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Article
Assessment of interproximal alveolar bone level in insulin dependant diabetes mellitus patients by using direct digital intra oral imaging system

Authors: Ahlam A. Fatah --- Ghassan A. Abbas
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 72-75
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus on interproximal
alveolar bone level radiographically at posterior teeth except third molar and correlate this effect with age, gender
and duration of the disease.
Materials and methods: The study was completed by the participation of 70 individuals (study group: 35 patients;
control group: 35 patients), their ages are ranging between (20-30) years. The age of the subjects was divided into
two groups: First age group: from (20-25), second age group: from (26-30). Study group subjects consist of 8 male and
27 female while control group subjects consist of 10 female and 25 male.
Results: A statistical analysis were computer assisted using SPSS version 13 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).
Inferential statistics using Two independent sample t-test and ANOVA that There is highly significant difference in
interproximal alveolar bone level between control and study groups for both gender (male and female) at the
second age group (26-30) years, also for male at the first age group (20-25) years. On the other hand, non significant
difference was found between control and study groups for female at first age group (20-25) years.
Conclusion: There is highly significant effect for duration of disease on interproximal alveolar bone level, non
significant effect was found for age on interproximal alveolar bone level and non significant difference was found
between male and female, upper and lower jaws, right and left sides on interproximal alveolar bone level
measurements for insulin dependant diabetes mellitus patients.
Key words: Interproximal alveolar bone, diabetes mellitus, digital intra oral imaging. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009;
21(4):72-75)

Keywords


Article
Validity of computed tomographic in assessment of genial tubercle and anterior mandible as a reference guide to locate osteotomy in genioglossus advancement

Authors: Hanan J. Kadem --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 63-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Genioglossus advancement is a surgical procedure to advance the tongue in some patients withobstructive sleep apnea syndrome.The important step in this procedure is that of accurately capturing the bonesegment attached to the genioglossus muscle to avoid complications such as mandibular fracture, devitalization ofthe inferior incisor roots, and incomplete incorporation of the genioglossusMaterials and Method: Computed tomography scans were taken for 53 Iraqi adult patients (28 male and 25 female)range from (18-35) years with skeletal class I classification and intact anterior mandible dentition included in this studyusing sagittal and axial sections. The measurements were done for genial tubercle and anterior mandibular region.Results: The mean values of some measurements weresignificantly higher in males than in females. The effect ofgender difference was evaluated as a strong effect. The mean value of the other measurements slightly higheramong males compared to females, but the difference fail to reach the level of statistical significance. The effect ofgender difference on this parameter was evaluated as a moderately strong effect.The results showed that there wasno effect of age on all selected measurements in male and female. All selected measurements showed nostatistically significant linear correlation with the age.Conclusions: The variable position and dimensions of this bone segment among patients suggest the need for CTbefore attempting genioglossus advancement for exact localization, avoiding the expected surgical complication


Article
Validity of 3D Reconstructed Computed Tomographic Image in Using Craniometrical Measurements of the Skull for Sex Differentiation (An Iraqi Study)

Authors: Noor M. Sadeq --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The skull offers a high resistance of adverse environmental conditions over time, resulting in the greaterstability of the dimorphic features as compared to other skeletal bony pieces. Sex determination of human skeletalconsidered an initial step in its identification. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the validity of 3Dreconstructed computed tomographic images in sex differentiation by using craniometrical measurements at variousparts of the skull.Materials and Method: 3D reconstructed computed tomographic scanning of 100 Iraqi subject, (50 males and 50females) were analyzed with their age range from20-70 years old. Craniometrical linear measurements were locatedand marked on both side of the 3D skull images.Results: For the all parameters measured for sexes the mean value for Male had significantly greater than females with(p value < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic curves was obtained for each variable to observe their overallperformance in sex determination. The area of mastoid triangle was found the best variable in sex differentiation (ROCarea =0.97 for unilateral skull measurements and 0.98 for bilateral measurements).while EU-EU was found to be the leastone.Conclusion: 3D reconstructed Computed tomography scanning is a good diagnostic method for analyzing thecraniometrical measurements of sex determination. sex differentiation for isolated part of the skull when only thefragmentary crania is available, could be achieved and the highest accuracy in sex determination can be obtainedwhether part or complete skull available


Article
The Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pill on Cortical Thickness and Bone Mineral Density of The Mandibular Mental and Gonial Regions in Premenopausal Females Using Spiral Computed Tomography

