research centers


Search results: Found 13

Listing 1 - 10 of 13 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by

Article
Forward and Reverse Osmosis Process for Recovery and Re-use of Water from Polluted Water by Phenol
عملية التناضح الامامي والعكسي لاسترجاع واعادة استخدام الماء من المياه الملوثة بالفينول

Author: Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 912-928
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims to apply the novel forward osmosis (FO) process to recover pure water from contaminated water. Phenol was used as organic substance in the feed solution, while sodium chloride salt was used as draw solution. Membranes used in the FO process is the cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polyamide (thin film composite (TFC)) membrane. Reverse osmosis process was used to treatment the draw solution, the exterior from the forward osmosis process. In the FO process the active layer of the membrane faces the feed solution and the porous support layer faces the draw solution and this will show the effect of dilutive internal concentration polarization and concentrative external concentration polarization.In the FO process was a run-time for five hours, and the concentration of phenol 100 and 1000 mg/l, and for the NaCl the concentration was 10000 and 30000 mg/l. It was found that recovery percent increases with increasing time, while water flux through membrane decreases with increasing time. Also, it was found that recovery and water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, on the contrary, water flux and the percentage of recovery decreases with increasing the concentration of phenol (feed solution). Increase in draw solute (NaCl) concentration has more effect on the water flux in FO process compared with increase in the concentration of phenol. Outlet phenol concentration increases with time, while the outlet salt concentration decreases with increasing the time. The results showed that the cellulose triacetate membrane gave the highest recovery ratio from the thin film composite membrane. The highest recovery was reached in five hours is 51.33%, while using CTA membrane recovery rate increase, by 23% compared with TFC membrane. The value of the resistance to solute diffusion within the membrane porous support layer is 36.83 h/m. Reverse osmosis is perfect method for removal of dissolved salts from water, thus its suitable process for reducing the content of NaCl in draw solution; therefore the sodium chloride rejection percentage was 91.6 – 96 % for polyamide membrane (TFC). Within two hours of work of the reverse osmosis system the recovery percentage of pure water is 58%.

يهدف البحث الى تطبيق عملية التناضح الامامي(FO) الجديدة لاسترجاع الماء النقي من المياه الملوثة. تم استخدام الفينول كمادة عضوية في محلول التغذية, بينما تم استخدام ملح كلوريد الصوديوم كمحلول سحب. الاغشية المستخدمة في عملية التناضح الامامي هي غشاء الأسيتات الثلاثي السليلوزي (CTA) وغشاء البولي امايد (البوليمر الرقيق المركب (TFC)). تم استخدام عملية التناضح العكسي لمعالجة محلول السحب الخارج من عملية التناضح العكسي. في عملية التناضح الامامي الطبقة الفعالة للغشاء تقابل محلول التغذية وطبقة الدعم المسامية تقابل محلول السحب وهذا سوف يظهر تاثير استقطاب التركيز الداخلي المخفف واستقطاب التركيز الخارجي المركز. في عملية التناضح الامامي كان وقت التشغيل لمدة خمس ساعات ، وتركيز الفينول المستخدم 100 و 1000 مغ لتر ، وبالنسبة لتركيز NaCl كان 10000 و 30000 ملغم لتر. لقد وجد بأن نسبة الاسترجاع تزداد بزيادة الزمن ، في حين تدفق الماء خلال الغشاء يتناقص مع زيادة الوقت. وكذلك, لقد وجد بان الاسترجاع وتدفق الماء يزداد بزيادة تركيز محلول السحب, وبالعكس, تدفق الماء ونسبة الاسترجاع تقل بزيادة تركيز الفينول (محلول التغذية). الزيادة في تركيز مذاب السحب (NaCl) له تأثير اكثر على معدل تدفق الماء في عملية التناضح الامامي مقارنةً بالزيادة في تركيز الفينول. تركيز الفينول الخارج يزداد مع الزمن, بينما تركيز الملح الخارج يقل بزيادة الزمن. وأظهرت النتائج أن غشاء الأسيتات الثلاثي السليلوزي أعطى أعلى نسبة استرجاع من الغشاء الرقيق المركب. اعلى نسبة مئوية للاسترجاع تم التوصل اليها في خمس ساعات هي 51,33% ,بينما استخدام غشاء CTA الاسترجاع زاد بنسبة 23% مقارنةً باستخدام غشاء TFC. قيمة المقاومة لانتشار المذاب داخل الطبقة الداعمة المسامية للغشاء هي 36،83 ساعة م. التناضح العكسي هي طريقة مثالية لأزالة الاملاح الذائبة من الماء, لهذا تعتبر عملية مناسبة لتقليل محتوى ملح كلوريد الصوديوم في محلول السحب, ولهذا النسبة المئوية لرفض كلوريد الصوديوم كانت 91,6 – 96 % لغشاء البوليمر (TFC). خلال ساعتين من عمل نظام التناضح العكسي نسبة استرجاع الماء النقي هي 58 ٪.


