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Article
Some Immunological Evaluations of Propolis in Albino Male Mice

Author: Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 121-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Propolis is a complex resinous bee product that has a wide range of biological activities. In thepresent investigation, two oral doses (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) of propolis (ethanol extract) wereevaluated immunologically in albino male mice (80 animals) through three types of experiments. Inthe first, the propolis was tested alone, while in the second and third experiments, propolis was givenbefore and after the immune suppressive drug MMC (pre- and posttreatments, respectively). The three experiments were paralleled with three negative controls, inwhich the propolis was replaced with distilled water. In the first experiment, the dose 10 mg/kg ofpropolis enhanced the parameters investigated, and a significant increase was observed in the totalcount of leucocytes (10.7 vs. 7.8 x 103 cells/cu.mm.blood), lymphocytes (7.0 vs. 5.3 x 103cells/cu.mm.blood), neutrophils (2.9 vs. 2.1 x 103 cells/cu.mm.blood), monocytes(0.5 vs. 0.3 x 103 cells/cu.mm.blood) and eosinophils (0.3 vs. 0.1 x 103 cells/cu.mm. blood), PI (15.2vs. 10.8%), PFC (72 vs. 38%), AR (0.84 vs. 0.57 mm) and DTH (0.68 vs. 0.40) as compared tonegative controls. Much more enhancements were observed in the dose 20 mg/kg. In the second andthird experiments, a similar picture was drawn in the interaction of propolis (pre- and posttreatments)with MMC, in which the propolis extract was able to modulate the immune suppressiveeffect of MMC, and this was dependent on the type of treatment and dose, and again, the dose 20mg/kg was more effective in this respect.Key words and Abbreviations: Arthus reaction (AR), Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH),Mitomycin C (MMC), Phagocytic index (PI),Plaque forming cells (PFC), Propolis and Sheep red blood cells (SRBC).


Article
DISTRIBUTION OF HLA POLYMORPHISM IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI ARABS IN COMPARISON WITH THREE ARAB GULF POPULATIONS
توزيع تعدد الأشكال الوراثي لمستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية (HLA) في عينة من العراقيين العرب وبالمقارنة مع ثلاث مجاميع سكانية خليجية

Author: Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2009 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The HLA-class I (A and B) and -class II (DR and DQ) alleles were investigated in 145 (72 males and 73 females) unrelated Iraqi Arabs, and their percentage frequencies were compared with the corresponding frequencies in three populations of the Arabian Gulf region (Kuwaitis, Saudis and Omanis). At HLA-A locus, the distribution of the alleles showed no significant difference, while alleles of HLA-B, -DR and -DQ loci showed a significant different distribution in the four populations, especially, B and DR loci. These findings point to differences in the origins of these four distinct Arabic-speaking communities, brought about possibly by an evolutionary recent admixture of the original inhabitants with neighboring and distant populations, although a common ancestor is clear and a later divergence had occurred during evolution.

درست أليلات نظام مستضدات خلايا الدم البيض البشرية من الصنف الأول (A و B) والصنف الثاني (DR و DQ) في 145 (72 ذكور و 75 إناث) من العراقيين العرب، وقورنت نسبها المئوية مع نظائرها في ثلاث مجاميع سكانية خليجية (كويتيين وسعوديين وعمانيين). لم تظهر تكرارات الأليلات في الموقع A فروقا معنوية بين المجاميع السكانية المدروسة، إلا أن أليلات المواقع B و DR و DQ قد اختلفت معنويا بين هذه المجاميع وبالأخص B و DR. تبين هذه النتائج الاختلافات الأصولية لهذه المجاميع التي تتكلم اللغة العربية والناتجة من مزج تطوري حديث للسكان الأصليين مع مجاميع سكانية مجاورة وأخرى بعيدة، بالرغم من وجود أصل مشترك ومن ثم حصل انحراف خلال التطور.