Authors: Israa K. Farhood --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 37-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Prolonged use of low-dose estrogen ''20 micrograms or less" Combined oral contraceptive pill (that have estrogen and progesterone steroid hormone) had an effect on bone turnover .Bone mineral density is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk.The aim of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low dose oral contraceptive pill on the cortical thickness (in millimeter) and bone mineral density at the mandibular cortex of mental and gonial regions in Hounsfield unit(HU) using spiral computed tomography.Material and method: This prospective study was conducted on computed tomographic image of 100 women aged between (20-40) years .The collected sample includes patients attended for different diagnostic purposes to AL-Shaheed Al-Seder Teaching General Hospital of Al-Najaf AL-Ashraf from Julay, 2015 to May 2016.Data were grouped into two categories :group (1)control group (don't use combined oral contraceptive pill) (n=50);group(2)women taking low dose(20microgram) combined oral contraceptive pill for more than 2 years,(n=50).Cortical thickness measured in millimeter and Bone Mineral Density measured in Hounsfield unit both in mental foramen and gonial angle regions .Physical activity number of parity type of lactation were documented by questionnaire.Result: There was a statically significant difference; in cortical thickness p=0.037 and bone mineral density P=0.007 in mental area between the two groups ;the lowest mean in group (2)and highest mean in group(1) . After adjustment for age ,number of parity, and physical activity measurement scores ,there was a significant difference p=0.001 in mean of bone mineral density and p=0.065 for cortical thickness of gonial angle between the two groups ;the highest mean in group (1) and lowest mean in group (2).CONCLUSION: Computed tomography is a good diagnostic method to measure the value of cortical thickness and bone mineral density simultaneously in mental and gonial region of the mandible in premenopausal female using low dose combined oral contraceptive pill which have small effect on bone ;depended on the woman's age and the duration of using the pill ;that did not appear until about two years of use


Article
Computed tomographic localization of infraorbital foramen position and correlation with the age and gender of Iraqi subjects

Authors: Amaal I. Mohammed امال محمد --- Ahlam A. Fatah احلام فتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 30-35
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The Infraorbital foramen is an anatomical structure with an important location in the maxilla, position offoramen in maxillofacial area is necessary in clinical situation requiring regional nerve blocks that are performed inchildren undergoing facial surgeries to avoid injury to corresponding nerve. The aim of study was to determine theposition of the Infraorbital foramen and to correlate Infraorbital foramen position with age and gender usingcomputed tomography.Subjects, Materials, and Methods: The sample consist of prospective study for 50 Iraqi subjects (21 male and 29female) with age ranged from (5-17) years. The examination was performed on Multi – Slice Spiral Tomographyscanner in Al-Karakh General Hospital. Using sagittal and coronal sections including right and left sides and thefollowing measurements were done:1. The distance from crista galli to the midpoint of fusion of hard palate(Midline of the patient) in the coronal section.2. The distance from mid line to the infraorbital foramen, in the coronal section for both sides right and left.3. The distance from sella turcica to the infraorbital foramen, in sagittal section for both sides right and left.4. The distance from nasion to the infraorbital foramen, in coronal section for both sides right and left.Results: The partial regression coefficient for each year increase in age the linear measurements (midline-infraorbitalforamen) (nasion-infraorbital foramen) and (vertical distance from nasion meeting the horizontal line from infraorbitalforamen to midline) are expected to significantly increase after adjusting for confounding effect of gender. Frommultiple linear regression model designed in this study two mathematical formulae were derived for correlation ofinfraorbital foramen position with the age and gender:-Y1 [Linear measurement (Midline-Infraorbital foramen) mm] = 19.56 + (1.02 x gender) + (0.53x age in years).Y2 [Linear measurement (vertical distance from nasion meeting the horizontal line from Infraorbital foramen tomidline)] = 28.42 + (2.5 x gender) + (0.30 x age in years).Conclusions: Computed tomography scan information facilitates the localization of infraorbital foramen position forsuccessful access of the needle in infraorbital nerve block in children of different age and gender


