X magnification power showed that only
adhesive bond failures occurred between FRP post and packable composite core.
Conclusions: There is no chemical bond between the packable composite core and the FRP posts. Treating the post
surfaces with Self-etching adhesive system only, produce the highest bond strength values between the packable
composite core material and the FRP posts followed by combination of silane solution and self-etching adhesive
system, combination of silane solution and total etch adhesives bonding agent, total etch adhesives bonding agent
only, Silane coupling agents in a decreasing manner.
Keywords: Fiber post, surface treatments, Adhesive systems. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(4):14-21).
الخلاصھ
ومادة الوتد ذوالنوع البلاست&#1740;ك المعزز بالأل&#1740;اف الزجاج&#1740;ة (Filtek P ھذه الدراسھ المختبر&#1740;ھ أجر&#1740;ت لتق&#1740;&#1740;م ومقارنة مدى قوة الارتباط ب&#1740;ن مادة راتنج الكومبوز&#1740;ت القابل للتراص( &#1638;&#1632;
على القالب المصمم من ,( (Postec plus) بعد معاملتھ بانظمھ لاصقة رابطھ مختلفھ باستخدام طر&#1740;قھ السحب .تم وضع ست&#1740;ن وتد ذو النوع البلاست&#1740;ك المعزز بالال&#1740;اف الزجاج&#1740;ھ
الالومن&#1740;وم تاركا &#1635;مم من سطحھ مكشوفا ، ثم تم تقس&#1740;م الع&#1740;نات عشوائ&#1740;ا إلى ست مجام&#1740;ع (عشر ع&#1740;نات لكل مجموعة)، وفقا للمواد الاصقھ الرابطھ المستخدمھ في معالجھ سطح الوتد :
المجموعة (ج) حامضالفوسفور&#1740;ك ؛ (Monobond-s) silane المجموعة (أ): حامضالفوسفور&#1740;ك الھلامي ؛ المجموعة (ب): حامضالفوسفور&#1740;ك الھلامي +الرابط المزدوج
؛( Exite) المجموعة (د): حامضالفوسفور&#1740;ك الھلامي +نظام التخر&#1740;ش الكلي ؛ ( Exite) نظام التخر&#1740;ش الكلي + (Monobond-s) silane الھلامي + الرابط المزدوج
المجموعة(و): حامضالفوسفور&#1740;ك الھلامي+ ؛(AdheSE) نظام التخر&#1740;ش الذاتي +(Monobond-s) silane المجموعة (ه): حامضالفوسفور&#1740;ك الھلامي + الرابط المزدوج
.(AdheSE) نظام التخر&#1740;ش الذاتي
بعد معالجھ سطح الوتد المكشوف بالمواد المصنفھ حسب المجام&#1740;ع ، وبعد وضع قالب اسطواني مصنوع من البلاستك فوق قالب الالومن&#1740;م والذي &#1740;عمل كقالب لبناء اللب
و&#1740;عالج ضوئ&#1740;ا لمده &#1636;&#1632; ثان&#1740;ھ ثم &#1740;زال حتى &#1740;تسنى للكومبوز&#1740;ت التعرض لمز&#1740;د من الإشعاع لمده &#1638;&#1632; ، ( Filtek P ،&#1740;ملئ القالب الاسطواني بمادة الراتنج الكومبوز&#1740;ت القابل للتراص( &#1638;&#1632;
ثان&#1740;ة ومن جم&#1740;ع الجھات . بعد اكمال عمل كافة الع&#1740;نات تمت عمل&#1740;ة الخزن في حاضنة بدرجة حرارة &#1635;&#1639; درجھ س&#1740;ل&#1740;ز&#1740;ھ ولمدة أسبوع و &#1633;&#1632;&#1632; &#1642; رطوبة نسب&#1740;ة ومن ثم تمت عمل&#1740;ة اختبار
بطر&#1740;قة السحب حتى &#1740;تم فصل اللب عن الوتد .وفحصنمط الانفصال ب&#1740;ن الاسطح المنفصلھ بعنا&#1740;ة باستخدام قوة (wp قوة الربط لكل الع&#1740;نات بواسطة جھاز الاختبار العالمي ( &#1635;&#1632;&#1632;
.(Student t-test) واختبار (ANOVA) الب&#1740;انات قد تم تحل&#1740;لھا إحصائ&#1740;ا باستخدام اختبار تحل&#1740;ل التبا&#1740;ن .X التكب&#1740;ر &#1634;&#1632;
كشفت النتائج أنھ لا&#1740;وجد ربط ك&#1740;م&#1740;ائي ب&#1740;ن اللب المكون من الراتنج الكومبوز&#1740;ت القابل للتراصو الوتد المعزز بالال&#1740;اف وانما &#1740;عتمد فقط على التشابك الما&#1740;كروم&#1740;كان&#1740;كي و الاحتكاك
و نظام silane الانزلاقي . ھذه الدراسھ كشفت ا &#1740;ضا بان نظام التخر&#1740;ش الذاتي اللاصق الرابط انتج أعلى ز&#1740;اده معنو&#1740;ھ في قوة الربط ب&#1740;ن اللب والوتد &#1740;ل&#1740;ھا مز&#1740;ج ب&#1740;ن الرابط المزدوج
تباعا من silane و نظام التخر&#1740;ش الكلي الاصق الرابط ، نظام التخر&#1740;ش الكلي الاصق الرابط ، الرابط المزدوج silane التخر&#1740;ش الذاتي اللاصق الرابط، مز&#1740;ج من الرابط المزدوج
الاعلى الى الادنى. كما ان قوة الربط ب&#1740;ن اللب و الوتد عند معالجة الوتد بحامضالفسفور&#1740;ك الھلامي فقط اعطت اقل ق&#1740;مھ عند مقارنتھا مع المجام&#1740;ع الاخرى وبمعنو&#1740;ة عال&#1740;ة اسطح
و نظام التخر&#1740;ش الكلي الاصق الرابط لم تظھر أي اختلاف معنوي بقوة الربط عند مقارنتھا مع المجموعة المعالجھ بنظام التخر&#1740;ش silane الوتد المعالجة بمز&#1740;ج من الرابط المزدوج
الكلي اللاصق الرابط فقط.