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Article
HLA Class I and Class II Polymorphisms and Anti-nuclear Antibodies in Hyperprolactinaemic Iraqi Females with Primary Infertility

Author: Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 475-479
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The study was conducted to investigate the association between hyperprolactinaemia and markers of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system in a sample of Iraqi infertile females, together with the profile anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). Objectives: One hundred and seventy five female patients (age range: 20 -40 years) were recruited in this study. They were attending the Institute for Embryo Research and Infertility Treatment (Al-Nahrain University) during the period January 2005 - September 2006. Results:After clinical and laboratry evaluations, it was found that 100 patients were hyperprolactinaemic, whereas the other 75 patients were euprolactinaemic, therefore, they were considered as a control group. Based on serum level of prolactin (22-29, 30-39 and ≥ 40 ng/ml), the total hyperprolactinaemic patients were divided into three groups; I (35 patients), II (40 patients) and III (25 patients), respectively. The HLA antigens showed significant variations between patients (total and groups) and controls. In total patients, B8 (25.0 vs. 9.3%), DR3 (48.0 vs. 17.3%) and DR4 (39.0 vs. 13.3%) showed significant increased frequencies, while B35 showed a significant decreased frequency (7.0 vs. 24%). The latter decrease was also observed (5.7 vs. 24.0%) in group I of patients, which also showed a significant increased frequency of DR3 (54.3 vs. 17.3%). In groups II and III of patients, only DR3 (45.0 and 56.0, respectively vs. 17.3%) and DR4 (37.5 and 56.0, respectively vs. 13.3%) showed significant increased frequencies. Autoantibody evaluation by ANA test revealed that 22% of the total patients was positive, while all control subjects were negative, and such positivity paralleled the increased level of serum prolactin.


Article
IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVELS IN SERUM AND CERVICOVAGINAL SECRETIONS OF PATIENTS INFECTED WITH TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS

Authors: Ekhlas Mushrif --- Azhar Hatif Al-Kuraishi --- Ali H. Ad´hiah
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 147-151
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is one of the most commonsexually transmitted parasites in the world, accounting for approximately 170 millioninfections annually. Although the factor behinds such incidence is still not clear,local and systemic host immune response is involved.Objectives: Accordingly, the present research was planned to determine the level ofimmunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) in sera and vaginal washes of women infectedwith T. vaginalis.Materials and Methods: Fifteen women infected with T. vaginalis (culture confirmed) and15 healthy females were inspected for total level of IgA, IgG and IgM in their seraand vaginal washes by means of single radial immunodiffusion.Results: The total level of IgA, IgG and IgM in serum and vaginal wash of patients and controlsshowed no significant difference, with the exception of IgG, which showed asignificant increased mean in the sera of patients.Conclusion: Humoral immune response is important in controlling T. vaginalis, with a specialreference to IgG

خلفية: داء المشعرات المهبلية الذي يسببه طفيلي المشعراتوهو من Trichomonas vaginalis المهبليةأحد الطفيليات التي تنتقل جنسيا في العالم والذييتسبب في اصابة ما يقارب 170 مليون شخضسنوياً وعلى الرغم من أن العوامل التي تقف خلفحدوث هذا المرض ما زالت غير واضحة الا انالاستجابة المناعية الموضعية و العامة تدخل ضمنهذه العوامل .الهدف: وفقا لذلك فان هذا البحث خطط لمعرفة مستوىفي IgM و IgG و IgA الكلوبيولينات المناعيةمصول و الغسول المهبلية لنساء مصاباتبالمشعرات المهبلية.و IgA طرائق العمل: قيس مستوى الكلوبيولينات المناعيةفي مصول و الغسول المهبلية IgM و IgGلخمسة عشر امرأة مصابة بالمشعرات المهبلية(مؤكدة بتنمية الطفيلي) و خمسة عشر امرأة سليمةبواسطة اختبار الانتشار المناعي المنفرد.IgG و IgA النتائج: اظهر مستوى الكلوبيولينات المناعيةفي مصول و الغسول المهبلية للمصابات IgM وفي المصل IgG دلالة غير نوعية ما عدا مستوىو الذي اظهر دلالة نوعية .الأستنتاج: أن الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية لها اهمية في. IgGً السيطرة على المشعرات المهبلية خصوص


Article
Distribution of ABO Blood Groups in Iraqi Samples of Leukemia and Lymphomas
توزيع مجاميع الدم (ABO) في عينات عراقية من ابيضاض الدم واللمفوما