Article
REMOVAL OF LEAD, COPPER AND NICKEL IONS FROM WASTEWATER BY FORWARD OSMOSIS PROCESS
ازالة ايونات الرصاص، النحاس، والنيكل من المياه الملوثة بعملية التناضح الأمامي

Authors: Ahmed A. Mohammed --- Ahmed Faiq Al – Alawy --- Tamara Kawther Hussein
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 893-908
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study the application of a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) metal ions from wastewater is briefly described. Polyamide (thin film composite (TFC))used as flat sheet forward membrane for heavy metal rejection under orientation membrane of active layer facing feed solution and using NaCl of different concentration as the draw solution. The operating parameters studied were draw solutions concentration (5 - 100 g/l), feed solutions concentration (5 - 200 mg/l), pH of feed solution (4 - 8), constant pressure and temperature were maintained at 0.2 bar and 25 °C respectively. It was found that the water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, and decreases with increasing feed solution concentration and pH of feed solution. For different type of heavy metal used as feed solution, the order of water flux was Pb+2> Cu+2> Ni+2. For binary and ternary feed solution, the water flux decreased with time and increasing with the concentration of feed solution due to decreasing of driving force. Forward osmosis can be used to recover water from wastewater contaminated by heavy metals with a rejection efficiency more than 99%, 97% and 87% for Pb+2, Ni+2, and Cu+2metal ions respectively.

في هذة الدراسة تم تطبيق عملية التناضح الأمامي(FO) لازالة ايونات المعادن(الرصاص , النحاس, والنيكل) من المياه الملوثة.غشاء البولي امايد (البوليمر مركب رقيق الغشاء((TFC)استعمل على شكل صفيحة مستوية لرفض المعادن الثقيلة عندما يقابل محلول التغذية اللقيم الجهة الفعالة للغشاء الناضح واستعمال تراكيز مختلفة من محلول كلوريد الصوديوم كمحلول سحب .العوامل التشغيلية التي تم دراستها كانت : تركيز محاليل السحب (5-100غرام / لتر ), تركيز محاليل اللقيم (5-200 ملي غرام / لتر ) , درجة حامضية محلول اللقيم (4 – 8), الضغط و درجة الحرارة ثابتين عند 0.2 بار و25 مo على التوالي. لقد وجد بأن معدل تدفق الماء يزداد بزيادة تركيز محلول السحب ويقل بزيادة تركيز محلول اللقيم و زيادة درجة حامضية محلول اللقيم. لعدة أنواع من المعادن الثقيلة المستخدمة كمحاليل اللقيم كان ترتيب معدل الانتقال هو Pb+2> Cu+2> Ni+2. لمحلول اللقيم الثنائي والثلاثي كان معدل انتقال الماء يقل مع الزمن وزيادة تركيز محلول اللقيم نتيجة إلى نقصان القوة الدافعة للانتقال. التناضح الأمامي(FO) يستخدم لاسترجاع المياه من مياه الصرف الصحي الملوثة بالمعادن الثقيلة مع كفاءة رفض اكبر من 99%, 97% , و87% للـرصاص , النحاس, والنيكل على التوالي.


Article
Thermal Osmosis of Mixtures of Water and Organic Compounds through Different Membranes

Authors: Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy --- Ramy Mohamed Al – Alawy
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present work aimed to study the efficiency of thermal osmosis process for recovery of water from organic wastewater solution and study the factors affecting the performance of the osmosis cell. The driving force in the thermo osmosis cell is provided by a difference in temperature across the membrane sides between the draw and feed solution. In this research used a cellulose triacetate (CTA), as flat sheet membranes for treatment of organic wastewater under orientation membrane of active layer facing feed solution (FS) and draw solution (DS) is placed against the support layer. The organic materials were phenol, toluene, xylene and BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene) used as feed solution. The osmotic agent in draw solution was sodium chloride salt. The membranes have high rejection percentage for NaCl and organic materials. In this research, the operating conditions that have been studied are: temperature of draw and feed solution (18 – 45 °C) and the operating time of process was (0 – 3) hours. It was found that water flux in thermal osmosis process increases with increasing temperature of draw and feed solution ( by average ratio 1:2), and decreases with increasing operating time.