Keywords


Article
A comparative study of apical microleakage by using different preparation and obturation techniques

Authors: Adel F. Ibraheem --- Mervat M. AL – Bakri
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-38
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: When a tooth is treated endodontically, there are several objectives, which must be met for the root
canal therapy to be successful. One of those objectives is the complete obturation of root canal system. The purpose
of this study was to evaluate the apical sealing ability of root canals prepared by hand and rotary ProTaper system
and obturrated with Thermafil and ProTaper gutta percha points in comparison with conventional cold lateral
condensation by using dye penetration method.
Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human single straight canals (premolars) were collected and these teeth
were randomly divided into two groups of 30 specimens each.(Group A-rotary ProTaper, Group B-hand ProTaper),
and each group were divided into three subgroups of 10 specimens each.(Group A1,B1-Thermafil,Group A2,B2-
ProTaper gutta percha points, Group A3,B3 cold lateral condensation). Dorifil root canal sealer was employed as the
common sealant.
Results: The hand ProTaper was significantly better than rotary ProTaper at apical microleakage when Thermafil,
ProTaper gutta-percha point and lateral condensation were used. In group A both the highest and lowest mean
value for apical leakage were seen at lateral condensation technique (4.35) and Thermafil technique (1.35) while
the protaper g.p points was (2.75).In group B both the highest and lowest mean value for apical leakage were seen
at CLC (3.55) and Thermafil (1.1) while the protaper g.p points was (2.65).There was high statistically significant
difference between Thermafil, protaper g.p points and CLC techniques(p<0.05)
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that root canals prepared by hand protaper was significantly better than
rotary protaper at apical microleakage.The roots treated by Thermafil leak the least than protaper g.p points and
CLC techniques.
Key words: Apical seal, Thermafil, ProTaper gutta percha points, Lateral condensation. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(2):35-38)

Keywords


Article
An in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of three root canal sealers

Authors: Hiba A. Salman --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 28-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The antimicrobial agents are added to root canal sealers to improve their antibacterial effect. The
purpose of this study was to evaluate three root canal sealers (DORIFILL, ENDOFILL, APEXIT PLUS) for their antimicrobial
effect by using the agar diffusion test (ADT).
Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effect of three root canal sealers was tested by the agar diffusion test.
Fifteen petriplates . Five cavities , each one measuring 5ml in diameter and 4ml in depth ,were made in each agar
plates using cork poorer and then completely filled with the products to be tested. All plates were incubated for 72
hours at 37°C under aerobic conditions, and zones of inhibition were measured .Statistical analysis was conducted
using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), P value equal or greater than 0.05 was considered as a statistically
non significant, P value equal or greater than 0.01 and less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant, were
as P less than 0.01 was considered as statistically highly significant.
Results: All of the sealers caused bacterial growth inhibition. Their effectiveness, in descending order of antimicrobial
activity, was as follows: ENDOFILL DEXAMETHASONE, DORIFILL, APEXIT PLUS.
The sustaining period of the antimicrobial action of all types of sealers used in this study was 24 hrs only. No
antimicrobial activity was seen after 72 hrs.
Conclusions: Root canal sealers showed different inhibitory effects depending on their types and the bacterial strains
tested. Root canal sealers containing Dexamethasone and eugenol proved to be effective against the
microorganisms studied.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, endodontic treatment, roots canal sealers. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(2):28-31)

