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Article
Normal Iraqi values of overjet and overbite

Author: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-83
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Knowing the normal range of values helps us define the abnormal range.
Material and Method: This study involved six governorates (cities and environs) in Iraq selected to cover the whole country geographically (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). The sample consisted of 6957 intermediate school students aged 13 years with no previous history of orthodontic treatment. An intra-oral clinical examination was used to assess their overjet and overbite.
Results: More than two thirds of the sample (67.8%) had an overjet of 2mm to 4mm and three quarters of the sample (75.3%) had an overbite of 1mm to 3mm and when overjet and overbite values were cross-tabulated, 54.7% of the sample had an overjet of 2-4mm and an overbite of 1-3mm suggesting their normal values.
Conclusion: For Iraqi 13 early teen-agers the normal overjet is 2-4mm and overbite is 1-3mm
Key words: Overjet, overbite, Iraq (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1): 80-83).

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Article
Comparison of the forces generated by steel, nickel titanium and elastomeric separators

Author: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-86
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study compared stainless steel spring, NiTi spring, and elastomeric ring separators for their initial force of separation and after a tooth separation of up to 0.8mm.
Materials and Methods: The five types of separators used were TP spring, Truflex springs, NiTi springs (Ortho Technology), Dentalastics (Dentaurum), Alastik (3M Unitek) separators. The testing apparatus consisted of a framework holding two acrylic teeth in contact; the upper tooth attached to a calibrated micrometer that controls the amount of separation between the teeth by fractions of a millimeter and the lower tooth attached to an electronic balance that registers the force of separation after inserting a separator between the two teeth. After registering the initial force of separation, the micrometer was adjusted so that the contact area was opened up to 0.8mm in increments of 0.1mm and the separating force was measured.
Results: Dentalastics exerted the highest force levels and NiTi springs showed the lowest force values; while Alastik, Truflex and TP separators were in the middle. When the teeth where separated incrementally 0.1mm at a time, Truflex and NiTi springs showed a gradual drop in the separation force, both elastomeric separators showed a steep drop from their high initial forces to a relatively high remaining force at 0.8mm separation, while TP springs gave the steepest drop that fell below 50 grams at 0.3-0.5mm separation.
Conclusions: Truflex springs gave moderate initial separation forces that remained effective even at 0.8mm separation.
Keywords: NiTi separators, TP springs, elastomeric separators. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(1):78-86).

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Article
Effect of arch wire ligation on shear bond strength of metal brackets

Authors: Haitham A. Mohammed --- Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2007 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-87
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study evaluated the effect of ligating different arch wires on the amount of force needed to debond a bracket and the effect that has on the bond strength of the adjacent brackets.
Materials and methods: Sets of 5 human maxillary first premolar teeth where attached together by acrylic resin and bonded to .022 slot brackets. The sets where randomly split into five groups. Four test groups were characterized by ligating the 5 brackets by an arch wire (SS .019x.025, SS .021x.025, NiTi .019x.025, and NiTi .021x.025). A fifth group served as control having no ligated arch wire during debonding. The brackets were debonded by a debonding pliers attached to an Instron Universal testing machine. After debonding the middle bracket, the arch wire was removed and the adjacent and terminal brackets were debonded. Then the teeth were examined with enhanced digital images to evaluate the site of failure according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI).
Results: Compared to control, the bond strength of the middle brackets in all the test groups was significantly increased and the adjacent brackets significantly decreased. Higher bond strengths of the middle brackets were associated with the use of SS and .021x.025 arch wires rather than NiTi and .019x.025 arch wires, respectively. The most common type of failure was between the bracket and the adhesive. Enamel cracks were found less frequently in the test groups than in control.
Conclusions: It is advised to start debonding from one side of the arch to the other rather than starting in the middle of the arch to have an adjacent bracket from one side only.
Keywords: Bond strength, arch wire ligation (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2007; 19(1): 81-87).

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Article
Orthodontic treatment need of Kurdish teenagers

Authors: Tara Ali Rasheed --- Akram F. Al-Huwaizi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 78-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This oral health survey aimed to determine the orthodontic treatment need in Sulaimania governorate in relation to gender and residency.
Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 998 Kurdish intermediate school students aged 13 years collected from Sulaimania city and five surrounding small villages. A clinical examination was used to determine the orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI).
Results: The registered DAI scores ranged between 13 and 65 with a mean of 25.43, according to these scores, 58.6% of the sample were found to have no or slight treatment need, 18.5% with treatment elective, 12.5% with treatment highly desirable, and 10.3% with very severe (handicapping) malocclusion and treatment mandatory. Highly desirable or mandatory treatment need (DAI≥31) was found similarly in males (23.2%) and females (22.6%), but noticeably more in rurals (25.1%) than in urban (20.6%).
Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion in Kurds is similar to that of Arabs.
Keywords: Angle classification, molar relation, overjet, overbite, Kurdish (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(3)78-84).

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Article
Open bite in Iraq (A national survey)

Author: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 81-85
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Backgroung: Open bite is a common malocclusion affecting children and adults.Materials and method: About seven thousand 13 year olds with no history of orthodontic treatment were selected from six governorates (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). An intra-oral clinical examination was used to examine anterior and posterior open bite.Results: Anterior open bite (-4 to -1mm) was found in 2.2% and posterior open bite was found in 1.5% of the sample (0.83% unilateral and 0.63% bilateral) both being more prevalent among females.

Keywords

Open bite --- prevalence --- adolescent


Article
Normal Iraqi values of overjet and overbite

Author: Akram F. Al-Huwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 90-93
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Knowing the normal range of values helps us define the abnormal range.Material and Method: This study involved six governorates (cities and environs) in Iraq selected to cover the whole country geographically (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). The sample consisted of 6957 intermediate school students aged 13 years with no previous history of orthodontic treatment. An intra-oral clinical examination was used to assess their overjet and overbite.Results: More than two thirds of the sample (67.8%) had an overjet of 2mm to 4mm and three quarters of the sample (75.3%) had an overbite of 1mm to 3mm and when overjet and overbite values were cross-tabulated, 54.7% of the sample had an overjet of 2-4mm and an overbite of 1-3mm suggesting their normal values.Conclusion: For Iraqi 13 earl teen-agers the normal overjet is 2-4mm and overbite is 1-3mm

Keywords

Overbite --- overjet


Article
Soft tissue impingement and lip form in Iraqi teenagers

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Abstract

Background: Soft tissue impingement and lip form have often been overlooked in previous epidemiological surveys.Materials and Methods: About seven thousand 13 year olds with no history of orthodontic treatment were selected from six governorates (Baghdad the capital, Ninevah, Basrah, Diyala, Anbar and Najaf). An intra-oral clinical examination was used to assess traumatic overbite causing soft tissue impingement and the lip form of each student.Results: Soft tissue impingement was found in 2.7% (2.5% palatally and 0.2% labially). Normal lip form was found in 80.7%, contracting lip form in 14.7% and lip trap in 4.6% of the sample. All the previous were non-significantly related to gender and residency.Conclusion: Iraqi children present a much mre favorable lip form than Western children

Keywords

Soft tissue --- impingement --- lip form

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