Article
Membranes Separation Process For Oily Wastewater Treatment
عملية الفصل بالأغشيةِ لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت

Authors: Zaid Waadulla Rashad --- Maha H. Al-Hassani --- Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy --- Hasan Ferhood Makki
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 235-251
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pilot-scale dead end microfiltration membranes were carried out to determine the feasibility of the process for treating the oily wastewater which discharge from some Iraqi factories such as power station of south of Baghdad and the general company of petrochemical industries. Polypropylene membranes (cylindrical shape) with different pore diameters (1 and 5 micron) were used to conduct the study on micromembrane process. The variables studied are oil concentration (100 – 1000 ppm), feed flow rate (20 – 40 l/h), operating temperature (31 – 50°C) and time (0 – 3 h). It was found that the flux increases with increasing feed flow rate, temperature and pore size of membrane, and decreases with increasing oil concentration and operating time. It was found also that the effect of feed oil concentration has the greatest effect on the fouling of membrane among other variables. The percent rejection of oil improved significantly with decreasing oil concentration but decreased with increasing feed temperature, pore size of membrane and operating time. Feed flow rate has slightly effect on oil rejection. The type of oil used in this work is 20W-50 gasoline and diesel engine oil.A general model of dead end filtration mode has been successfully evaluated to explain fundamental mechanisms involved in flux decline during dead end microfiltration of oily water emulsions. Analysis of the fall in flux with time for the polypropylene membrane (5 μm) indicates that intermediate and standard pore models give the best prediction for experimental behavior. Empirical correlations for the prediction of the flux and percent reject of oil were determined in this study. These equations have the correlation coefficient 98.87% and 91.49% respectively.

اغشية المايكرو فلتر ذو النهاية المسدودة بمنظومة ريادية نفذت لتحديد دراسة لعملية معالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت التي تطرح من بعض المصانع العراقية مثل محطة كهرباء جنوب بغداد والشركة العامة للصناعات البتروكيمياوية. اغشية البولي بروبلين باقطار مختلفة (1 و 5 مايكرون) تم استخدامها لاجراء الدراسة على عملية غشاء المايكرو. المتغيرات التي تم دراستها هي تركيز الزيت (100 – 1000 جزء بالمليون) , معدل الجريان (20 – 40 لتر/ساعة) , درجة حرارة التشغيل (31 – 50 م°) والزمن (0 – 3 ساعة). لقد وجد بأن معدل التدفق يزداد بزيادة معدل الجريان للقيم (المغذي) , درجة الحرارة وحجم المسام للغشاء , ويقل بزيادة تركيز الزيت وزمن التشغيل. وكذلك وجد بأن تركيز الزيت ذو تأثير اكبر على تلوث الغشاء من بين المتغيرات الاخرى. نسبة الرفض للزيت تتحسن بشكل ملحوظ بنقصان تركيز الزيت الداخل ولكن تقل بزيادة درجة حرارة اللقيم (المغذي) , حجم المسام للغشاء وزمن التشغيل. معدل جريان اللقيم (المغذي) له تأثير قليل على نسبة رفض الزيت. ان نوع الزيت المستخدم في هذا العمل هو20W-50 زيت محرك الديزل والكازولين. نموذج عام من نمط ترشيح النهاية المسدودة قُيم بنجاح لتوضيح اليات اساسية تستخدم في هبوط الجريان خلال المايكرو فلتر ذو النهاية المسدودة لمستحلبات الماء الزيتية. تحليل الهبوط في الجريان مع الزمن لغشاء البولي بروبلين (5 مايكرون) يوضح بأن نماذج المسام المتوسطة والقياسية تعطي افضل تنبؤ للسلوك التجريبي. معادلات الارتباط التجريبية لحساب الجريان ونسبة الرفض للزيت تم تحديدها في هذه الدراسة. هذه المعادلات لها معامل الارتباط 98.87% و 91.49% على التوالي