Keywords


Article
Effect of ozonated water on dentin bond strength

Authors: Hasanain M. HabeeB --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 33-37
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of ozonated water application on dentin shear bond strength.
Materials and Methods: Ten dentin samples per group were pretreated as follows: (I) untreated served as –ve control, (II) sterile distilled water for 10 seconds served as +ve control, (III) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Sultan-USA) for 10 seconds, (IV) 0.2% chlorhexidine (Corsodyle®, England) for 10 seconds, and (V) 4mg/L ozonated water (Ozonesolution-Enaly, USA) for 10 seconds. Samples were bonded with type II DBA (Unibond 2-Ventura, Spain) based on two clinical steps, etch, prime and bond combined and restored with a composite (Ventura-Similux, Spain) according to the manufacturer instruction. After storage in water at 37°C for 2 days and thermo-cycled for 500 cycles, shear bond strength was measured using Instron machine. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student t-test.
Results: There was high significant increase in bond strength for ozonated water treated samples compared to controls at P<0.01.
Conclusions: According to the circumstances of this study, ozonated water can be used successfully as cavity disinfectant after cavity preparation to increase the shear bond strength of dentin to composite.
Keywords: Ozonated water, dentin, bond. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):33-37)

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Article
The effect of thermocycling on microleakage analysis of bulk filled base composite in comparison to incrementally placed nanohybrid composite in class II MOD restorations (An in vitro study)

Authors: Lena A. Hassan --- Adel F. Ibraheem
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 28-34
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The study aim was to evaluate thermocycling effect on microleakage of occlusal and cervical marginsof MOD cavity filled with bulk filled composites in comparison to incrementally placed nanohybrid composite and toevaluate the difference in microleakage between enamel and dentin margins for the three materials groups.Materials and method: Forty eight maxillary first premolars were prepared with MOD cavities. Samples were dividedinto three groups of sixteen teeth according to material used: Grandio: Grandio. SDR: SDR +Grandio. X-tra: X-tra base+ Grandio. Each group was subdivided into two according to be thermocycled or not. After 24 hrs immersion in 2%methylene blue, samples weresectioned and microleakage was estimated.Results: Thermocycling significantly increased microleakage at occlusal margin in Grandio group compared to othergroups. SDR composite use before and after thermocycling significantly reduced microleakage at occlusal andcervical enamel margins compared to other groups. Grandio group had non significant difference to X-tra group inmicroleakage before thermocycling at occlusal and cervical enamel margins while it had a significant increase afterthermocycling. No material had significantly reduced dentin margin microleakage before or after thermocycling.Only SDR group before thermocycling, significantly reduced microleakage in enamel margin compared to dentinmargin.Conclusion: Thermocycling did not increase microleakage in all the groups except for Grandio group in occlusalmargin. SDR group showed reduced microleakage in occlusal and enamel margins in comparison to othergroups.None of the materials reduced microleakage in dentin margin


Article
An evaluation of the sealing ability of different obturationand gutta-percha removal techniques (A ComparativeStudy)

Authors: Adel F. Ibraheem عادل فرحان ابراهيم --- Ala' M. M. Ali علاء محمد علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 7-9
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Removing gutta-percha (GP) during post space preparation is common in dental practice. The aim ofthis study was to compare the effect of using two types of rotary instruments (peeso reamers and Core-Remover) forGP removal on the apical sealing ability of GP in three obturation techniques (lateral condensation, thermafil, andsoftcore) using dye penetration method.Materials and method: Sixty palatal roots of freshly extracted human maxillary first molars were sectioned andprepared with ProTaper manual system in crown-down manner to size F4.. Samples divided randomly into 3 groups(20 roots each) according to the method of obturation; group A: Lateral condensation, group B: Soft-Core andgroup C: Thermafil. All samples received GP removal after 7 days incubation (37˚C and 100% humidity) either usingPeeso reamer (groups A1, B1 and C1) or Core Remover (groups A2, B2 and C2) (10 roots each group). The sampleswere sealed coronally, immersed in Indian ink and incubated for a week. Roots were demineralized with a 5% nitricacid solution, cleared in methyl salicylate and examined using a stereomicroscope under 40X magnification withcalibrated grid to establish the degree of apical dye penetration in millimeters.Results: Data were collected and subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (ANOVA and t-test) andthere was no significant difference between using peeso reamer and core remover.Conclusion: Apical sealing ability of remaining GP is less affected by the technique of GP removal


