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Article
Chemoprotective effect of ascorbic acid on cyclophosphomide induced oral toxicity
التأثير الكيميائي لحمض الأسكوربيك على السمية التي يسببها السيكلوفوسفيد

Author: Ali Sultan Al-Refai
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 1540 -1551
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Oral mucositis is currently considered to be the most severe complication of anticancer therapy such as cyclophosphamide (CTX). Ascorbic acid is a well-known antioxidant, which can protect the body from damage caused by free radicals that can be generated during normal metabolism as well as through exposure to toxins and carcinogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of ascorbic acid as a treatment for CTX induced oral mucositis. Methods: Forty Wister-albino rats, age about 6-8 weeks and weighing 150-200 g were used. The rats were randomly divided by simple random allocation into two groups (20 animals each). The control group was intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline and the animals were grouped randomly into two groups: Saline/Water treated group which were daily received intraperitoneal injection of distilled water, while the Saline/Ascorbic acid treated group received a daily intraperitoneal injection of ascorbic acid (12mg/kg/day). For the induction of mucositis, a single dose (300 mg/kg) of CTX was administered intraperitoneally to each animal in the study group, and the animals were grouped randomly into two groups: CTX /Water treated group which was daily received intraperitoneal injection of distilled water, while the CTX /Ascorbic acid treated group were daily received intraperitoneal injection of 12 mg/kg /day of ascorbic acid. The animals were sacrificed at day four and eight (five animals each) and the tongue was dissected from the jaw for histological and immunohistochemical analysis.Results: Ascorbic acid decreased the severity of the induced CTX oral mucositis by a significant increase in epithelial thickness, significant decrease in damage score, and significant increase in PCNA immune expression at day four and eight respectively (P <0.05). Conclusion: CTX chemotherapy has a deleterious effect on the oral mucosa leading to marked morphometric and microscopic changes. Ascorbic acid can protect the oral mucosa from CTX-induced cytotoxicity, and attenuate or decrease the associated injury.


Article
The Effect of Pregnancy on Unstimulated Salivary Calcium and Magnesium Concentration
تأثير الحمل على تركيز الكالسيوم اللعابي غير المحفز وتركيز المغنيسيوم

Author: Ali Sultan Al-Refai
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral problem associated with pregnancy, in addition to several salivary changes. This study was designed to find the effect of pregnancy on salivary chemical factors (calcium and magnesium concentrations)and flow rate, and compare the results with that of non-pregnant women.Methods: The samples consist of (118) females with age ranged from (20– 40) years (84 pregnant and 34 control, non-pregnant women). After collection of un stimulated saliva, the concentration of calcium and magnesium, and salivary flow rate were measured.Results: The means of salivary flow rate, calcium and magnesium concentrations of pregnantand non-pregnant women were statistically non significant. There were non-significant difference between the means of each parameter with the age group of pregnant women and the gestation age. Non-significant difference between the means of each parameterwith the trimester of pregnancy.Conclusion: All factors showed non-significant differences between pregnant and non -pregnant women.


Article
Morphometric Analysis of Infra Orbital Foramen by A Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Rebaz Samir Ismail --- Ali Sultan Al-Refai
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 741 -794
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Infraorbital foramen conveys infraorbital nerve and vessel, and knowledge about is mandatory. The present study was designed to assess the infraorbital foramen location in Kurdistan population in relation to side and gender. Fortycone beams computed tomographies of adult Kurdistan patients were selected. Axial, sagittal, coronal views and three dimensional reconstruction models were analyzed to achive all informations.The distances of infraorbital foramen from facial midline, infraorbital rim, and piriform aperture were assessed. The locational relationship to upper teeth and supraorbital foramen was also recorded. The mean distance of medial margin of infra orbital foramen from facial midline was 24.09±2.62mm, and the mean distance of its superior margin from infraorbital rim was 7.53 ±1.46mm.Non-significant difference present between the sides and between gender son right side, but it was significant on left side.The mean distance between its medial border and the piriform aperture of the nose was 17.83 ±2.28mm.No significant difference present between sides, but it was significant between genders on both sides.The most common position of the infraorbital foramen was found in position between the upper first and second premolars(40%), and the most common position in relation to the supraorbital foramen/notch was lateral to its lateral margin(55%). No statistically significant difference was noted between sides and genders.The results of the present study may assist dentists and surgeons to localize infraorbital foramen to facilitatelocal anesthetic and surgical procedure.


