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Article
EMPIRICAL HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR DE-METALIZATION OF KIRKUK REDUCED CRUDE OIL IN TRICKLE-BED REACTOR

Author: Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

Kirkuk reduced crude oil was hydro-demetallized over two particle size (0.2 - 0.3 and 0.2 - 0.5 cm) Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst beds. The catalyst bed length varied from 12.7 to 31.8 cm and the liquid hourly space velocity varied from 0.5 to 4.2 h-1. Reaction temperature was kept constant at 360oC. Also, hydrogen pressure and hydrogen to reduced crude oil ratio were kept at 3.2 Mpa and 400 cm3 cm-3. The effects of catalyst particle size, catalyst bed porosity, catalyst bed length and superficial liquid reduced crude oil flow through trickle-bed reactor has been studied. The results show, that apparent rate constant increased with increasing liquid velocity and bed length while decreasing in apparent rate constant with increasing of bed porosity and particle size of the catalyst.Two empirical hydrodynamic models described the behavior of apparent rate constant of the hydro-demetallization has been discussed. First, the classical empirical hydrodynamic model proposed by Garcia and Pazos [1]. Second, suggested model denoted as Reynolds empirical hydrodynamic model. Statistical analyses of these two models show that both models represented well the effect of particle size, bed length, bed porosity and liquid superficial velocity on the apparent rate constant of the hydro-demetallization reaction. But suggested Reynolds hydrodynamic model, was more accurate than classical hydrodynamic model.

تمت عملية ازالة المعادن من نفط خام كركرك المختزل بواسطة مفاعلته فوق عامل مساعد Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 و لحجمين من الحبيبات للعامل المساعد(0.2 – 0.5 و 0.2 – 0.3 سم) في مفاعل ثلاثي الاطوار. تراوح طول حشوة العامل المساعد بين 12.7 الى 31.8 سم و تراوحت سرعة الفراغية لزيت الوقود بين 0.5 و 4.2 ساعة-1. تم تثبيت درجة حرارة التفاعل عند 360 درجة مئوية و ضغط هيدروجين 3.2 ميكا باسكال و نسبة هيدروجين الى زيت وقود 400 سم3 سم-3 . تم دراسة تأثير كل من حجم حبيبات العامل المساعدو مسامية الحشوة و طول حشوة العامل المساعد و السرعة الظاهرية لنفط خام كركوك المختزل اشارت النتائج الى ان القيمة الظاهرية لثابت تفاعل ازالة المعادن يزداد مع زيادة كل من السرعة الظاهرية لنفط خام كركوك المختزل و طول حشوة العامل المساعد و انخفاض كل من مسامية الحشوة و حجم حبيبات العامل المساعد. نوقش موديلين تجريبيين لوصف تصرف ثابت تفاعل ازالة المعادن. الاول موديل كلاسيكي مقترح من قبل كراسيا و بازوس (Garcia and Pazos, 1982) و الثاني مقترح من قبلنا و سمي بموديل رينولدز. اشارت النتائج الاحصائية لحلول الموديلين ان كلا الموديلين يصفان بصورة جيدة تصرف ثابت تفاعل ازالة المعادن مع تغير حجم حبيبات العامل المساعد و طول حشوة العامل المساعد و مسامية الحشوة و السرعة الظاهرية لنفط خام كركوك المختزل. لكن دقة الموديل المقترح لهذا الوصف هي اكثر من الموديل الكلاسيكي.


Article
Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste
التحلل القلوي لمخلفات البولي أثلين البلاستيكية

Author: Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2015 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes) and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C) on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.


Article
Hydro-De-Aromatization of Paraffin Wax

Authors: Suondos K. A. Barno --- Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 715-723
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Iraqi paraffin wax (1.0 wt% aromatic content and 4.4 wt% oil content, Basrah origin) was hydrotreated over commercial Pt-Re/y-Al2O3 catalyst in order to study aromatic removal reaction (de-aromatization) kinetics. Reaction temperature varied from 453 to 533 K over a liquid hourly space velocity from 0.5 to 4.2 h-1. Hydrogen pressure was kept constant throughout all the experiments at 3.6 Mpa with hydrogen to wax ratio about 400 m3/m3. Kinetics analysis showed that the hydro-de-aromatization reaction followed a second order kinetics model. Energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation of hydro-de-aromatization reaction were 17.2 kJJ/mole, 13.1 kJ/mole and -16.9 J/mole K, respectively.

