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1. Editorial: CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN THE MIDDLE EAST: HISTORY AND FACTS

Author: Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi اسماء باقر العبيدي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 111-113
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is the highest widespread, tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever that affect humans. This virus is endemic in many areas in the world, such as Africa, Asia, and Europe. Nowadays, the incidence of CCHF is increasing rapidly in several countries of the middle-east, with several outbreaks and sporadic cases in human of CCHF, that are reported in several countries in this region.Keywords: CCHF, Middle east, IraqCitation: Al-Obaidi AB. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the middle east: history and facts. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(2): 111-113. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.2.1

Keywords

CCHF --- Middle east --- Iraq


Article
High Expression of P53 protein in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Could Play a Role in the Pathology!!

Authors: Thanaa Rasheed ثناء رشيد --- Asmaa’ B. Al-Obaidi اسماء العبيدي --- Nidhal Abdul-Mohaymen نضال عبد المهيمن
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 194-197
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Recent data provide evidence that p53 plays a critical role in mediating pregnancy by regulating steroid hormone activation
Objective: localization of semi quantitation tof por protein at the materno-fetal interface, in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry analysis of p53 protein using paraffin embedded sections of curate samples obtained from 40 women, who where divided into three groups: 24 women with RPL, 10 women with abortion for the first time, and 6 women with induced abortion.
Results: The mean value of the expression of p53 protein in the RPL group was (65.8±2.16), which is significantly higher than that of the second group (48.0±2.81), and the third group (50.0±4.66), (p=0.000).
Conclusion: High expression of p53 protein in women with RPL may have a role in accelerating placental apoptosis leading to failure of pregnancy.


Article
VCAM-1 Expression in Endometerium with Human

Author: *Asmaa B Al-Obaidi MBChB,MSc **Manal Adnan Habib MBChB,PhD *Shatha Al-ZuhairyMBChB,FICOG
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: To elucidate the possible role of human cytomegalovirus in pregnancy loss through induction of certain pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules.Methods: Paraffin embedded sections of curate samples were obtained from 34 women had spontaneous abortion, and 5 women had elective termination of pregnancy (as control), and then subjected for immunohistochemistry analysis to detect human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) early protein and VCAM-1 molecule.Results: Nine out of 34 women with spontaneous abortion were positive for HCMV early protein, with asignificantly higher expression of VCAM-1 in HCMV positive cases as compared with HCMV negative and the control groups (p = 0.05, 0.001 respectively).Conclusion: HCMV infection may play an important role in the pathology of pregnancy loss on multidirectional bases include inducing the surface expression of pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules like VCAM-1.Key wards: human cytomegalovirus, VCAM-1, Abortion


Article
7.ADENOVIRUS INFECTION IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: MOLECULAR AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDY

Authors: Hind M. Ahmed --- Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi --- Mustafa R. Hussein --- Haider S. Kadhim --- et al.
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 279-288
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Human Adenovirus (ADV) is one of highly prevalent viruses worldwide, after primary infection, it remains latent and then might reactivate in immunocompromised patients. High ADV viremia seen in renal transplant recipients (RTR) with clinical presentations range from asymptomatic viremia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease hemorrhagic cystitis, graft dysfunction and severe disseminated disease.Objective: The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of occurrence of ADV viremia by quantitative Real time PCR (QRT-PCR) in RTR and correlate them with urine cytology results, renal function tests and patients' hematological parameters.Methods:Seventy-one renal transplant recipients (RTR) were enrolled in this study. Whole blood samples (3 ml) divided into two parts, one part for complete blood picture and differential count and other part from which plasma separated and subjected to viral DNA extraction and then ADV Taqman QRT-PCR analysis for viral load measurement. Five ml urine specimens were collected for Pap-stained urine cytology.Results: Out of 71 RTR, 15 (21.12%) had positive ADV viremia by QRT-PCR, with a mean viral load 4.0 x107± 1.9 x108 copies/ml, and 80% (12 out of the 15) of positive viremia patients aged more than 40 years (p=0.011). All of RTRs 15/15 (100%) had symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) (p=0.039), and 5 out of 9 patients who had lymphopenia had positive viremia (p=0.007). Pap-stained urine cytology smears showed that 39/71 (55.71%) of the RTRs had positive decoy cells (DC), but there was no significant correlation between ADV viremia and the presence of DC (p=0.107).Conclusion: The present study showed the prevalence of ADV viremia in RTRs, with very high viral load, which is associated with lymphopenia and overt clinical features, this suggests that ADV might be an important cause of morbidity in RTRs.Keywords: Adenovirus, renal transplantation, real-time PCR, urine cytologyCitation: Ahmed HM, Al-Obaidi AB, Hussein MR, Kadhim HS, Ghazi HF. Adenovirus infection in a sample of iraqi kidney transplant recipients: molecular and hematological study. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(3): 279-288. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.3.7