Article
Radiological Evaluation of the Anatomic Characteristic of Lingual Foramina and Their Vascular Canals in the Anterior Region of the Mandible Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Fatima M. Abd Al-khuther --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal region may increase the risk ofsurgical complications during implant placement or any surgical procedure in this area. Aim of this study is theradiological evaluation of the anatomic characteristic of the lingual foramina and their vascular canals in the anterior of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography.Materials and Methods: Prospective study including 72 Iraqi subjects (31 male and 41 female) ranging from 20 to 59 years, all subjects attended Al-Sharaa dental clinic in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city, scanned with CBCT from September 2016 to February 2017. Using 3dimentional and sagittal cross section to detect lingual foramina and their vascular canals. Their presence, number, diameter, position, and orientation were established.Results: Lingual foramina in the anterior mandible were viewed in whole sample. Number of lingual canals varied from (1-5), the average diameter of the canals was 0.81 mm. The average distance from the foramina to the base of the mandible and to the alveolar crest was 13.78 mm and 16.05mm respectively. There was no significant correlation found between age and gender on all selected measurements. There was significant association of diameter of lingual foramen with the count, situation, extent and direction of lingual canal through the mandible width.Conclusion: Cone beam computed tomography is an invaluable system in diagnosis and treatment planning of surgical procedures. It help in detection of various anatomic features of mandible like presence of lingual foramen and canals in the anterior mandible


Article
Factors associated with parotid gland enlargement among poorly controlled Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Omar F. NAFEA --- Ahlam A. Fatah --- Zainab H. AL-Ghurabi --- Warda L. Sleman --- et al.
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 3 Pages: 80-82
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Microscopic examination of parotid gland reveals hypertrophy of the aciner cells sometimes two to
three times greater than normal size of PG, in cases associated with longstanding diabetes. This study was designed
to determine the effects of duration, fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin on parotid gland
enlargement among poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Subjects, Materials, and Method: This study was conducted on 36 parotid glands of 18 with type 2 DM , at age range
( 40-60) years, all of them were selected from subjects attending (Endocrine clinic for diabetic patients) in Baghdad
Teaching Hospital. , pg was measured with ultrasonography in both longitudinal and horizontal plane.
Results: the rate of enlargement of pg was higher with higher duration period of DM study sample , also the rate of
enlargement of pg was higher with higher value of HbA1c % and finally the rate of enlargement of pg was higher
with higher fasting serum glucose level among DM study group.
Conclusion: This result show that the duration is the most effective factor associated with parotid gland enlargement
among poorly controlled type 2 DM.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry
2011;23(3): 80-82).

Keywords


Article
Accuracy of spiral computed tomography in evaluation of maxillary sinus septa among dentate and edentulous Iraqi subjects (Comparative study)

Authors: Farah Abdul Salam Hadi فرح عبد السلام هادي --- Ahlam A. Fatah احلام فتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 64-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Presence of maxillary sinus septa has been known to be a complicating factor for sinus elevationprocedure and implant placement in posterior maxilla. The maxillary sinuses septa are thin walls of cortical boneinside the sinus. They vary in number, location, and height. This study aimed to discover the accuracy of SpiralComputed Tomographic Scan in evaluation the maxillary sinus septa (prevalence, location, height) in subjects withdentate, partially edentulous and completely edentulous maxilla.Material and method: This study included (267) subjects ranged from (20-70 years), (132) male and (135) femaledivided into three groups, (97) fully dentate group, (102) partially edentulous group and (68) completely edentulousgroup who admitted to Spiral Computed Tomography Scan in Al-Karkh General Hospital in Baghdad to haveComputed Tomography Scan of the brain and paranasal sinuses for different diagnostic purposes from November2012 to April 2013. The maxillary sinus septa were evaluated in the axial and sagittal views and the data weresubjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.Result: The prevalence rate of septa was 77.3% among fully dentate maxilla sample. Almost the same prevalencerate was obtained in the other two study sample (partially edentulous maxilla 77.5% and completely edentulousmaxilla 76.5%).No important or statistically significant difference in prevalence was observed between the threestudy groups. Age and gender showed no important or statistically significant difference in prevalence rate in eachstudy group, the mean septal height was slightly higher in fully dentate group (7mm) compared to partiallyedentulous maxilla group (6.2 mm) and completely edentulous maxilla group (6.5 mm). The difference in meanbetween the 3 groups however was not significant statistically. The rate of septa at floor position was significantlylowest in fully dentate maxilla group (36.1%) compared to partially edentulous maxilla group (52.1%) and completelyedentulous maxilla group (53.3%).Conclusion: Spiral Computed Tomography is a precise diagnostic tool for the examination of this zone capable forinvestigating their location and height during different maxillary sinus surgical procedures. In the posterior maxilla,regardless of type of ridge (atrophy/edentulous or non-atrophy/dentate), the anatomical variation of sinus septa isdiverse in its prevalence and location