Article
Microfiltration Membranes for Separating Oil / Water Emulsion

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research was aimed to study the efficiency of microfiltration membranes for the treatment of oily wastewater and the factors affecting the performance of the microfiltration membranes experimental work were includes operating the microfiltration process using polypropylene membrane (1 micron) and ceramic membrane (0.5 micron) constructed as candle; two methods of operation were examined: dead end and cross flow. The oil emulsion was prepared using two types of oils: vegetable oil and motor oil (classic oil 20W-50). The operating parameters studied are: feed oil concentration 50 – 800 mg/l, feed flow rate 10 – 40 l/h, and temperature 30 – 50 oC, for dead end and cross flow microfiltration. It was found that water flux decreases with increasing operating time and feed oil concentration and increases with increasing operating temperature, feed flow rate and pore size of membrane. Also, it was found that rejection percentage of oil increases with increasing flow rate and rejection percentage decreases with increasing time, feed oil concentration, feed temperature and pore size of membrane for dead end and cross flow microfiltration. In cross flow microfiltration, reject concentration (concentrate) increases with increasing flow rate, feed concentration, time and feed temperature. The dead end filter has more flux compared to cross flow filter, while, in cross flow the oil rejection percentage is best than dead end. Flux for vegetable oil is more than motor oil but rejection percentage for vegetable oil is less than that for motor oil. The highest recovery ratio was found is 44.8% for cross flow process with recirculation of concentrating stream to feed vessel. The highest rejection percentage of oil was found is 98 % and 97.8 % for cross flow and dead ends respectively.


Article
Coagulation/ Flocculation, Microfiltration and Nanofiltration for Water Treatment of Main Outfall Drain for Injection in Nasiriyah Oil Field

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present work aims to study the efficiency of coagulation/ flocculation as 1st stage, natural gravity water filter or microfiltration (MF) as 2nd stage and nanofiltration (NF) technology as final stage for treatment of water of main outfall drain (MOD) for injection in Nasiriyah oil field. Effects of operating parameters such as coagulant dosage, speed and time of slow mixing step and settling time in the 1st stage were studied. Also feed turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) in the 2nd stage were studied. Also feed concentration, temperature and operating time, in the final stage were studied. The results showed that the optimum dosage for alum was 35, 40 and 50 ppm. While, for ferric chloride it was 15, 20 and 30 ppm and for polyelectrolyte 4, 8 and 10 ppm for 11.8, 30 and 100 NTU initial turbidity respectively. The optimum speed for the 2nd step was 25 rpm for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm. While the optimum time for the 2nd step was 30 min for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm and settling time was 30 min for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm. It was found that turbidity and TSS increases by increasing the inlet turbidity and TSS.Also it was found that salts concentration in product increases by increasing feed concentration and temperature. Rejection percentages were (94.475 – 95.631 %), (88.088 – 90.714 %), (83.33 – 93.2 %), (85.116 – 92.727 %) and (65.385 – 72.727 %) for sulphate, total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- respectively and recovery percentage of product water was (11.429 – 38.143 %) for polyamide membrane (TFC). In the case of concentrate recirculation, feed concentration, permeate concentration and volume of permeate increases with increasing in operating time and 12.69 liter of water valid for injection in oil field was recovered from 25 liter feed after 180 minute

Keywords


Article
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modelling of Zinc Removal by Reverse Osmosis Membranes

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study, aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes were used to remove zinc ions from electroplating wastewater. Influence of different operating conditions such as time, zinc concentration and pressure on reverse osmosis process efficiency was studied. The experimental results showed, concentration of zinc in permeate increase with increases of time from 0 to 70 min, and flux of water through membrane decline with time. While, the concentrations of zinc in permeate increase with the increase in feed zinc concentration (10–300 mg/l), flux decrease with the increment of feed concentration. The raise of pressure from 1 to 4 bar, the zinc concentration decreases and the flux increase. The highest recovery percentage was found is 54.56% for reverse osmosis element, and the highest rejection of zinc was found is 99.49%. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of zinc ion in permeate was lower than the permissible limits (i.e. ˂ 10 ppm). A mathematical model describing the process was investigated and solved by using MATLAB PROGRAM. Theoretical results were consistent with the experimental results approximately 90%.


Article
Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Treating Wastewater Effluent from Gas Turbine Power Plants using the Statistical Method of Taguchi
استخدام اغشية الترشيح الفائق و التناضح العكسي في معالجة المياه الملوثة الناتجة من محطات كهرباء العنفات الغازية باستخدام طريقة تاكوشي الاحصائية

Authors: Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy أحمد فائق العلوي --- Mohammed Kamil Al-Ameri محمد كامل العامري
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 11 Pages: 136-156
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A study on the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars), oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (5, 6, 7 and 8 bar), oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA) and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while it was temperature for RO process. It was noticed that more than 99% oil removal can be achieved and flux of 580 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was concluded that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 99% for the TDS rejection and flux of 76 L/m2.hr by RO process. The result shows fouling in RO process follows the standard pore blocking model. Process optimization was conducted with confirmation test. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics of that used as fresh water and it can be reused to the process to reduce the operation cost.