تم هدرجة شمع برافينى عراقي المنشأ (ناتج من عملية تكرير نفط البصرة) ذو محتوى زيتي 4.4 % وزناً و 0.1 % وزناً مواد اروماتية بأستعمال عامل مساعد Pt-Re/y-Al2O3 وذلك لدراسة حركية تفاعل ازالة المواد الاروماتية. تراوحت درجة حرارة التفاعل بين 453 و 533 كلفن و سرعة سائل فراغية بين 0.5 و 4.2 ساعة-1. ثبت ضغط الهيدروجين المستعمل و لكل التجارب بمقدار 3.6 ميكا باسكال و نسبة هيدروجين الى شمع 400 م3/م3. اشارت النتائج الى ان موديل حركية التفاعل هي من الدرجة الثانية و كانت مقدار طاقة التنشيط للتفاعل 17.2 كيلو جول مول و انثاليبية التنشيط 13.1 كيلو جول / مول و انتروبية التنشيط - 16.9 جول / مول كلفن.


Article
Production and Evaluation of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel from Thermal Pyrolysis of Virgin Polyethylene Plastics

Authors: Fahmi Abuelgasim Mohamed --- Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-33
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Pyrolysis of virgin polyethylene plastics was studied in order to produce hydrocarbon liquid fuel. The pyrolysis process carried out for low and high-density polyethylene plastics in open system batch reactor in temperature range of 370 to 450°C. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the virgin plastics showed that the degradation ranges were between 326 and 495 °C. The results showed that the optimum temperature range of pyrolysis of polyethylene plastics that gives highest liquid yield (with specific gravity between 0.7844 and 0.7865) was 390 to 410 °C with reaction time of about 35 minutes. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy gave a quite evidence that the produced hydrocarbon liquid fuel consisted mainly alkanes and the x-ray diffraction showed no sulfur in the produced hydrocarbon liquids.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Nay Zeolite for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Rowaida N. Abbas --- Ammar S. Abbas
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 19-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Iraqi kaolin was used for the preparation and characterization of NaY zeolite for biodiesel production via esterification reaction. Oleic acid was used usually as a typical simulated feedstock of high acid number for the esterification reaction. The chemical composition for the prepared Nay zeolite is as following: (Ca2.6Na1.K0.1)(Al6.3Si17.7)O48.16H2O, the silica to alumina ratio in the prepared catalyst was found equal to 2.6 and Na2O content was 12.26 wt. %, with relative crystallinity equal to 147.4 % obtained by the X-ray diffraction. The surface area result shows that the prepared catalyst has 330 m2/g. While, the measured pore volume by nitrogen adsorption was equal to 0.35 cm3/ g. SEM images show notable differences between the kaolin crystal and prepared NaY crystal. The effect of NaY zeolite, as a loaded catalyst in the esterification of oleic acid reaction did not show any significant change of oleic acid conversion for catalyst load more than 5 wt. %. The reused NaY zeolite is loses 31 % of its activity because of that the pores are filled with water and other organic molecules and that may cause poisoning the catalyst.


Article
KINETIC STUDY OF HYDROCARBON LIQUID PRODUCTION VIA THERMAL AND CATALYTIC PYROLYSIS FOR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
دراسة حركية إنتاج المواد الهيدروكربونية السائلة عبر التحلل الحراري والمحفز للبوليإيثيلين منخفض الكثافة

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas --- Fahmi Abuelgasim Mohamed
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 819-834
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Pyrolysis process becomes an interesting technique to shrink the increasing amounts of the plastic waste. Iraqi kaolin clay has used as a catalyst for the pyrolysis of polyethylene plastic in order to produce the hydrocarbon liquid fuel. The pyrolysis process carried out for low-density polyethylene plastics in semi-batch open system reactor in a temperature range of 370 to 450°C.Thermo-gravimetric analysis for the plastic presented the range of degradation was between 349 and 489 °C. The pyrolysis results show a remarkable increasing of the hydrocarbon liquid yield produced from the catalytic pyrolysis process by Iraqi kaolin compare with the thermal pyrolysis results. The kinetic study demonstrates that the pyrolysis temperature affected the catalytic production rate of hydrocarbon liquid more than the thermal process.The characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon products by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy shows that alkanes were the main compounds in the produced hydrocarbon liquid while the x-ray diffraction indicated no sulphur in the produced hydrocarbon liquids. The ASTM distillation reported obvious increasing in the total light fractions (below 250 °C) for the catalytically pyrolysis reaction products.