Authors: Ekhlass N. Ali إخلاص نوري علي --- Ali H. Ad’hiah علي حسين أدحيه
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Cancer and Medical Genetics المجلة العراقية للسرطان والوراثة الطبية ISSN: 20786123 Year: 2012 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-21
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The records of Hematological Diseases Unit at Baghdad Teaching Hospitals and National Center for Research and Treatment of Hematological Diseases (Al-Mustansiryiah University) were inspected for leukemia and lymphoma patients who were diagnosed and treated during the period 2008-2010, and their ABO blood groups were also obtained. The patients were distributed as 281 ALL, 128 CLL, 192 AML, 208 CML, 114 HDL (Hodgkin’s lymphoma) and 197 NHL (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma). In addition, 595 blood donors were also included and considered as controls. Testing the goodness of fit for ABO blood group allele and phenotype frequencies showed a good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls and in ALL, CLL and HDL patients. In contrast, a significant corrected deviation was observed in CML (Pc = 0.04) and NHL (Pc = 2.3 x 10-6) patients. A further group of patients (CLL) also showed a significant deviation from HWE, but the difference was significant before correction (P = 0.05; Pc = 0.20). A further analysis of ABO blood group alleles revealed that their estimated numbers and frequencies varied between patients and controls, but a significant difference was recorded in CLL, CML and NHL patients. The allele I*A was significantly decreased in CLL (32.0 vs. 41.5%) and CML (28.8 vs. 41.5%) patients as compared with controls, but a corrected significant level was only observed in CML patients (Pc = 0.003). In NHL patients, the allele I*B was significantly decreased and the difference remain significant after correction (25.9 vs. 34.1; Pc = 0.03). These findings suggest a role of blood group phenotypes and alleles in the etiology of hematological malignancies.

تم التحري من سجلات وحدة أمراض الدم في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي والمركز الوطني لبحوث وعلاج أمراض الدم (الجامعة المستنصرية) عن مرضى ابيضاض الدم واللمفوما والذين تم تشخيصهم وعلاجهم للفترة 2008-2010، كما تم الحصول على الطرز المظهرية لمجاميع الدم (ABO) لهؤلاء المرضى. توزع المرضى كالآتي: 281 ابيضاض الدم اللمفي الحاد (ALL) و128 ابيضاض الدم اللمفي المزمن (CLL) و192 ابيضاض الدم النقياني الحاد (AML) و208 ابيضاض الدم النقياني المزمن (CML) و114 هوجكن لمفوما (HDL) و197 لاهوجكن لمفوما (NHL)، وفضلا عن ذلك فقد شملت الدراسة 595 شخصا من متبرعي الدم وعدوا كسيطرة. أظهر اختبار Goodness of Fit للطرز المظهرية وأليلات مجاميع الدم تطابقا مع توازن هاردي واينبرغ في السيطرة ومرضى ALL وCLL وHDL، وعلى العكس من ذلك فقد لوحظ أن هنالك انحرافا معنويا مصححا في مرضى CML (Pc = 0.04) وNHL (Pc = 2.3 x 10-6). كما أظهر مرضى CLL انحرافا معنويا عن توازن هاردي وينبرغ ولكن كان الاختلاف معنويا قبل التصحيح (P = 0.05, Pc = 0.20). وفي تحليل أخر، أظهرت الأعداد والتكرارات المحسوبة لأليلات الطرز المظهرية لمجاميع الدم (ABO) تغايرا بين المرضى والسيطرة ولكن سجل فرقا معنويا في مرضى CLL وCML وNHL. حيث أظهر الأليل I*A انخفاضا معنويا في مرضىCLL (32.0 مقابل 41.5%) ومرضىCML (28.8 مقابل 41.5%) بالمقارنة مع السيطرة، وعند تصحيح الاحتمالية كان الفرق معنويا فقط في مرضىCML .(Pc = 0.003) أما بالنسبة للأليل I*B، فقد اظهر مرضى NHL انخفاضا معنويا وبقي كذلك حتى بعد تصحيحه (25.9 مقابل 43.1%؛ Pc = 0.03). تقترح هذه النتائج بأن للطرز المظهرية لمجاميع الدم وأليلاتها دورا في إحداث أمراض الدم الخبيثة.


Article
The Association between HLA Antigens and Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Iraqi Patients

Authors: Ali H. Ad'hiah --- Hamsa A. Jasim --- Ayad M. A. Fadhil
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2006 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-68
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Article
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL1B Gene (rs16944) in a Sample of Rheumatoid Arthritis Iraqi Patients