Article
Assessment of Congenitally Missing Teeth in Prosthodontic Patients

Author: Dr. Ali Sultan Al-Refai * د. علي سلطان
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-92
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Congenital missing of one or more teeth, excluding the third molars is relatively common, but anodontia or oligodontia is rare and may be associated with ectodermal dysplasia. In this study, it was found that among (379) prosthodontic patients, one patient had anodontia representing (0.26 %) of the cases and need complete denture for esthetic and functional demands, and two patients had oligodontia representing (0.52 %). These percentages were higher than other studies in the world, may be due to environmental and / or congenital causes.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of chamomile extract on lingual histological changes in rabbit received 5-fluorouracil (histological and immunohistochemical study)
تقييم تأثير مستخلص البابونج على التغيرات النسيجية اللغوية في الأرانب التي تلقت 5 فلورويوراسيل (دراسة نسيجية وهستولوجية مناعية)

Authors: Hanan Abdulla Abdulqader --- Ali Sultan Al-Refai --- Shukria Muhammed Zahawi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 1552-1560
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication sinceancient times and is still popular until today. This study aimed to investigate the potentialanticytotoxic effect of chamomile extract on the lingual mucosa of rabbits treated with5-fluorouracil (5-FU).Methods: Thirty six rabbits were used in the study. For induction of tongue mucositis forthe study group, 5-FU at a dose of (4 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally one timedaily for five successive days. The control animals were intraperitoneally injected bynormal saline one time daily for five successive days. The rats in each group wererandomly divided into two groups: Distilled water and chamomile extract treated groups(9 animals each). A volume of distilled water equal to chamomile extract was given bygavage tube, while the other group was gavaged with chamomile extract at a dose of (100mg/ kg) one time daily. The treatment with distilled water or the chamomile extract wascontinued for sixteen days and then the animals were sacrificed, and the tongues wereexcised for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.Results: The 5-FU/water treated group showed a significant increase in histologicaldamage scores, decrease in the ki-67and increase in caspase -3 epithelial immuneexpression (P <0.05) in comparison with saline/water treated group. The 5-FU/chamomiletreated group showed a significant increase in damage score, significant decrease in ki-67immune expression and significant increase in caspase-3 immune expression (P <0.05) incomparison with 5-FU/water treated group.Conclusion: Chamomile extract at a dose of (100 mg/ kg) one time daily for sixteen dayscannot be used for the treatment of oral mucositis. It causes damage to the tissue,decreases proliferation, and increases apoptosis.

Keywords

Lingual papillae --- Chamomile --- 5-FU --- Ki-67 --- Caspase- 3


Article
Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits
تأثير مضاد للجراثيم وإمكانية الشفاء من زيت جوزة الطيب لتقرحات الفم الناجمة كيميائيا في الأرانب

Authors: Amera Kamal Kamal --- Ali Sultan Al-Refai --- Shima Ghazi Thanoon
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 393-399
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Myristica fragrans is an aromatic green tree usually growing to around 5-13 meters high, and their seeds (nutmegs) is firm broadly ovoid. The objectives of the study were to find the concentration of nutmeg oil that has maximum antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and to evaluate the healing potential of this concentration on a chemically induced oral ulceration in the rabbit’s cheek mucosa.Methods: Different concentrations of nutmeg oil were prepared and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was determined by disk diffusion method. The chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbit’s cheek mucosa were achieved by ethanol, and then these ulcerations were irrigated with 0.5ml (5%) of nutmeg oil twice daily. Biopsies were taken after four and eight days of the experiment, processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin.Results: The concentration 100% of nutmeg oil and the dimethyl sulfoxide; which was used as diluents for preparing different concentrations of nutmeg oil, showed no inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus. The concentration (5%) showed maximum inhibitory zone (16.8mm) for the micro-organism which was parallel to the effects of amoxicillin (positive control), both with highly significant action (P<0.05). The histopathological pictures showed a delay in the healing process of oral ulcers in rabbits treated by this concentration.Conclusion: The concentration of nutmeg oil (5%) has a good antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus, but it causes a delay in the healing process of oral ulcerations.


Article
Protective Role Of Honey on The Dorsal Surface of The Tongue of Methotrexate Treated Rats (Histological and Immunohistochemical Study)

Authors: Ali Sultan Al-Refai --- Hassan Ali Al-Barazenchy --- Hanan Abdulla Abdulqader --- Ameera Kamal Khalil
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 670 -678
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The most common side effect of chemotherapy is oral mucositis and the effective treatment is considered important in cancer patient. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of honey as a treatment for dorsaltongue mucositis caused by the methotrexate.Forty Albino rats were usedin the present study and grouped randomly into control and study groups(20 animals each). The rats in the control group were divided randomly into two groups: 10 animals were treated by distilled water and 10 animals were treated by (2.5gm/kg) honey two times daily for eight days using gavage needle, and a physiological salinewas intraperitoneally injected at day four for all the animals. In the study group, they were intraperitoneally injectedby60 mg/kg of methotrexate at day four and the animals were treated in the same way like control group. At day eight, all the animals were sacrificed;and a cross section fromthe tongue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical (Ki-67 and Bcl-2 immunolabeling) analysis.Honey can partially protect the tongue from methotrexate induced cytotoxicity, and attenuate the associated injury. Ki-67 immune expression was non significantly increased (p>0.05), but Bcl-2 immune expression was significantly increased in (p<0.05) in comparison with methotrexate treated group.Honeycan produce protection against methotrexate induced dorsal tongue mucositis.Flavonoids and phenolic compounds in honey can accelerate the healing process by its anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

