research centers


Search results: Found 9

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by

Article
Pyrolysis of High-density Polyethylene for the Production of Fuel-like Liquid Hydrocarbon

Authors: Sawsan D. A. Shubar --- Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was carried out in a 750 cm3 stainless steel autoclave reactor, with temperature ranging from 470 to 495° C and reaction times up to 90 minute. The influence of the operating conditions on the component yields was studied. It was found that the optimum cracking condition for HDPE that maximized the oil yield to 70 wt. % was 480°C and 20 minutes. The results show that for higher cracking temperature, and longer reaction times there was higher production of gas and coke. Furthermore, higher temperature increases the aromatics and produce lighter oil with lower viscosity.


Article
Thermal and Catalytic Degradation Kinetics of High-Density Polyethylene Over NaX Nano-Zeolite

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس --- Marwa G. Saber
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 33-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a creative method, since pyrolysis can convert plastics waste into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals.Natural Iraqi kaolin clay was used to synthesis the NaX nano- zeolite by hydrothermal conditions with average particle size equal to 77.63nm.Thermal decomposition kinetics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in the absence and presence of catalysts nano NaX Zeolite was investigated. Thermal and catalytic degradation of HDPE was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions 4, 7 and 10 °C/min heating rates were employed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments.First-order decomposition reaction was assumed, and for the kinetic analysis Coats and Redfern (CR) method was used. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was evaluated. Results showed that the NaX nano-zeolite decreases the activation energy (Ea) of HDPE pyrolysis further than the thermal pyrolysis.


Article
Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Sheep Fats Waste

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Animal fats are a good, promising and ethical alternative source for biodiesel production, but they need more complex treatments than vegetable oils. Iraqi butchery plants waste fats (sheep fat) which are suggested as feedstock to produce biodiesel. This type of fat contains a large quantity of free fatty acids (FFAs) (acid number 49.13 mg KOH/g of fat). The direct transesterification of such fats produce high amount of soap instead of desired biodiesel, so a pre-treatment step (to reduce FFAs) is necessary before transesterification. This step was done by esterification of the free fatty acids in the fat by adding ethanol and using 1% acid catalyst (H2SO4) for 30 minutes. The results showed that the acid number of sheep fat after pre-treatment step reduced to 0.97 mg KOH/g of fat at esterification step. Transesterification of treated fats (produce from esterification) used to convert biodiesel. The maximum yield of biodiesel was about 85 vol. % for treated fats obtained with 25/100 ethanol/fat wt. ratio, 70° C reaction temperature and 50 minutes total treatment period (pre-treatment step and transesterification reaction). The suggested model of the production rate kinetic of transesterification reaction, found that the production rate is inversely proportional with the volume of biodiesel produced with activation energy of 25320 J/mole.


Article
Kinetic Study and Simulation of Oleic Acid Esterification in Different Type of Reactors

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Esterification reaction is most important reaction in biodiesel production. In this study, oleic acid was used as a suggested feedstock to study and simulate production of biodiesel. Batch esterification of oleic acid was carried out at operating conditions; temperature from 40 to 70 °C, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio from 1/1 to 6/1, H2SO4 as the catalyst 1 and 5% wt of oleic acid, reaction time up to 180 min. The optimum conditions for the esterification reaction were molar ratio of ethanol/oleic acid 6/1, 5%wt H2SO4 relative to oleic acid, 70 °C, 90 min and conversion of oleic 0.92. The activation energy for the suggested model was 26625 J/mole for forward reaction and 42189 J/mole for equilibrium constant. The obtained results simulated to other types of reactors with different operating conditions using reactop cascade package. The conversion of oleic acid of simulation results at optimum operating conditions was 0.97 for isothermal batch and plug flow reactors, 0.67 for isothermal CSTR, while the conversions of oleic acid in the adiabatic mode were 0.82, 0.40, 0.74 for batch, CSTR, PFR reactors respectively.


