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EFFECT OF SOME STERILIZATION METHODS IN TWO GYPSUM SOIL ROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SOYBEAN PLANT ( Glycine max L.)
تأثير بعض طرائق التعقيم في بعض صفات تربتين جبسيتين ونمو نبات فول الصويا (Glycine max L.)

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Abstract

The effects of three sterilization Methods (by autoclave, steam, formalin) on the number of properties to the two gypsum soils (25%, 5%) and using the Glycin Max L. as indicator plant.This experimental study was done in plastic pots in agriculture college of Tikrit university autumn 2013.This experiment was done according to the split plot design in clouding two factors: First: Essential factor (sterilization) that reprehensive the secondary plots which including four levels (without sterilization, sterilization by autoclave, formalin and steam).Second: The secondary factor (gypsum factor) that reprehensive two soils were differ in gypsum rate (25%, 5%).8 Treatments were resulted as interfering between the treatment ; and replicated 3 times for each one ; so 24 experiment units with its replicates were result. The measurements and analytical were recorded according to the studying properties of soils samples which were taken in two stage ; firstly . before sterilization and before culturing .The second ; after sterilization and after 45 days from culturing .The results showed that following: The steam sterilization was leading to the significantly increase . in the numbers fungi , bacteria and mycoriza spoors compare with the comparative treatment .The results showed that after culturing the number of fungi and bacteria in creasing significantly compare with it's numbers before culturing .The steam treatment recorded a highly value in nutrients availability (N , P , K , Zn , Mn , Cu) compare with other sterilization methods.While the lower values in numbers of bacteria , fungi and mycoriza spors and nutrients availability ( N , P , K , Zn , Mn , Cu) were recorded with the sterilization by formalin .The sterilization by steam and autoclave were recorded a highly values and significantly increased in dry weight for vegetative and root parts , plant height and the affected rates of roots by mycoriza compare with comparative treatment.The formalin treatment was recorded lowest value in dry weight of vegetative and root parts ; affected rate and plant height. The effect of gypsum was significantly in the numbers of bacteria , fungi and mycoriza spoors and nutrients availability (N , P, K, Zn, Mn, Cu) and the dry weight of vegetative and root parts , effected rate with mycoriza and the plant height.The soil which contain a low rate of gypsum was exceed compare with the soil contains a height rate of gypsum was significantly increasing by percents 24%, 6% CFU g dry soil for fungi and bacteria before culturing , while after 45 days from culturing were 58% , 11% CFU g-1 dry soil, and 24, 13 20 , 51.52, 1 (%) for N , P , K , Zn , Mn , Cu respectively , and a 6 , 86 , 23 % for dry weight for root and vegetative part and plant height respectively.The affected rate of plant root by mycoriza fungi was recorded 69% , 64% before and after culturing respectively. The maximum values in interaction treatment of steam sterilization and gypsum (5%) , in which total number of bacteria and fungi before cultivation were 4 *106 and 2.66 *104 CFU.gm-1 soil and became 5*106 and 4*104 CFU.gm-1 after cultivation respectively. This treatment steam sterilization and gypsum 5% was also superior in numbers of mycorrhizal spors before and after cultivation resulting in 22.64 and 38.64 spore.g-1 soil ,respectively. This treatment superior on nutrients elements a viability resulting in 24.94 , 18.9 , 83.2 , 7.36 , 18.02 and 1.1 mg.kg-1 for N , P , K , Zn , Mn and Cu , respectively. This led to an increase in plant hight, shoot and root dry weight mycorrhiza infection which were 42.86 cm , 29.08 and 18.93 gm and 75.33 % respectively . While the minimum values were in formalin sterilization with gypsum (25%) in which the total number of bacteria and fungi before and after cultivation and superior in numbers of mycorrhiza spors before and after cultivation (0.33 *106) , (0.33 *104) , (1.66 *106 ) , (1.00 *104) CFU.gm-1 soil and (1.32 , 4.2) spors.gm-1 before and after cultivation ,respectively. This treatment superior on nutrients elements aviability resulting in (1.43 , 1.13 , 9.81 , 0.37 , 1.56 , 0.02 )mg.kg-1 for N , P , K , Zn , Mn and Cu respectively. This led to an increase in plant hight, shoot and root dry weight mycorrhiza infection which were (2.06 cm) , (7.51 , 3.66)gm , (5.00)% respectively.

أجريت تجربة عاملية في الأصص البلاستيكية في كلية الزراعة -جامعة تكريت للموسم الزراعي الخريفي 2013 لدراسة تأثير ثلاث طرائق للتعقيم (التعقيم بالمؤصدة والتعقيم بالبخار و التعقيم بالفورمالين) في عدد من صفات تربتين جبسيتين (5%, 25%) وأستخدام نبات فول الصويا (Glycine max L.) كدليل نباتي, ونفذت التجربة على وفق تصميم الألواح المنشقة Split plot وأشتملت التجربة على عاملين: الأول:- عامل التعقيم ويتضمن أربع مستويات (بدون تعقيم والتعقيم بالمؤصدة والتعقيم بالبخار والتعقيم بالفورمالين) والثاني:- يمثل تربتين جبسيتين مختلفتين في نسبة الجبس(5 و25%), ونتج عن التداخل بين المعاملات 8 معاملات وكررت كل معاملة 3 مرات فنتج عن المعاملات ومكرراتها 24 وحدة تجريبية, وأخذت عينات من التربة بمرحلتين الأولى قبل التعقيم وقبل الزراعة والثانية بعد التعقيم وبعد 45 يوم من الزراعة وسجلت القياسات والتحاليل المطلوبة حسب الصفات المدروسة, بينت النتائج أن التعقيم بالبخار ادى الى زيادة معنوية في أعداد البكتريا والفطريات وأعداد سبورات المايكورايزا وزيادة جاهزية العناصر الغذائية (النتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم والزنك والمنغنيز والنحاس) مقارنة ببقية طرائق التعقيم, وأعطى التعقيم بالبخار أعلى القيم في أرتفاع نبات فول الصويا والوزن الجاف للجزء الخضري والجذري ونسبة الأصابة بالمايكورايزا مقارنة ببقية طرائق التعقيم, وسجلت معاملة التعقيم بالفورمالين أقل القيم وبأنخفاض معنوي في أعداد البكتريا والفطريات وأعداد سبورات المايكورايزا وجاهزية العناصر الغذائية ( النتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم والزنك و المنغنيز والنحاس) وأرتفاع نبات فول الصويا والوزن الجاف للجزء الخضري والجذري ونسبة الأصابة مقارنة بمعاملة التعقيم بالبخار, وكان تأثير الجبس معنوياً ,اذ تفوقت التربة الحاوية نسبة جبس 5% وبأرتفاع معنوي في أعداد البكتريا والفطريات وأعداد سبورات المايكورايزا وجاهزية العناصر الغذائية (النتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم والزنك والمنغنيز والنحاس) وأرتفاع نبات فول الصويا والوزن الجاف للجزء الخضري والجذري ونسبة الاصابة بالمايكورايزا مقارنة بالتربة الحاوية على25% جبس.

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