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Article
Microfiltration Membranes for Separating Oil / Water Emulsion

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Abstract

This research was aimed to study the efficiency of microfiltration membranes for the treatment of oily wastewater and the factors affecting the performance of the microfiltration membranes experimental work were includes operating the microfiltration process using polypropylene membrane (1 micron) and ceramic membrane (0.5 micron) constructed as candle; two methods of operation were examined: dead end and cross flow. The oil emulsion was prepared using two types of oils: vegetable oil and motor oil (classic oil 20W-50). The operating parameters studied are: feed oil concentration 50 – 800 mg/l, feed flow rate 10 – 40 l/h, and temperature 30 – 50 oC, for dead end and cross flow microfiltration. It was found that water flux decreases with increasing operating time and feed oil concentration and increases with increasing operating temperature, feed flow rate and pore size of membrane. Also, it was found that rejection percentage of oil increases with increasing flow rate and rejection percentage decreases with increasing time, feed oil concentration, feed temperature and pore size of membrane for dead end and cross flow microfiltration. In cross flow microfiltration, reject concentration (concentrate) increases with increasing flow rate, feed concentration, time and feed temperature. The dead end filter has more flux compared to cross flow filter, while, in cross flow the oil rejection percentage is best than dead end. Flux for vegetable oil is more than motor oil but rejection percentage for vegetable oil is less than that for motor oil. The highest recovery ratio was found is 44.8% for cross flow process with recirculation of concentrating stream to feed vessel. The highest rejection percentage of oil was found is 98 % and 97.8 % for cross flow and dead ends respectively.


Article
Coagulation/ Flocculation, Microfiltration and Nanofiltration for Water Treatment of Main Outfall Drain for Injection in Nasiriyah Oil Field

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Abstract

The present work aims to study the efficiency of coagulation/ flocculation as 1st stage, natural gravity water filter or microfiltration (MF) as 2nd stage and nanofiltration (NF) technology as final stage for treatment of water of main outfall drain (MOD) for injection in Nasiriyah oil field. Effects of operating parameters such as coagulant dosage, speed and time of slow mixing step and settling time in the 1st stage were studied. Also feed turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) in the 2nd stage were studied. Also feed concentration, temperature and operating time, in the final stage were studied. The results showed that the optimum dosage for alum was 35, 40 and 50 ppm. While, for ferric chloride it was 15, 20 and 30 ppm and for polyelectrolyte 4, 8 and 10 ppm for 11.8, 30 and 100 NTU initial turbidity respectively. The optimum speed for the 2nd step was 25 rpm for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm. While the optimum time for the 2nd step was 30 min for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm and settling time was 30 min for each of alum 35 ppm, ferric chloride 15 ppm and polyelectrolyte 4 ppm. It was found that turbidity and TSS increases by increasing the inlet turbidity and TSS.Also it was found that salts concentration in product increases by increasing feed concentration and temperature. Rejection percentages were (94.475 – 95.631 %), (88.088 – 90.714 %), (83.33 – 93.2 %), (85.116 – 92.727 %) and (65.385 – 72.727 %) for sulphate, total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- respectively and recovery percentage of product water was (11.429 – 38.143 %) for polyamide membrane (TFC). In the case of concentrate recirculation, feed concentration, permeate concentration and volume of permeate increases with increasing in operating time and 12.69 liter of water valid for injection in oil field was recovered from 25 liter feed after 180 minute

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Article
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modelling of Zinc Removal by Reverse Osmosis Membranes

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Abstract

In this study, aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes were used to remove zinc ions from electroplating wastewater. Influence of different operating conditions such as time, zinc concentration and pressure on reverse osmosis process efficiency was studied. The experimental results showed, concentration of zinc in permeate increase with increases of time from 0 to 70 min, and flux of water through membrane decline with time. While, the concentrations of zinc in permeate increase with the increase in feed zinc concentration (10–300 mg/l), flux decrease with the increment of feed concentration. The raise of pressure from 1 to 4 bar, the zinc concentration decreases and the flux increase. The highest recovery percentage was found is 54.56% for reverse osmosis element, and the highest rejection of zinc was found is 99.49%. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of zinc ion in permeate was lower than the permissible limits (i.e. ˂ 10 ppm). A mathematical model describing the process was investigated and solved by using MATLAB PROGRAM. Theoretical results were consistent with the experimental results approximately 90%.