Article
Kinetic Study and Simulation of Oleic Acid Esterification over Prepared NaY Zeolite Catalyst

Authors: Rowaida N. Abbas رويدة نزيه --- Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2013 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 35-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Esterification considers the most important reaction in biodiesel production. In this study, oleic acid was used as a suggested feedstock in order to study and simulate production of biodiesel. The batch esterification reaction of oleic acid was carried out at various operating conditions; temperature from 40 to 70 °C, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio from 3/1 and 6/1 and a reaction time up to 180 min. The catalyst used was prepared NaY zeolite, which is added to the reaction mixture as 2, 5 and 10 wt.% of oleic acid. The results show that the optimum conditions, gives 0.81 conversion of oleic acid, were 6/1 molar ratio of ethanol/oleic acid, 5 wt.% NaY relative to initial oleic acid, 70°C and 60 minutes. The activation energy of the suggested model was 42692 J/mole for forward reaction and 17218 J/mole for backward reaction.


Article
Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol Using Rotating Cylinder Reactor

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenol and its derivatives was investigated by using MnO2 rotating cylinder electrode. Taguchi experimental design method was employed to find the best conditions for the removal efficiency of phenol and its derivatives generated during the process. Two main parameters were investigated, current density (C.D.) and electrolysis time. The removal efficiency was considered as a response for the phenol and other organics removal. An orthogonal array L16, the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance were used to test the effect of designated process factors and their levels on the performance of phenol and other organics removal efficiency. The results showed that the current density has the higher influence on performance of organics removal while the electrolysis time has the lower impact on the removal performance. Multiple regressions was utilized to acquire the equation that describes the process and the predicted equation has a correlation coefficient (R2) equal to 98.77%. The best conditions were found to get higher removal efficiency. Removal efficiency higher than 95% can be obtained in the range of C.D. of 96-100 mA/cm2 and electrolysis time of 3.2 to 5 h. The behavior of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) mineralization denotes to a zero order reaction and the rate of reaction controlled by active chlorine reaction not by mass transfer of phenol towards the anode.


Article
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Aniline Adsorption over Prepared ZSM-5 Zeolite

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس --- Sally A. Hussien سالي علي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Aniline and its derivatives are common contaminants in various wastewaters and represent a serious worry for societies health and a challenge to ecologists due to their dangers effects on to the human health. ZSM-5 zeolite was prepared from locally available materials (kaolin and rice husk) for adsorption of aniline from synthetic wastewater. Characterization of the prepared zsm-5, kinetics and thermodynamic of the adsorption process were investigated.The characterization results of the prepared zsm-5 zeolite showed that the surface area was 270.1 m2/g and pore volume 0.21828 cm3/g. The silica to alumina ratio (Si/Al) was 166. 47 and the sodium content was 11 wt. %. The atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that the average particle diameter of the prepared adsorbent was 70.71nm.Langmuir isotherm better illustrated the adsorption process with maximum uptakes 8.3125 mg/g. Whereas, kinetics results of the adsorption process showed it the pseudo-second order in different operating temperatures. The calculated values of ΔG showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, while the ΔH results illustrated the process to be exothermic nature of this process with negative values of ΔS.

Keywords

Adsorption --- aniline --- zsm-5 --- zeolite --- wastewater --- kinetics --- thermodynamic.


Article
Synthesized 2nd Generation Zeolite as an Acid-Catalyst for Esterification Reaction
تصنيع جيل ثاني من الزيولايت كعامل حامضي مساعد لتحفيز تفاعل الاسترة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

MCM-48 zeolites have unique properties from the surfaces and structure point of view as it’s shown in the results ,and unique and very sensitive to be prepared, have been experimentally prepared and utilized as a second-generation/ acid - catalyst for esterification reactions of oleic acid as a model oil for a free fatty acid source with Ethanol. The characterization of the catalyst used in the reaction has been identified by various methods indicating the prepared MCM-48 is highly matching the profile of common commercial MCM-48 zeolite. The XRF results show domination of SiO2 on the chemical structure with 99.1% and agreeable with the expected from MCM-48 for it's of silica-based, and the SEM results show the cubic crystallographic space group compatible with Ia3d space group giving the hexagonal surface structure. The AFM test gave an average particle diameter of 97.51 nm and an average catalyst roughness of 0.855 nm. Esterification reaction of oleic acid with ethanol on MCM-48 has been carried in a batch reactor with 5% the prepared MCM-48 zeolite catalyst loading gives 81% of conversion after one hour at 353K