تمت دراسة مدى كفاءة اغشية الترشيح الفائق و اغشية التناضح العكسي في معالجة واعادة استخدام المياه الملوثة الناتجة من عمليات معالجة الوقود في محطات كهرباء العنفات الغازية في منظومة ريادية. تم دراسة ثلاث متغيرات تشغيلية في عمليات الترشيح الفائق, الضغط ( 0.5 , 1 , 1.5 و 2 بار), درجات الحرارة ( 15, 20, 30 و 40 درجة مئوية ) و تركيز الزيت ( 10,20,30 و 40 جزء بالمليون ) بينما تم تثبيت تركيز الاملاح المذابة عند 150 جزء بالمليون. بينما تمت دراسة اربع متغيرات تشغيلية في عملية الترشيح بالتناضح العكسي, الضغط ( 5 , 6 , 7 و 8 بار), درجات الحرارة الحرارة ( 15, 20, 30 و 40 درجة مئوية ) ,تركيز الاملاح المذابة (100, 200, 300 و400 جزء بالمليون ) و تركيز الزيت (2.5 , 5, 7.5 و 40 جزء بالمليون ).تم استخدام طريقة تاكوشي الأحصائية في عملية الترشيح بالتناضح العكسي. خلصت الدراسة الى ان الضغط هو المؤثر الرئيسي على عملية الترشيح الفائق بينما تعتبر الحرارة هي المؤثر الرئيسي في عملية الترشيح بالتناضح العكسي. تشير النتائج الى اكثر من 99% من الزيت يمكن ازالته بعملية الترشيح الفائق مع تدفق يصل الى 580 لتر/ساعة لكل متر مربع و ان عملية الترشيح تنطبق مع ميكانيكية تكوين الطبقة الهلامية. تم الاستنتاج بان عمليات التناضح العكسي قادرة على ازالة جميع الزيوت الملوثة و 99% من الاملاح مع تدفق يصل الى 76 لتر/ساعة لكل متر مربع. لوحظ بان عملية الترشيح في التناضح العكسي تتبع ميكانيكية انسداد المسامات المثالية. تم تخمين الموديل الرياضي و الظروف الامثل باستخدام طريقة تحليل المتغيرات ومن ثم اجراء تجربة اثباتية. لوحظ بان النتائج ضمن ±5% من القيم المتوقعة مما يدل على قوة الموديل الرياضي. تم الاستنتاج بان مواصفات المياه المنتجة مشابهة لمواصفات المياه المستخدمة في عمليات معالجة الوقود لذا يمكن اعادة استخدامها لتقليل الكلفة التشغيلية.


Article
Comparative Study between Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Electroplating Wastewater
دراسة مقارنة بين اغشية النانو والتناضح العكسي لإزالة المعادن الثقيلة من مياه الصرف الصحي الناتجة من الطلاء الكهربائي

Authors: Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy أحمد فائق العلوي --- Miqat Hasan Salih ميقات حسن صالح
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present work aimed to study the efficiency of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) process for water recovery from electroplating wastewater and study the factors affecting the performance of two membrane processes. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes are made from polyamide as spiral wound module. The inorganic materials ZnCl2, CuCl2.2H2O, NiCl2.6H2O and CrCl3.6H2O were used as feed solutions. The operating parameters studied were: operating time, feed concentrations for heavy metal ions, operating pressure, feed flow rate, feed temperature and feed pH. The experimental results showed, the permeate concentration increased and water flux decreased with increase in time from 0 to 70 min. The permeate concentrations increased and flux decreased with increase in feed concentrations from 10 to 300 mg/l. Raising of pressure from 1 to 4 bar, permeate concentration decreased for RO, for NF decreased and then increased at high pressure and increase the flux. The rises of flow rate from 20 to 50 l/h decreased permeate concentration and the flux increase. The rises of temperature from 26 to 40 °C, increased permeate concentration and increased the flux. The rise in pH from 4 to 7, decreased the flux as the pH goes from acidic side towards alkaline. The polyamide nanofiltration membrane had allowed permeation of chromium and copper ions to lower than permissible limits. Nanofiltration membrane had allowed permeation of nickel and zinc ions at low concentration of these ions. The polyamide RO membrane gave a high efficiency for removal of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc and it had allowed permeation of these ions to the lower than permissible limits. The rejection at first three minutes when the feed concentration approximately was constant for chromium in NF and RO, was 99.7% and 99.93%, for copper was 98.43% and 99.33%, for zinc was 97.96% and 99.49%, and for nickel was 97.18% and 99.49% respectively. The maximum recovery for chromium in NF and RO was 71.75% and 48.5%, for copper was 75.62% and 50.68%, for zinc was 80.87% and 54.56%, for nickel was 60.06% and 46.18% respectively. For a mixture of synthetic electroplating wastewater, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes have a high rejection percentage for heavy metal ions. It was obtained pure water and concentrations of less than allowable limits for heavy metals in the case of the mixture.