Article
Treatment of Simulated Oily Wastewater by Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Processes

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Abstract

A study in the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and nanofiltration (NF) membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars), oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (2, 3, 4 and 5 bar), oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA) and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while temperature and pressure have similar contribution on flux of NF process. The temperature seems to have the greatest effect on TDS rejection. It was noticed that more than 96% oil removal can be achieved with flux of 624 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was observed that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 79% for the TDS rejection and flux of 65 L/m2.hr by NF process. The result shows fouling in NF process follows the cake filtration model. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics that it can be reused in the process to reduce the operating cost.

Keywords

Taguchi --- UF --- NF --- membrane --- oily wastewater --- reuse.


Article
Reduction of Concentrating Poisonous Metallic Radicals from Industrial Wastewater by Forward and Reverse Osmosis
اختزال تركيز جذور المعادن السامة من مخلفات المياه الصناعية بواسطة التنافذ الأمامي والتنافذ العكسي

Authors: G. A. R. Rassoul غياث عبد الرضا رسول --- Ahmed Faiq Al – Alawy احمد فائق --- Woodyian Nahedth Khudair وديان ناهض خضير
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 7 Pages: 784-798
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The research aims to use a new technology for industrial water concentrating that contains poisonous metals and recovery quantities from pure water.Therefore, the technology investigated is the forward osmosis process (FO). It is a new process that use membranes available commercial and this process distinguishes by its low cost compared to other process. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was used as draw solution to extract water from poisonous metals solution. The driving force in the FO process is provided by a different in osmotic pressure (concentration) across the membrane between the draw and poisonous metals solution sides. Experimental work was divided into three parts. The first part includes operating the forward osmosis process using TFC membrane as flat sheet for NaCl. The operating parameters studied were: draw solutions concentration (10 – 95 g/l), draw solution flow rate (12-36 I/h), temperature of draw solution (30 and 40°C), feed solution concentration (10 -210 mg/l), feed solution flow rate (10 -50 l/h), temperature of feed solution (30 and 40°C) and Pressure (0.4 bar). The second part includes operating the forward osmosis process using CTA membrane as flat sheet for NaCl. The operating parameters studied were: draw solution concentration (15 – 95 g/l), feed solution concentration (10-210 mg/l). Constant temperature was maintained at 30°C. The last part includes operating the reverse osmosis process using TFC membrane as spiral wound module in order to separate NaCl salt from draw solution and obtain on pure water so as to usefully in different uses and also obtain on solution of NaCl concentrate which was recirculated to forward osmosis process. It is then used as draw solution. The operating parameter studied was: feed solution flow rate (15-55 l/h).The experimental results show that the water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, feed solution flow rate, temperature of draw solution and decreases with increasing feed solution concentration, draw solution flow rate and temperature of feed solution. The experiments also show that CTA membrane gives higher water flux than TFC membrane for forward osmosis operation.