Keywords

Honey --- Mucositis --- Chemotherapy --- ki-67 --- Bcl-2


Article
Anatomical Study of Mental Foramen Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Selected Adult Dentate Kurdistan Patients

Authors: Khoshee Salih Hameed Al-Mufty --- Ali Sultan Al-Refai --- Faris Muhammed Mahmood
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 679 -690
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Mental foramen is a very important anatomical landmark in dentistry and knowledge about mental foramen is very important because it transfers the mental nerve and vessels. The aim of thisresearch was to study the morphology and morphometry of the mental foramen using cone beam computed tomography in dentate adult Kurdistan patients. Thirty nine cone beam computed tomography were studied to analyze the shape, position, distance, and diameter of mental foramen. It was found that the most common variation of mental foramen was oval shape, and situated in line between 1st and 2nd premolar, and apical to the apex of associated tooth,and these variations showeda nonsignificant differences with the gender and age. The mean distances from mental foramen to the alveolar crest in the right and left side was 13.37±2.41 and13.60±1.96 mm respectively, and the mean distances from mental foramen to the inferior mandibular borderin the right and left side was10.98±1.97 and10.82±1.95mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences regarding the gender and side, but significant difference present regarding age group. The mesio-lateralmean distance in the right and left side was 3.87±0.85and 3.68 ±0.78 mm respectively. But the superior-inferior distance in the right and left side was 3.17 ±0.85 and3.25 ±1.00 mm respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant relation present with the gender, age group, and side.Knowing the exact location of the mental foramens and its variations is very important andcan help toplan surgical procedures properly.


Article
Anatomical study of the relationship of impacted mandibular third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal in Kurdistan population using orthopantomogram
دراسة تشريحية لعلاقة قمة الجذر المولي الفك العلوي المتأثرة بالقناة السنخية الرديئة في سكان كوردستان باستخدام تقويم العظام

Authors: Khoshee Salih Hameed Al-Mufty --- Fedil Andraws Yalda --- Ali Sultan Al-Refai
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1859-1868
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Extraction of an impacted mandibular third lower molar tooth is one of the common surgical procedures that may lead to the damage of inferior alveolar nerve due to roots proximity to the mandibular canal. This study aimed to know the relative relationship and proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal in relation to gender, age, depth of impaction, relation with ramus, and type of angulation of the impacted tooth in Kurdistan population.Methods: A sample of 366 digital panoramic radiographs of patients with impacted mandibular third molar was studied. Panoramic radiographic signs images were evaluated for the presence of root contact with the superior border of the mandibular canal, darkening of the roots apex, deflected roots, narrow root, superimposition of the canal, interruption of the white line, diversion of the inferior alveolar canal, and narrowing of the inferior alveolar canal. The depths of impaction, relation with ramus, and type of angulation were also studied.Results: Significant relation of the proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal with the gender (P = 0.001) and age (P <0.001) were seen. A significant relation of the proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal with the depth of impaction (P <0.001), relation with the ramus (P =0.004), and angulation of impaction were also seen (P <0.001).Conclusion: Significant relation of the proximity of the mandibular third molar roots to the inferior alveolar canal with gender, age, depth of impaction, relation with the ramus, and angulation of impaction were seen.


Article
The Relationship Between Calcium, Magnesium And Inorganic Phosphate of Human Mixed Saliva And Dental Caries

Authors: Dr. Ali Sultan Al-Refai B.D.S., M.Sc., Ph.D.** د. علي سلطان --- Dr. Shukria Mohammad Al –Zahawi B.D.S.,M.Sc.* د.شكرية محمد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 157-161
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Selected elements in stimulated whole saliva, and dental caries experience were studied. The stimulated mixed saliva samples were obtained from (56) dental students with an age range between (18 – 23) years. Every salivary sample was centrifuged at (1800 r.p.m) for (6) minute at room temperature. The results showed that the DMFS and DMFT values for females were higher than that of the males in all age groups. The concentration of inorganic phosphate was higher than that of calcium and magnesium and the females showed lower values than males.A negative correlation was recorded between the concentration of calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate with the DMFS and DMFT. Significant relation was found between the concentration of calcium with the DMFS and highly significant difference with DS and DMFT. Non significant difference was found between the concentration of inorganic phosphate with the DMFS and DMFT. Highly significant difference was found between the concentration of magnesium and DMFS, FS and DMFT.

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