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Article
Intestinal Parasitosis in Samarra’a City

Author: Aroub Abdul Rahman Al-Kaisi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-83
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Intestinal parasitic infections represent a relevant clinical problem especially in the developing countries, where they are responsible for morbidity and mortality in adults and children.Many epidemiological data are available for this type of infection in Iraq and other developing countries, but still we need to investigate more localities in order to know the difference in it’s frequency among different areas and to evaluate factors that affect such difference.AIM OF THE STUDY:This study was subjected to emphasize the problem of intestinal parasitosis among people in Samarra’a City and to visualize its distribution according to age and sex.METHODS:A total of 1050 patients (580 males and 470 females) , referred to the laboratory in a health center in Samarra’a City for the suspect of intestinal parasitosis, were subjected to stool examination by direct method during the period from January to May 2002.RESULTS:Among the 1050 stool samples examined, intestinal parasites were reported in 254 (24.19%), both sexes were nearly equally affected (24.46% in females & 23.96% in males). Interestingly infection with protozoa was predominating, the most common protozoa was Entamoeba histolytica /E.dispar (13.33%), the next common pathogenic protozoan found was Giardia lamblia (9.04%). Non pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba coli was seen in 17 individuals (1.62%).Only two cases of helminthes infections were reported in this study (0.2%), both were infected with Hymenolepis nana which is a tapeworm.Double infection was detected in two cases , one was infected with both Entamoeba histolytica /E.dispar and Giardia lamblia and the other one was infected with Giardia lamblia and Hymenolepis nana at the same time. No triple infection was reported during this study.CONCLUSION:Intestinal parasitosis represent a remarkable cause of gastrointestinal diseases, this study demonstrates that these infections are common in thearea under study


Article
A Study On The Common Microorganisms Causing Vaginitis

Author: Aroub Abdul Rahman Al-Kaisi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 426-430
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa is a common clinical syndrome. Women often complain of an abnormal discharge and possibly other symptoms such as offensive odor or itching. Trichomonas vaginalis ,candida albicans with other species of candida are well recognized causes of vaginitis Another type of vaginitis referred to as bacterial vaginosis is believed to be caused by Gardnerella vaginalisHowever, a purulent discharge from the endocervix can be observed in some cases of cevicitis, the endocervix is the site from which Neisseria gonorrhoea is most frequently isolated in women with gonococcal infections.AIM OF THE STUDY:This study was concerned with the isolation of common microorganisms which may present in female abnormal vaginal discharge.METHODS:The study was conducted in the period from November 1992 to August 1993 on 480 female patients presented with vaginal discharge with or without pruritis vulvae attended the Gynecological and Antenatal Outpatient Clinics in Baghdad Medical City compared to 50 females complaining of gynecological problems other than infection attended the same clinic.Different laboratory methods were carried out during this work to isolateTrichomonas vaginalis , Candida species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeaeRESULTS:Among 480 female patients subjected to this study, 92 were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (19.16%), Candida species were found in 118 patients (24.58%), Gardnerella vaginalis was reported in 94 (19.58%), while Neisseria gonorrhoea was seen in 8 patients (1.66%).Infection with both Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis was reported in 22 patients (23.91%), simultaneous infection of Trichomonas vaginalis and candida species was reported in 5 cases (5.43%), and in 7 patients combined infection of both Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea was seen (7.6%).CONCLUSION:The highest rate of combined infection was seen in infected cases with both Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis, since both favor the growth in similar environment especially in (PH>4.5).


Article
Trichomoniasis Among Females WithVaginal Discharge in Baghdad Medical City

Authors: Raja Al-Tikriti , --- Bahjat Al-Janabi --- Aroub Abdul Rahman Al-Kaisi
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 37-41
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background:
Trichomonas vaginalis is a pear shaped parasite, with a short undulating
membrane, lined with a flagellum and four anterior flagella. It is one of the most
common organisms causing infection in the female genital tract, which is normally
limited to vulva, vagina and cervix. It doesn't usually extend to the uterus. The
mucosal surface may be tender, inflamed and covered with a frothy yellow or
cream colored discharge.
Aim:
To evaluate the infection rate of Trichomonas vaginalis among females
complaining of vaginal discharge with or without pruritis vulvae, and to isolate the
parasite by different laboratory methods, such as wet mount method, culture on
special media and staining by special stains e.g. Leischman's stain, Giemsa's stain
and Papanicolaou's stain.
Fac Med Baghdad
2008; Vol.50,
No.1
Received Feb. 2007
Accepted Setp.2007
Methods:
The study was conducted in the period from November 1992 to August 1993 on
480 female patients presented with vaginal discharge with or without prurits vulvae
attended the Gynecological and Antenatal Outpatient Clinics in Medical City in
Baghdad, compared to 50 females complaining of gynecological problems other
than infection attended the same clinic.
Investigations carried out during this work include:
Wet mount examination ,Culture on artificial media ,Examination of fixed stained
smears with: Gram’s stain , Leishman's stain ,Giemsa's stain, Papanicolaou's
stained smear.
Results:
Among 480 females presented with vaginal discharge with or without pruritis
vulvae, an infection rate of (19.16%) was reported. Females subjected to this study
were classified into different groups, non-diabetics, diabetics, workers in hospital
and control group, giving an infection rates of (20.5%), (2.5%), (33.33%) and (8%)
respectively. Evaluation of the rate of infection among different age groups
revealed that the highest infection rate was in the ages of greatest sexual activities
from (14-39) years old. The signs of Trichomonas vaginalis infection were those of
vulvar, vaginal and cervical erythemae. The presenting symptoms were those of
discharge, discharge & itching, discharge & dysuria, itching, discharge & itching &
dysuria. However (12.5%) of the patients were asymptomatic. The discharge was of
different characters and the patients presented in different stages of the disease.
Conclusion:
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common cause of vaginits , most frequently seen at
the ages of greatest sexual activity where the patient usually presents with vaginal
discharge of different character which may or may not be associated with itching.
It has been noticed that clinical judgement alone is unsatisfactory for the
diagnosis of trichomoniasis and it must be aided by laboratory examination.