يهدف البحث لاستخدام تكنولوجيا جديدة لتركيز المياه الصناعية الحاوية على المعادن السامة واسترجاع كميات من المياه النقية . لذلك تمت دراسة عملية التنافذ الأمامي وهي طريقة جديدة تستخدم الأغشية المتوفرة تجارياً وتمتاز هذه العملية بكلفتها القليلة مقارنة بالطرق الأخرى . تم استخدام كلوريد الصوديوم (NaCl) كمحلول سحب لنزع الماء النقي من محاليل المعادن السامة . القوة الدافعة في عملية التنافذ الأمامي ناتجة من فرق الضغط التنافذي (التركيز) على جانبي الغشاء بين محلول السحب ومحلول المعادن السامة . تم تقسيم الجزء العملي إلى ثلاث أقسام : يضم القسم الأول تشغيل عملية التنافذ الأمامي باستخدام غشاء TFC على شكل صفيحة مستوية لمحلول سحب كلوريد الصوديوم. الظروف التشغيلية التي تم دراستها : تركيز محلول السحب (15-95 g/l) ، معدل الجريان لمحلول السحب (12-36 l/h) ، درجـة حرارة محلـول السحب (30 , 40°C) ، تركيز محلول اللقيم (10-210 mg/l) ، معدل الجريان لمحلول اللقيم (10-50 l/h)، ودرجة حرارة محلول اللقيم (30 , 40 °C) . الضغط (0.4 bar). القسم الثاني يضم تشغيل منظومة التنافذ الأمامي باستخدام غشاء نوع CTA على شكل صفيحة مستوية لمحلول السحب كلوريد الصوديوم . وكان تركيز محلول السحب (15-95 g/l) ، وتركيز محلول اللقيم ( 10-210 mg/ l) . درجة الحرارة ثابتة عند 30°C . القسم الثالث تضمن تشغيل منظومة التنافذ العكسي باستخدام غشاء نوع TFC على شكل وحدة حلزونية لفصل ملح الـNaCl من محلول السحب والحصول على مياه نقية يمكن الاستفادة منه في العديد من الاستخدامات وكذلك الحصول على محلول NaCl مركز يتم استرجاعه إلى منظومة التنافذ الأمامي واستخدامه من جديد كمحلول سحب . وكان الظرف التشغيلي الذي تم دراسته : معدل الجريان لمحلول اللقيم (15-55l/h). أظهرت نتائج البحث ان معدل تدفق الماء يزداد بزيادة تركيز محلول السحب ومعدل الجريان لمحلول اللقيم ودرجة حرارة محلول السحب والقوة الدافعة ويقل بزيادة تركيز محلول اللقيم ومعدل الجريان لمحلول السحب وزيادة درجة حرارة محلول اللقيم وكذلك أظهرت النتائج ان أغشية CTA تعطي معدل تدفق ماء أعلى من أغشية TFC في عمليات التنافذ الأمامي .


Article
USING ALUMINUM REFUSE AS A COAGULANT IN THE COAGULATION AND FLIOCCULATION PROCESSES

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Abstract

The present work aims to study the efficiency of using aluminum refuse, which is available locally (after dissolving it in sodium hydroxide), with different coagulants like alum [Al2 (SO4)3.18H2O], Ferric chloride FeCl3 and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) to improve the quality of water. The results showed that using this coagulant in the flocculation process gave high results in the removal of turbidity as well as improving the quality of water by precipitating a great deal of ions causing hardness. From the experimental results of the Jar test, the optimum alum dosages are (25, 50 and 70 ppm), ferric chloride dosages are (15, 40 and 60 ppm) and polyaluminum chloride dosages were (10, 35 and 55 ppm) for initial water turbidity (100, 500 and 1000 NTU) respectively. While, adding sodium aluminate with the coagulants (Alum, FeCl3 and PACl), the optimum dose of 50 ppm was enough for the reduction of turbidity and hardness of water.

يهدف البحث الى دراسة كفاءة استخدام نفايات الالمنيوم, المتوفرة محلياً (بعد اذابتها في محلول هيدروكسيد الصوديوم), مع مخثرات مختلفة مثل الشب [Al2(SO4)3.18H2O], كلوريد الحديديك FeCl3 و بولي المنيوم كلوريد (PACl) لتحسين نوعية الماء. النتائج اوضحت بأن استعمال هذا المخثر في عملية التلبيد اعطى نتائج عالية الى ازالة العكورة بالاضافة الى تحسين نوعية الماء بترسيب الكثير من الايونات التي تسبب عسرة الماء. لقد وجد من النتائج العملية لفحص الجرة, ان الجرعة الامثل للشب هي (25, 50 و 70 جزء بالمليون), الجرعة الامثل لكلوريد الحديد هي (15, 40 و 60 جزء بالمليون) والجرعة الامثل لبولي المنيوم كلوريد هي (10, 35 و 55 جزء بالمليون) لعكورة الماء (100, 500 و1000 وحدة كدرة) على التوالي. بينما, عند اضافة الومينات الصوديوم مع المخثرات (الشب, كلوريد الحديد و بولي المنيوم كلوريد) كانت افضل جرعة 50 جزء بالمليون لتقليل العكورة وعسرة للماء.

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