Authors: Aseel S. Mahmood --- Abdul-Kareem A. Al-Kazaz --- Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2C Pages: 1041-1045
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Cytokines play a prominent role in etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and one of these cytokines is interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The association between IL1B gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: rs16944) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a sample of Iraqi patients was investigated. Fifty-one RA patients (21 males and 30 females) were enrolled and their age range was 20 - 63 years (44.9 ± 1.5 years). In addition to patients, 45 apparently healthy control subjects were also enrolled in the study. They matched patients for ethnicity (Iraqis), gender (14 males and 31 females) and age (41.3 ± 1.3 years). Analysis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in RA patients and controls revealed that the IL1B genotypes were consistent with the equilibrium, and no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the observed and expected genotype frequencies. Inspecting IL1B genotype and allele frequencies in RA patients and controls revealed that there were no significant variations between these frequencies, although a decreased frequency of T allele (67.7 vs. 73.3%) and an increased frequency of C allele (32.3vs. 26.7%) were observed in patients compared to controls. In conclusion, the results are in favor of no association between IL1B gene SNP (rs16944) and RA in Iraqi population


Article
Cytogenetic effect of crude aqueous extract from leaf of Lycium barbarum on root tip of Allium cepa L.
التاثير الوراثي الخلوي للمستخلص المائي الخام لاوراقنبات العوسج Lycium barbarum على خلايا القمم الناميةلجذور البصل Allium cepa L.

Authors: Ali H. Ad’hiah علي حسين ادحيه --- Samara N. yaqub سمارة يعقوب --- Batool A. shahab بتول علي شهاب
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 492-499
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the cytogenetic effects of crude aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum on the roots tip of Allium cepa Using three concentration 125, 25, 50 mg/ ml for 2, 4, 6 hours treatment periods.This study were included some cytogenetic analysis such as mitotic index , phase index and chromosome aberration. The data showed that the treatment with 50mg/ml for 6huors led to reduce the mitotic index less than 50% . This reduction considered to have toxic and sublethal effect . These results revealed mutagenic potency by inducing differents type of chromosome aberration.

اجريت هذه الدراسة للكشف عن التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية للمستخلص المائي الخام لأوراق نبات العوسج Lycium barbarum احد نباتات الفلورا ألعراقية على خلايا القمم النامية لجذور البصل بأستخدام ثلاث تراكيز (50,25,12.5) ملغم/مل ولثلاث فترات معاملة (6,4,2)ساعة وبالاعتماد على بعض معايير التحليلات الوراثية الخلوية وهي دليل ألانقسام ودليل الطور والزيغ الكروموسومي ولوحظ بأن المعاملة بالتركيز 50 ملغم/مل ولمدة 6 ساعات ادت الى خفض معدل دليل الانقسام الى دون 50% مما يدل على تأثيره السمي والشبة مميت وكذلك اظهر المستخلص قابلية تطفيرية حيث ظهرت حالات مختلفة من الزيغ الكروموسومي.

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Article
Studying some Immunological and Hormonal profiles in Infertile Male
دراسة بعض الجوانب المناعية للذكور العقيمين

Authors: Ali H. Ad'hiah علي حسين ادحية --- Talib A. Hussain طالب عبدالله حسين --- Sahar M. Ahmad سحر منفي احمد
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 1عدد خاص بمؤتمر علوم الحياة Pages: 381-387
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the immunological status in a sample of Iraqi males with primary infertility and them age range18-55 years, who were attending the Centre of Infertility and in vitro Fertilization (Kamal Al-Samaraie Hospital, Baghdad) during the period December 2008 – April 2009. They were divided into three groups; 40 patients with anti-sperm antibodies (ASA), 20 patients with Asthenozoospermia (AST) and 20 patients with azoospermia (AZO). In adition to20 fertile males was as control group. The parameters of evaluations were standard seminal fluid analysis, anti-sperm antibodies and anti-mitochondrial antibodies in serum, Therefore, two types of samples were collected from each subject; seminal fluid and blood.The following results were obtained:1.There was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease count of sperms in ASA (44.6 x 106 sperm/ml) and AST (46.9 x 106 sperm/ml) patients as compared to controls (63.2 x 106 sperm/ml) but the the result with in normal limit. 2.Serum anti-sperm antibodies were positive in 100.% of ASA patients, while in AZO patients, a much lower percentage was observed (25% for serum), and a much lower percentage was observed in controls (5% for serum but these influence were not clear). In contrast, none of the AST patients were positive ASA. These results were positively correlated with the corresponding serum and seminal fluid level, and the highest level was observed in ASA patients (107.6 U/ml). These differences were statistically significant.3.Serum AMA showed different percentages in ASA, AST and AZO patients and controls (37.5, 25.0 and 20.0, 15.0%, respectively), but these differences were not significant. However, their serum level was significantly increased in ASA patients as compared to controls (11.9 vs. 6.5 U/ml).