Article
Prevalence of overhang margins in posterior amalgam restorations and alveolar bone resorption

Authors: Adel F. Ibraheem عادل فرحان ابراهيم --- Khulod A. Al-Safi خلود الصافي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-13
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Overhanging dental restorations(ODR) are a major dental health problem, it is an etiologic factor in the progression of periodontal disease, and are alarmingly prevalent .The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overhang margins and associated periodontal status in 100 patients, clinically detectable overhang margins were recorded on posterior teeth.Materials and Methods: Overhanging margins on a proximal restoration were detected by using of bitewing radiographs. 2089 restored surfaces were evaluated, of these 1185 had overhanging margins.Results: As far as related to their effect (ODR) on periodontal health, significantly more bone loss-attachment occurs adjacent to ODR compared to teeth without ODR.Conclusion: This study show high prevalence of overhanging amalgam margins, further more, this study show that ODRs have a significant influence on periodontal status.

Keywords

Overhang --- amalgam --- bone resorption


Article
An evaluation of apical microleakage in roots filled with thermoplastic synthetic polymer based root canal filling material (RealSeal 1 bonded obturation)

Authors: Nadine J. Adbul-rada نادين جمال عبد الرضا --- Adel F. Ibraheem عادل فرحان ابراهيم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 21-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the apical microleakage of roots canal filled with coldlateral condensation of gutta-percha, cold lateral condensation of Resilon, Thermafil and RealSeal1 bondedobturation.Materials and methods: Sixty freshly extracted maxillary first molars with straight palatal roots .Using diamond disc burwith straight hand piece and water coolant the palatal roots of teeth were sectioned perpendicular to the long axisat the furcation area. All roots were prepared with crown-down technique using hand ProTaper system (Sx-F4).Theprepared roots randomly divided into 4 groups of fifteen roots each; the groups obturated with different obturationtechnique. In Group 1 roots obturated with( lateral condensation of gutta-percha), Group 2 was obturatedwith(lateral condensation of Resilon),group3 was obturated with (Thermafil) while in group4 obturated with( RealSeal1 bonded obturation).All the samples sealed coronally and stored in normal saline at 37°C for one week ,then all theroots submerged Indian ink for one week. The roots were cleared and the degree of linear dye penetration wasmeasured in millimeter by stereomicroscope under 40X magnification with calibrated scale ocular grid.Results: The results showed that the RealSeal1 bonded obturation leaked apically significantly higher than other testgroups, while the group of lateral condensation of gutta-percha exhibited the least value of apical microleakage.Conclusion: The complete hermetic apical seal cannot be created neither with gutta-percha nor with Real Seal1bonded obturation


Article
An in vitro evaluation of fit of the crowns fabricated by zirconium oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM systems, before and after porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles

Authors: Sattar J. A. Hmedat ستار حميدات --- Adel F. Ibraheem عادل فرحان ابراهيم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the vertical marginal fit of crowns fabricated withZrO2 CAD/CAM, before and after porcelain firing cycles and after glaze cycles.Materials and Methods: An acrylic resin model of a left maxillary first molar was prepared and duplicated to haveNickel-Chromium master die. Ten die stone dies were sent to the CAD/CAM (Amann Girrbach) for crownsfabrication. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured at four indentations at the (mid mesial, mid distal,mid buccal, mid palatal) before (Time 0) and after porcelain firing cycles (Time 1) and after glaze cycles (Time 2)using a light microscope at a magnification of ~100. One way ANOVA LSD tests were performed to determinewhether the mean and standard deviation of sub group Time 2.Results: The mean values of the ZrO2 CAD/CAM Time 0 were (6.77ƒÊm), Time 1(8.75ƒÊm) and Time 2(10.62 ƒÊm). Oneway ANOVA test revealed highly statistical significance(P<0.01). LSD test results showed that there is highly significantdifference between time (0) and time (2), while there is no any significant difference between time (0) and time (1),and between time (1) and time (2).Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the ZrO2 CAD/CAM demonstrated acceptablemarginal fit; The porcelain firing and the glaze firing cycles affected the marginal gap

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