تتميز مركبات الزيوليت MCM-48 بخصائص فريدة من حيث تركيب السطوح و البنية الجزيئية كما اظهرت النتائج ، اذ تم تحضيرها بشكل فريد و استخدامها كجيل ثاني من العوامل المساعدة لتحفيز تفاعل الاسترة لحامض الأوليك مع الإيثانول. تم تحديد خصائص المحفز المستخدم في التفاعل بواسطة طرق متنوعة، أشار فحص حيود الاشعة السينية إلى أن MCM-48 المحضر يتطابق بشكل كبير مع الزيوليت التجاري من نوع MCM-48 و أظهرت فحوص تظهر نتائج XRF هيمنة لمادةSiO2 على التركيبة الكيميائية و بنسبة 99.1 ٪. كما و بينت نتائج SEM تركيب بلوري مكعب متوافق مع مجموعة Ia3d إ و التي تعطي سطح سداسية بناء. أعطى اختبار AFM متوسط قطر الجسيم 97.51 نانومتر ومتوسط خشونة سطح العامل المساعد 0.855 نانومتر. تم عمل تفاعل أسترة حمض الأوليك مع الإيثانول بأستخدام 5٪ من العامل المساعد المحضر في مفاعل دفعي و وصل تحول حامض الأوليك الى 81٪ بعد ساعة واحدة عند 353 كلفن


Article
Prediction of Equilibrium Mixing Index and Optimum Mixing Time for Three solid materials in Fluidized Column
التنبؤ بمعامل الخلط عند التوازن وزمن الخلط الامثل لثلاثة مواد صلبة في عمود التميع

Authors: Rasha H. Salman رشا حبيب سلمان --- Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس --- Abbas H. Sulaymon عباس حميد سليمون
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 21-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Equilibrium and rate of mixing of free flowing solid materials are found using gas fluidized bed. The solid materials were sand (size 0.7 mm), sugar (size0.7 mm) and 15% cast iron used as a tracer. The fluidizing gas was air with velocity ranged from 0.45-0.65 m/s while the mixing time was up to 10 minutes. The mixing index for each experiment was calculated by averaging the results of 10 samples taken from different radial and axial positions in fluidized QVF column 150 mm ID and 900 mm height.
The experimental results were used in solving a mathematical model of mixing rate and mixing index at an equilibrium proposed by Rose. The results show that mixing index increases with increasing air velocity and mixing time until it reaches an optimum value then decrease to an equilibrium value. The results also show the dependency of the mixing index on the particle size of the tracer component.
The statistical analysis of the obtained theoretical mixing index versus the experimental mixing index shows that the standard error is 0.92 % (about 1 %) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9857 and the total residual of 0.002 for the ninth observation of the mixing index (theoretical versus experimental) over 95% confidence level.

تم دراسة معامل الخلط عند الاتزان ومعدل الخلط لمواد حرة الجريان بأستخدام عمود هواء متميع. المواد التي تم خلطها هي الرمل ( قطر الجسيمات 0.7 ملم) والسكر (قطر الجسيمات0.7 ملم) وبرادة الحديد وهي تمثل المادة الكاشفة بتركيز 15% وزنا. معدل سرعة الهواء كان بين 0.45 و 0.65 م/ثا بينما زمن الخلط كان لحد 10 دقائق. معامل الخلط لكل تجربة كان يحسب بأخذ عشرة نماذج ذات مواقع مختلفة قطريا وخطيا من عمود التميع ذو القطر الداخلي 150 ملم وأرتفاعه 900 ملم.تم أستخدام النتائج العملية في حل موديل رياضي لمعدل الخلط ومعامل الخلط عند الأتزان مقترح من قبل Rose. النتائج التجريبية أستعملت لحل موديل رياضي لمعدل الجريان و معامل الخلط عند الاتزان أقترح من قبل .Rose النتائج بينت ان معامل الخلط يزداد بزيادة سرعة الهواء وزمن الخلط حتى يصل للقيمة المثلى ثم ينخفض الى أن يصل للاتزان. نتائج معدل الخلط بينت أعتمادها على مقدار الفرق بين حجم جسيمات المادة الكاشفة. أشار التحليل الإحصائي لكل من معامل الخلط النظري و العملي إلى أن الخطأ المعياري كان 0.92 % (حوالي 1 %) و معامل ارتباط 0.9857 ومجموع المتبقيات لتسع مشاهدات كان 0.002 لمستوى ثقة 95%.

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (9)


Language

English (8)

Arabic and English (1)


Year
From To Submit

2019 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

More...