صُممت الدراسة الحالية لتقييم الحالة المناعية في عينات من الذكور العراقيين المصابين بالعقم الاولي ممن تراوحت اعمارهم بين 18-55 سنة. إذ جُمعت هذه العينات من مركز الخصوبة وعلاج العقم واطفال الانابيب (مستشفى كمال السامرائي، بغداد) للمدة من كانون الاول/2008 ولغاية نيسان/2009. قُسمت تلك العينات على ثلاث مجاميع؛ 40 عينة للمرضى المصابين باضداد النطف و20 عينة للمرضى المصابين بوهن النطف و20 عينة للمرضى المصابين باللانطفية، فضلاً عن 20 عينة للذكور الخصبين بوصفها مجموعة سيطرة. شملت هذه التقييمات اختبارات تحليل السائل المنوي واضداد النطف واضداد المايتوكوندريا في المصل، لذلك جمعت نوعين من العينات (السائل المنوي والدم) لكل مجموعة.توصلت الدراسة الى النتائج الآتية:1.وجود انخفاض معنوي عند مستوى احتمالية ≤ 0.05 في اعداد النطف للمرضى المصابين باضداد النطف (44.6×610 نطفة/مل) والمرضى المصابين بوهن النطف (46.9×610 نطفة/مل) مقارنة بالسيطرة (63.2×610 نطفة/مل) لكنها كانت ضمن الحدود الطبيعية. 2.كانت النسبة المئوية لاضداد النطف في المصل 100.0% للمرضى المصابين باضداد النطف، بينما كانت النسبة اقل في المرضى المصابين باللانطفية (25% في المصل)، وكانت هذه النسبة اقل في افراد السيطرة (5% في المصل لكنها كانت ضمن المستويات المنخفضة وليس لها تأثير واضح)، وفي المقابل لم تلاحظ اضداد النطف في المرضى المصابين بوهن النطف. وكانت هذه النتائج ذات علاقة ايجابية مع مستويات تركيز هذه الاضداد في المصل، ولوحظ اعلى مستوى لها في المرضى المصابين باضداد النطف في المصل (107.6 وحدة عالمية/مل). واكتسبت هذه الاختلافات فرقاً معنوياً.3.اظهرت النسب المئوية لاضداد المايتوكوندريا في المصل اختلافات في المرضى المصابين باضداد النطف ووهن النطف واللانطفية والسيطرة حيث كانت (37.5%، 25.0%، 20.0%، 15.0% على التوالي)، وعلى الرغم من ان هذه الاختلافات لم تكن معنويةاحصائيا، إلا أن المستويات المصلية لتلك الاضداد كانت في زيادة معنوية للمرضى المصابين باضداد النطف مقارنة بافراد السيطرة (11.9 مقابل 6.5 وحدة عالمية/مل).


Article
HLA Antigens Among Iraqi Muslims Arabs And Kurds

Authors: Batool M. Mahdi --- Khalida M. Al-Moussawy --- Abdul Wahab A.R. Al-Shaikhly --- Ali H. Ad’hiah
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 94-97
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The HLA system is a relevant tool in population genetics analysis. From the genetic point of view, the HLA system is of general interest because of the extreme polymorphism of all known HLA loci. The allele and haplotype frequencies have a wide diversity among human population and differ in geographically and racially among populations. Iraq had a high percentage of Muslims people that distributed in two groups (Arab and Kurd). These groups are ancient populations and affected by many settlement in many centuries ago. These ancient settlements had left marks on the genetic structure of the modern Iraqi populations. The later immigrations to other countries were high in later years. The aim of study is to estimate the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) alleles in Iraqi Arab Muslims and Kurd Muslims and determine the genetic differences between them. METHODS: A total of unrelated 1400 Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and 705 Kurd Muslims (KM) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al-Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine, were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004. RESULTS: The phenotypes of HLA typing of Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and Kurd Muslims (KM) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Regarding HLA class I (A and Cw loci), there was a significant differences between these groups. Lasly, there was no significant difference between them in HLA-B. CONCLUSIONS: This may be due to their inhabitants different area in Iraq, and also due to their different origin as Arab and Kurd races with mild differences due to outbreeding and migration. The effects of invaders and settlements from out side the country and intermixing with them may play an important role in these differences

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Year
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2019 (2)

2018 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

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