Article
Sex Variations by Linear Measurements of Palatal Bones and Skull Base Using 3D Reconstructed Computed Tomographic Scan among Iraqi Sample

Authors: Noora A. Abdul Ameer نورا عبد الامير --- Ahlam A. Fatah احلام فتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 82-88
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The skull base and the hard palate contain many anatomical features that make them rich in information which are useful in sex differentiation; in addition to that they have the ability to resist the hardest environmental conditions that support them in making sex differentiation. Three dimensional computed tomographic techniques has important role in differentiation between sex since it offers images with very accurate data and details of all anatomical structures with high resolution. This study was made to study sex variations among Iraqi sample by craniometric linear measurements of the hard palate and the skull base using 3D reconstructed Computed Tomographic scan.Materials and methods: This study composed of 100 Iraqi subjects (50 male and 50 female) aged between 20-59 years. The sample collected from patients attending Al-Shaheed Ghazi hospital in Baghdad city to for spiral CT scanner. The craniometrical linear measurements of the hard palate and the skull base in this study were including: Maxillo-Alveolar Breadth, Maxillo-Alveolar Length, the distance between incisive foramen and greater palatine foramen (right and left), the distance between the incisor foramen and B point (the median point located at the anterior area of the magnum foramen), the distance between the incisor foramen and the anterior root of the mastoid notch on both sides (right and left), Maxillo-Alveolar Index and size of Palate. All these measurements were done by (mm) unit.Results: The statistical analysis of linear measurements of the hard palate and the skull base showed that the mean values of all measurements were significantly higher in males than females except for Maxillo-Alveolar Index was not significant and also showed that the size of the palate was the best indicator for sex variation and making the diagnosis of male with accuracy 93.3%. The age had none significant effect on these measurements.Conclusion: Three dimensional Computed Tomographic scanners is the best diagnostic tool for sex variation by the craniometrical linear measurements for the anatomical landmarks points of the hard palate and the skull base


Article
Cephalometric Study of Iraqi Adult Subjects with Cl I and Cl III Skeletal Relationships and Their Effects on Masseter Muscle Thickness by Using Ultrasonography

Authors: Hibah Ezzat Rashid Berum هبة عزت رشيد --- Ahlam A. Fatah احلام عبد الفتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 84-91
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Masseter muscle is one of the most obvious muscles of mastication and considered as one indicator ofjaw muscle activity. It has a major influence on the transverse growth of the midface and the vertical growth of themandible. This study undertaken to determine the role of cephalometric analysis for discrimination between Cl I andCl III skeletal relationships, determine the role of ultrasonography in determination of masseter muscle thickness,compare masseter muscle thickness between Cl I and Cl III skeletal relationships, and determine the effect of genderon masseter muscle thickness.Material and Method: The sample of the current study consisted of 70 Iraqi subjects 40 males and 30 females withage ranging 18-25 years. They were divided into 2 groups depending on ANB angle: class I skeletal relationship 20males and 15 females and class III skeletal relationship 20 males and 15 females. The collected sample includedpatients attended for different diagnostic purposes to the Dental Radiology Department at College ofDentistry/Babylon University, standardized lateral cephalogram was taken to determine facial morphology, sixangular and eight linear measurements were assessed. Masseter muscle thickness measured ultrasonography inAl-Hilla General Teaching Hospital/Ultrasonorgaphic Department, in relaxation and contraction conditions for bothsides.Results: Various parameters measured for males and females in each class and the comparison shown statisticallysignificant differences between them (P<0.05). No difference in muscle thickness between right and left sides in thesame class (P>0.05). Gender variation showed significant difference in masseter muscle thickness during rest andocclusion conditions (P<0.001).Conclusion: Cephalometric analysis served to demonstrate the skeletal morphologies and provide a base fordiscrimination between class I and class III skeletal relationships. Ultrasonographic scanning is an important imagingprocedure. It is reproducible and simple method for accurately measuring masseter muscle thickness. Theultrasonorgaphic study has revealed variations in masseter muscle thickness among individuals with different skeletalmorphologies in each gender on one hand and between males and females in each skeletal class on the otherhand.

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