Article
Immunocytochemical Detection of Glutathione S-Transferase in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
التحري المناعي الخلوي للانزيم للأنزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون في خلايا الدم اللمفية المحيطيةفي المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل الرثوي

Authors: Manal A. Habib منال عدنان --- Huda Adnan هدى عدنان --- Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi اسماء باقر --- Haider F. Ghazi حيدر غازي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2015 Volume: 57 Issue: 4 Pages: 303-306
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL)of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)patients have a property of phenotypic and functional activation. Glutathione S- transferase pi (GSTπ) has been implicated in playing an important role in the initiation and progression of cellular activation.Objectives: To determine the percentage of cellular expression of GSTπ in the lymphocytes of RA patients in comparison with controls and to explore the relation between its cellular expression and disease activity pattern.Patients and Methods: This prospective study included46 RA patients and 17 healthy controls. Blood samples were taken and from all subjects PBL were isolated and then smeared on slides. The cellular reactivity for GSTπ was determined by immunocytochemistry technique.Results: This study found lower expression of GSTπ in the RA patients with a statistical significant difference with control group, while no statistical difference was found in RA with high and minimum disease activity groups. No correlation was observed between GSTπ with Disease Activity Score (DAS). Conclusion: Although the decrease in the expression of GSTπ in PBLs was pronounced in RA patients, however it doesn’t correlate with disease activity state.Key word: Peripheral blood lymphocytes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Glutathione S-transferase, immunocytochemistry.

الخلفية: لخلايا الدم اللمفية المحيطية لمرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي لها ميزة النشاط الوضيفي والشكلي. للانزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون دور مهم في حث واستمرار النشاط الخلوي.أهداف الدراسة:معرفة نسبة اظهارللانزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون في خلايا الدم اللمفية المحيطية لمرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي وعناصر السيطرة والعلاقة مع نشاط المرض السريري.المرضى والطرائق: ستة وأربعون مريض مصابونبإلتهاب مفاصل الروماتويدي قَورنوا ب17 شخصا سويا كمجموعة ضبط من الأعمار المماثلة. الخلايا اللمفية فصلت من عينات الدم المحيطي ثم تم تقييم نسبة الاظهار للانزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون بأستعمال طريقة التصبيغ المناعي الخلوي الكيميائي.النتائج: كان لمرضى إلتهاب المفاصل الرثوي نسبة اظهاراوطأ للانزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون بفرق احصاء عالي مقارنة بمجموعة الضبط. بينما لايوجد فرق معنوي بين المجموعة عالية النشاط والمجموعة الواطئة النشاط، ولم يلاحظ وجود إرتباطَ نسبة اظهار أعلى للانزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون بدالة نشاط المرض.الاستنتاجات: لوحظ انخفاض في نسبة اظهارللانزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون في خلايا الدم اللمفية المحيطيةلمرضى إلتهابالمفاصل الرثوي وكذلك ليس لها علاقة بنشاطالمرض السريري.مفاتيح الكلمات: التهاب المفاصل الرثوي، الأنزيم المحول للكلوتاثيون، التصبيغ المناعي الخلوي الكيميائي، خلايا الدم اللمفية المحيطية.