هذا العمل يهدف إلى دراسة كفاءة غشاء النانو وعملية التناضح العكسي لاسترجاع المياه من مياه الصرف الصحي الناتجة من الطلاء الكهربائي، ودراسة العوامل التي تؤثر في أداء الغشائين. اغشية النانو والتناضح العكسي مصنوعة من مادة البولي أميد على شكل ((spiral wound module. المواد غير العضوية كانت كلوريد الزنك، كلوريد النحاس المائي، كلوريد النيكل المائي، و كلوريد الكروم المائي استخدمت ك محلول اللقيم. العوامل التشغيلية التي تم دراستها هي: الزمن, تركيز الداخل, الضغط, التدفق, درجة الحرارة, درجة الحموضة. وأظهرت النتائج التجريبية، تركيز الناتج يزداد و تدفق المياه يقل مع زيادة الوقت (0-70 دقيقة). تركيز الناتج يزداد و تدفق المياه يقل مع زيادة تركيز الداخل (10-300) ملغ/لتر. رفع الضغط (1-4 بار)، تركيز الناتج يقل للتناضح العكسي ويقل ثم يزداد عند الضغط العالي لغشاء النانو ويزداد تدفق المياه. رفع التدفق (20-50 لتر/ساعة)، يقل تركيز الناتج ويزداد الجريان. رفع درجة الحرارة (26-40 درجة مئوية)، يزداد تركيز الناتج ويزداد الجريان. رفع درجة الحموضة (4-7)، يقل الجريان كلما يذهب الرقم الهيدروجيني من الجانب الحمضية نحو القلوية. غشاء بولي أميد NF أتاح تخلل ايونات الكروم والنحاس إلى أقل من الحدود المسموح بها. NF أتاح تخلل أيونات النيكل والزنك إلى أقل من الحدود المسموح بها عندما تتواجد بتراكيز منخفضة. غشاء بولي أميد RO يعطي كفاءة عالية لإزالة الكروم والنحاس والنيكل والزنك، وقد أتاح تخلل هذه الأيونات إلى أقل من الحدود المسموح بها. كان الرفض في ثلاث دقائق الأولى عندما كان تركيز التغذية ثابتا تقريبا للكروم في NF و RO 99.7% و 99.93%، للنحاس هو 98.43% و 99.33%، للزنك هو 97.96% و 99.49%، للنيكل 97.18% و 99.49% على التوالي. وكان الحد الأقصى لاسترداد الماء في حالة الكروم في NF و RO % و 48.5%، النحاس 75.62% و 50.68%، الزنك 80.87% و 54.56%، النيكل 60.06% و 46.18% على التوالي. لخليط من مياه الطلاء الكهربائي الاصطناعية، أغشية النانو والتناضح العكسي لديها نسبة الرفض عالية لأيونات المعادن الثقيلة. تم الحصول على مياه نقية وبتراكيز أقل من الحدود المسموح بها للمعادن الثقيلة في حالة الخليط.


Article
Treatment of Simulated Oily Wastewater by Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Processes

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A study in the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and nanofiltration (NF) membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars), oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (2, 3, 4 and 5 bar), oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA) and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while temperature and pressure have similar contribution on flux of NF process. The temperature seems to have the greatest effect on TDS rejection. It was noticed that more than 96% oil removal can be achieved with flux of 624 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was observed that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 79% for the TDS rejection and flux of 65 L/m2.hr by NF process. The result shows fouling in NF process follows the cake filtration model. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics that it can be reused in the process to reduce the operating cost.

Keywords

Taguchi --- UF --- NF --- membrane --- oily wastewater --- reuse.

Listing 1 - 10 of 13 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (13)


Language

English (12)

Arabic and English (1)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

More...