Article
Factors influencing the Prevalence and pathogenicity

Author: Aroub Abdul Rahman Al-Kaisi*Ph.D د. عروب عبد الرحمن
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 2 Pages: 271-276
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a common parasite of both male and female genital tracts. Transmission of the infection is mainly by sexual intercourse; however contaminated towels, douche equipments, examination instruments and other objects may be responsible for some infections.Aim: Is to study the influence of some factors that affect the spread of this parasite such as socioeconomic status, marital status, pregnancy and parity …….etc.Methods: The study was conducted in the period from November 1992 to August 1993 on 480 female patients presented with vaginal discharge with or without itching, compared to 50 females complaining of gynecological problems other than infections.Investigations carried out during this study include:.Wet mount examination.,.Culture on artificial media.,Examination of fixed stained smear with:a.Gram's stain.b.Leischman's stain.c.Giemsa's stain.d.Papanicolaou's stained smear.4. Measuring the PH of the vaginal discharge or the PH of the vaginal side wall.Results: The effect of some factors on the prevalence and pathology of Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated in this study. Among different socioeconomic groups, the higher infection rate (65.22%) was seen in the low socioeconomic group. The infection rate of trichomoniasis was found to be higher among married females (19.81%), than divorced (16.66%), widowed (12.5%) or singles (11.11%). Regarding the menstrual cycle, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis was found to be increasing during the postmenstrual phase of the cycle (24.21%) compared to the infection rate obtained from patients in the premenstrual phase of the cycle (16.09%). A higher infection rate was reported among non pregnant females (20%) than pregnant (9.09%).Females using different contraceptive measures showed an infection rate of (28.88%), which was higher than that reported among those not using any contraceptive measures (18.95%). The PH values of the vaginal discharge were measured in 90 patients and the highest infection were seen at PH values 6.0 (28.88%) and 5.5 (20%) respectively.Conclusion: The spread of Trichomonas vaginalis infection may be affected by many factors such as socioeconomic status, marital status, pregnancy status and parity, phase of the menstrual cycle, the use of different contraceptive measures and the PH values of the vaginal discharge..Key words: Epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis.


Article
Urethral trichomoniasis in Iraqi females

Author: Aroub Abdul Rahman Al-Kaisi, Ph.D Bahjat Al- Janabi, *Ph.D Raja Al-Tikriti Ph.D د. عروب عبد الرحمن القيسي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 3 Pages: 312-314
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has long been recognized as a cause of infectious vaginitis in women different studies have demonstrated a significant burden of the parasite to cause urethritis as well. It has been assumed that the localization of parasite in the urethra may be responsible for the recurrence of vaginal infection.Aim: To evaluate the infection rate of urethral trichomoniasis and to evaluate two different laboratory’ methods used in the diagnosis.Methods: The present study consisted of420female patients presented with vaginal discharge with or without itching or disorient, investigated for urethral trichomoniasis who were compared to 50 females represented the control group.Each female M’as asked to collect first 10-20 ml of urine in a sterile screw capped bottle; the deposits were examined microscopically by:. Wet mount method for Trichomonas vaginalis.2.Culture in a specific ready made culture media.At the same time high vaginal swabs were taken and examined by both wet mount and culture methods for vaginal trichomoniasis.Results: Among 420 female patients examined for both urine sediments and vaginal swabs ,80 (19.04%) females were found to be positive for T. vaginalis by vaginal SM'abs. The parasite was seen either in the vagina alone in 39 (9.28%) or in the vagina and urethra in 41(9.76%), but it M’as never isolated from urethra alone.Conclusion: Trichomonas vaginalis is a common parasite offemale urethm as well as of the vagina, the localization of this flagellate in the urethra may be responsible for the recurrence of vaginal infection, since it may survive in the urethra, possibly in the Paraurethral glands (skene's) so when the treatment is limited to the vagina, this will often fail to reach the urethra and the trichomonads may contaminate the vagina following urination or sexual intercourse, that is why systemic rather than local treatment is indicated.Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis. Urethritis.

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