Article
5.SERO-PREVALENCE AND PLASMA VIRAL LOAD OF EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS AMONG IRAQI BLOOD DONORS

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Background:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common latent viruses inside the humans' B-lymphocytes and it has been documented as a causative agent of many cancers. The virus may be transmitted when infected blood transfused to immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.Objective:To estimate the prevalence of EBV among apparently healthy blood donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Methods:Four hundred fifty (450) blood donors were enrolled in this study. Plasma samples were screened by ELISA technique for detection of EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgG). DNA extracted from 50 representative samples of these 450, and plasma EBV viral load was investigated by RT-PCR.Results:The overall sero-prevalence of EBV IgG was 79.8%, with a significantly higher prevalence among females than males. RT-PCR results were negative for all of the 50 representative samples.Conclusion:The high EBV sero-prevalence rates among Iraqi subjects raise the possibility of increasing the risk of EBV-associated malignant diseases.Keywords:Epstein-Barr virus, seroprevalence, VCA-IgG, real-time PCR, blood donorsCitation:Amjad Q. Redha, Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi, Haider F. Ghazi, Haider S. Kadhim. Sero-prevalence and plasma viral load of Epstein Barr virus among Iraqi blood donors. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 135-142. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.5


Article
14.MOLECULAR DETECTION OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI PATIENTS WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA AND STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

Authors: Hussein A. Al-Toban --- Huda D. Al-Marsomy --- Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi --- Waseem F. Al Tameemi --- et al.
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 344-352
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Acute leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are risk factors for opportunistic infection and reactivation of many latent infection like cytomegalovirus.Objective: Detection and quantification of cytomegalovirus viremia in patients with acute leukemia after induction chemotherapy and post allogeneic stem cell transplantation patients.Methods:A prospective study enrolled 61 patients with acute leukemia. Forty-eight of them evaluated while induction chemotherapy (group I), while the other 13 within 1-year post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (group II). In addition, 30 apparently healthy individuals were recruited as (control group), blood samples were collected from all groups. Viral DNA was extracted from 1 ml plasma samples, and then, cytomegalovirus DNA was detected and quantitatively assessed by Taqman quantitative real-time PCR.Results: Twelve (25%) out of 48 patients in group I, 2 (15.4%) out of the 13 patients in group II, and 2 (6.7%) out of 30 in the control group had positive cytomegalovirus viremia. The mean cytomegalovirus viremia was 5.192x102, 2.71x102 and 1.60x102 copies/ml for group I, group II and controls respectively, p=0.056. Conclusion: There is a relatively high prevalence of cytomegalovirus viremia in Iraqi patients with acute leukemia after chemotherapy and post BMT. Real-time PCR assay is helpful for early diagnosis of cytomegalovirus viremia in leukemic patients and used to monitor post BMT patients at risk for cytomegalovirus disease.Keywords: HCMV, acute leukemia, stem cell transplantation, real-time PCRCitation: Al-Toban HA, Al-Marsomy HD, Al-Obaidi AB, Al Tameemi WF, Mohammed MA, Al-Saeed RM, Al-Shemary IK. Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus in a sample of iraqi patients with acute leukemia and stem cell transplantation. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(3): 344-352. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.3.14


Article
DETECTION OF EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: TWO CENTERS STUDY

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Background:Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infections after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered and the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection.Epstein-Barr virus infection has also been implicated as co-factor in acute and chronic rejection syndromes.Objective:Detection of Epstein-Barr viremia in renal transplant recipients.Methods:Fifty seven (57) renal transplant recipients were enrolled in this study. Plasma samples were taken from all renal transplant subjects. Screening of Epstein-Barr virus was first done by serology viamono spot test, then, viral DNA of Epstein-Barr viruswas extracted from 200 µl plasma samples and Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected and measured by Taqman quantitative real-time PCR.Results:19/57 (33 %) of renal transplant subjects had Epstein-Barr virus viremia and the viral load ranged from 7100 to 16.165 copies/ml. Serology of all RT subjects showed negative heterophil antibody except for one patient had positive hetrophil antibody.Conclusion:The current study showed that Epstein-Barr virus might be considered as an important cause of renal impairment and allograft loss in renaltransplant subjects. And Epstein-Barr virus seems associated with post transplantation renal impairment and/or kidney rejection. Real-time PCR is a very sensitive and specific method for the detection of Epstein-Barr viremia in renal transplant subjects.Key words:Epstein-Barr virus, Renal transplantation, real-time PCR


Article
2.HIGH PREVALENCE OF JOHN CUNNINGHAM VIRURIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