تعتبر عملية التحلل تقنية مثيرة للاهتمام و ذلك لتقليص الكميات المتزايدة من النفايات البلاستيكية. أستخدم طين الكاؤولين العراقي كعامل محفز في التحلل لبلاستك البولي أثلين منخفض الكثافة لغرض إنتاج وقود هيدروكاربوني سائل من مفاعل شبه- دفعوي في درجات حرارة تراوحت بين 370 و 450 درجة مئوية.وجد من التحليل الحراري الجاذبي للبلاستيك إن مدى حرارة التحلل تراوح بين 349 و 489 درجة مئوية. و بينت نتائج التحلل المحفز بواسطة الكاولين العراقي زيادة ملحوظة في السائل الهيدروكاربوني المنتج من عملية التحلل مقارنة مع نتائج التحلل الحراري. وضحت دراسة حركية التحلل إن درجة الحرارة تؤثر بصورة أكبر على معدل إنتاج السائل الهيدروكاربوني بواسطة التحلل المحفز.تم تقييم المنتجات الهيدروكربونية السائلة و بينت نتائج الفحص بطيف "فوري به تحويل الأشعة تحت الحمراء" أن الألكانات هي المركبات الرئيسية في السائل الهيدروكاربوني المنتج و نتائج حيود الأشعة السينية تشير إلى عدم وجود الكبريت في السوائل الهيدروكربونية المنتجة. التقطير القياسي للسوائل الهيدروكاربونية المنتجة أشارت إلى زيادة واضحة في مجموع المقاطع الخفيفة (أقل من 250 درجة مئوية) لنواتج من عملية التحلل المحفز.


Article
Kinetics of Thermal Pyrolysis of High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas --- Marwa G. Saber
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Thermal pyrolysis kinetics of virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was investigated. Thermal pyrolysis of HDPE was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates 4, 7, 10 °C/min. First-order decomposition reaction was assumed, and for the kinetic analysis Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose(KAS), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa(FWO) and Coats and Redfern(CR) method were used. The obtained values of average activation energy by the KAS and FWO methods were equal to137.43 and 141.52 kJ/mol respectively, these values were considered in good agreement, where the average activation energy value obtained by CR equation methods was slightly different which equal to 153.16 kJ/mol.


Article
Pyrolysis of High-density Polyethylene for the Production of Fuel-like Liquid Hydrocarbon

Authors: Sawsan D. A. Shubar --- Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was carried out in a 750 cm3 stainless steel autoclave reactor, with temperature ranging from 470 to 495° C and reaction times up to 90 minute. The influence of the operating conditions on the component yields was studied. It was found that the optimum cracking condition for HDPE that maximized the oil yield to 70 wt. % was 480°C and 20 minutes. The results show that for higher cracking temperature, and longer reaction times there was higher production of gas and coke. Furthermore, higher temperature increases the aromatics and produce lighter oil with lower viscosity.


Article
Adsorption of Fluoroquinolones Antibiotics on Activated Carbon by K2CO3 with Microwave Assisted Activation

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas --- Muthana J. Ahmed --- Teeba M. Darweesh
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 15-23
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The preparation of low cost activated carbon from date stones and microwave method by using K2CO3 as chemical activator were investigated. The prepared activated carbon was used to remove fluoroquinolones antibiotics from aqueous solution. The characterizations of the activated carbon is represented by surface area, pore volume, ash content, moisture content, bulk density, and iodine number. The adsorbed fluoroquinolones antibiotics are Ciprofloxcin (CIP), Norfloxcin (NOR) and Levofloxcin (LEVO). Different variables as pH, initial concentrations and contact time were studied to show the efficieny of prepared activated carbon. The experimental adsorption data were analyzed by Lungmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm. The experimental results are described by Lungmiur isotherm. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order kinetics, pseudo-second order kinetics and interparticle diffusion model. The kinetic adsorption data were best fitted by psuedo-second order kinetic.


Article
Thermal and Catalytic Degradation Kinetics of High-Density Polyethylene Over NaX Nano-Zeolite

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس --- Marwa G. Saber
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 33-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a creative method, since pyrolysis can convert plastics waste into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals.Natural Iraqi kaolin clay was used to synthesis the NaX nano- zeolite by hydrothermal conditions with average particle size equal to 77.63nm.Thermal decomposition kinetics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in the absence and presence of catalysts nano NaX Zeolite was investigated. Thermal and catalytic degradation of HDPE was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions 4, 7 and 10 °C/min heating rates were employed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments.First-order decomposition reaction was assumed, and for the kinetic analysis Coats and Redfern (CR) method was used. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was evaluated. Results showed that the NaX nano-zeolite decreases the activation energy (Ea) of HDPE pyrolysis further than the thermal pyrolysis.

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