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Article
Diseases of Salivary Glands: Review

Author: Alhan D Al-Moula
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2010 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 214-230
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The oral cavity is a moist environment, a film of fluid called saliva constantly coats its inner surfaces and occupies the space between the lining oral mucosa and the teeth. Saliva is a complex fluid, pro-duced by the salivary glands, whose important role is maintaining the wellbeing of the mouth. Patients with a deficiency of salivary secretion experience difficulty eating, speaking, swallowing as well as become prone to mucosal infections and rampant caries. In human there are three pairs of major encap-sulated salivary glands – (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual). Located outside the oral cavity, with extended duct systems to discharge their secretion. There are also a multitude of smaller minor unen-capsulated salivary glands. (labial, lingual, palatal, buccal, glossopalatine and retromolar). Located just below and within the mucous membranes, characterized by short duct systems. Secretion of each major salivary gland is not the same, the parotid glands secrete a rich amylase (watery serous saliva), whereas the submandibular gland produces mucinous saliva, and the sublingual gland produces viscous saliva. Because of these variations, saliva found in the mouth is referred to as mixed secretions, as many pro-teins are rapidly removed as they adhere to hydroxyl apatite of teeth and to the oral mucosal surfaces. Diseases of the salivary glands usually bring about changes in the rate of salivary secretion and compo-sition. These changes have a secondary effect in that they lead to the formation of a plaque and calcu-lus, which in turn has a direct bearing on the initiation of caries and periodontal disease. In addition to it, effect in the healthy condition of oral mucosal surfaces. There are many systemic conditions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis) affect salivary flows, a patient complaining of dry mouth must be thoroughly investigated. These diseases may become severe after therapeutic irradiation in and around the mouth. The salivary gland become less active with age while is problematic, because such a great variation exists in the secretion of saliva, but no longitudinal studies have thus far been reported. Even so, histo-logical changes associated with age have been reported within the salivary glands. Fatty degenerative changes, fibrosis and the progressive accumulation of lymphocytes in the salivary glands are thought to occur. Oncocytes – epithelial cells that can be identified by there marked granularity and acidophilia under the light microscope, are thought to represent as age change, although their significance has not been established, beside accumulation of structurally altered mitochondria. Oncocytes are found in acini intercalated and striated ducts of salivary glands and which may give rise to neoplasms. The aim of this review is to provide athorough knowledge of anatomy, embryology and pathophysiology in ne-cessary to treat patient appropriately. Examines the cause, diagnostic methodology, radiographic evalu-ation and management of a variety of salivary gland.

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Article
Histological Study on the Effect of Methotrexate on the Oral Tissues of Aadult Male Rabbits

Authors: Alhan D Al-Moula --- Mareb H Ahmed --- Makarem H Ahmed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 432-441
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of oral methotrexate on the oral tissues of rabbits. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine adults' male rabbits, aged 3 months were used, and divided into three main groups. Group 1: served as a control and received normal saline only. Group II: given a single dose of 0.5mg/kg per week methotrexate orally by cavage needle for 8 weeks. Group III: given 0.5mg/kg of methotrexate orally twice/weekly for 8 weeks. The animals were scarified and the floor of the mouth, check and tongue, were excised and processed for histological study. Results: The epithelium of oral mucosa in the treated groups is thinner than that of the control group with vacuolation in the cytoplasm, fewer and shorter slender papillae ,congestion of the blood vessels in the lamina propria , fatty infiltration and distortion of attachments of mucosa to underlying muscle .The minor salivary glands show loss of normal architecture ,inflammatory cellular infiltration, disarrangements of acini, and vacuolation in the acinar cells .The dorsal surface of the tongue showed an epithelial atrophy, with loss of the lingual papillae . The lamina propria showed short papillae, inflammatory cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels, as well as considerable distortion of arrangements in the musculature of the tongue. Conclusion: weekly administrations of methotrexate produce dramatize histological changes in the oral tissues.

Keywords

Methotrexate --- oral mucosa --- rabbits.


Article
Effects of 6– Mercaptopurine on Salivary Glands in Rabbit

Authors: Alhan D Al–Moula --- Fayhaa A Al-Mashhadane --- Jawna’a K Mammdoh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 266-273
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To study the effect of 6 – Mercaptopurine on salivary glands of rabbits. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 6 young rabbits of both sexes, aged 2 – 3 months, and weighing 1.250-1.350 Kg. They were divided into control group (4 rabbits) which received no any treatment, and treatment group (4 rabbits) that were treated by 6 –MP in dose of 9 mg/Kg for duration of 2 weeks,the drug was administered orally by cavage needle. All animals were dissected and salivary glands (parotid and submandibular glands) were removed from right and left sides, then slides were made and morphometric analysis were made using filar micrometer, a photographs were done and t –test analysis was used to compare two groups. Results: There was loss of architecture of both parotid and submandibular salivary glands with disarrangement of acini. Acinar cells become smaller in diameter that was associated with increase in the interstitial spaces. There was atrophy and shrinkage of striated ducts and all these changes were significant compared to control group except that for parotid gland which showed no significant differences in height of intercalated duct cells compared to control group. Conclusions: Daily administrations of 6 MP for rabbits produced severe degenerative changes in the salivary glands.

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