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Background:John Cunningham virus (JCV) is one of the important viruses in immunocompromised patients. High JC viruria is seen in kidney allograft recipients; some of them with a polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN) just like BK polyomavirus but to a lesser extent.Objective:To detect JCV viruria in a sample of Iraqi renal transplant recipients, and its association with renal function.Methods:A prospective study enrolled 71 renal transplant recipients (RTR) and 20 normal donors (ND) as controls. Urine samples were collected from all RTR and ND. Viral DNA was extracted from 1 ml urine samples, and then, JC virus DNA was detected and measured by Taqman quantitative real-time PCR.Results:Out of 71 RTRs, 31 (43.66%), and 2 out of the 20 (10%) controls had positive JC viruria. The mean JCV viruria was 6.8 x104, and 1.04x103 copies/ml for RTRs and controls respectively.Conclusion:There is a relatively high prevalence of JCV viruria in Iraqi RTR patients.Keywords:JC virus, renal transplantation, urine, real-time PCR. Citation:Mervit B. Jasim, Ali J.H. Al-Saedi, Mustafa R. Hussein, Asmaa B. Al-Obaidi, Haider S. Kadhim. High prevalence of John Cunningham viruria in renal transplant recipients. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 108-115. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.2


Article
The Impact of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Gene of Toll-Like Receptor-4 in Prostate Cancer
تأثير التغييرات الجينية المنفردة في جين المستقبل الشبيه للتول 4 في سرطان البروستات

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Background: Prostate cancer is one of the major medical problems in male population. Chronic inflammation has an important role in many human cancers and could be involved in the etiology of prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors are important tolls in innate immunity to pathogens. Many environmental factors could predispose for this cancer, however, genetic background of the population cannot be neglected. Objective: To explore the hypothesis that genetic variation in TLR4 gene can influence the individual's susceptibility to prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 95 outpatient men with histologically-proven prostate cancer as well as 45 apparently healthy men were recruited for this study. Blood samples were taken from each participant from which genomic DNA was extracted and TLR4 gene was PCR-amplified, using specific primers. PCR products were genotyped by direct sequencing.Results: Asp299gly and Thr399Ile SNPs had only two genotypes; the distributions of these genotypes were statistically not significant between prostate cancer patients and controls. At allele levels, the control group had significantly higher frequency in the mutant allele of Thr399Ile SNP (allele T) than prostate cancer patients. On the other hand, the rs11536889 had three genotypes with the mutant homozygous genotype (CC) and the mutant allele were more prevalent in PCa than controls with significant difference (OR=3.433, 95%CI=1.107-10.645, P= 0.033 and OR=2.730, 95%CI= 1.095-6.803, P=0.031 respectively). Conclusion: Allele T of Thr399Ile SNP may have a protective role, while allele C of rs11536889 SNP might increase the risk of prostate cancer.

خلفية الدراسة: يعد سرطان البروستات احد المشاكل الصحية لدى الذكور. الالتهاب المزمن يلعب دورا رئيسيا في العديد من السرطانات في البشر ومنها سرطان البروستات. المستقبلات الشبيهة للتول تلعب دورا هاما في المناعة ضد مسببات الامراض. عدد من العوامل البيئية لها تاثير مباشر في احداث السرطان بالاضافة الى العوامل الجينية. الهدف من الدراسة: ايجاد نظرية التغايرات الجينية في جينات مستقبل التول 4 الذي قد يؤتر في قابلية توليد سرطان البروستات لدى الرجال.المرضى وطرائق العمل: تم جمع 95 مريض مصاب بسرطان البروستات و 45 رجل غير مصاب بالمرض تم استخدامها كمجموعة سيطرة. تم سحب عينة دم من كل المشمولين بالدراسة واستخلاص الحامض النووي الرايبوزي (الدنا) من جميع العينات باستخدام تقنية تفاعل البلمرة للكشف عن جين مستقبل التول 4 بعدها تم تحديد انواع التغايرات الجينية لهذا المستقبل باستخدام السيكونسر المباشر (لتحديد تسلسل الجينات في هذا المستقبل)النتائج: اظهرت نتائج الدراسة انتشارا ذو دلالة غير احصائية في كل من الرضى والسيطرة بخصوص الجينان لمستقبل التول 4 (Asp299gly و Thr399Ile) وعلى مستوى المزدوجات فقد ظهر في مجموعة السيطرة نسبة عالية في التغاير الجيني اكثر مما في سرطان البروستات. (OR=3.433, 95%CI=1.107-10.645, P= 0.033 and OR=2.730, 95%CI= 1.095-6.803, P=0.031).الاستنتاج: بعض المزدوجات تظهر دورا حاميا ضد السرطان اما البعض الآخر يزيد نسبة الخطورة للاصابة بسرطان البروستات.

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