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Article
Bacteriological study of Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Erbil city
دراسة بكتريولوجية لعدوى المسالك البولية المكتسبة من المستشفيات في مدينة أربيل

Author: Aza Bahadeen Taha
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 45-50
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Urinary tract infections are amongst the most common infections, Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection increases not only morbidity and mortality but also hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to determine bacteria responsible for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection, their antibiotic sensitivities and to describe the risk factors of the infection.Methods: All urine samples fulfilling the criteria for significant bacteriuria were included in the study. Isolation and identification of bacteria was performed by standard method and susceptibility testing was determined by disk diffusion method.Results: Out of 290 patients, 133 (45.86%) have acquired hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. Older age, hospitalization and catheterization were risk factors of the infection. Escherichia coli (51.70%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.33%) represented the most common isolates. The most bacteria isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, rifampin and trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole.Conclusions: To prevent hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, important factors must be taken into consideration, for example: avoid unnecessary urethral catheterization, choose narrow spectrum antibiotics according to antibiotic sensitivities, and investigate regularly the causative bacteria and their susceptibility patterns


Article
Etiology of infertility in couples attending maternity hospital in Erbil
مسببات العقم عند الأزواج الذين يذهبون إلى مستشفى الولادة في أربيل

Authors: Khanzad Hadi Rashid --- Aza Bahadeen Taha
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 322-330
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Infertility remains a global health challenge with devastating psycho-social consequences in many communities and an underlying long-term risk for separation of the couple, also remains a major clinical and social problem. Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of intercourse. An understanding of the medical causes of infertility is crucial in order to reduce incidences of infertility and for improving the clinical management of infertility. The aim of the study was to determine the causes of infertility in couples. Methods: A retrospective study was done in IVF Unit at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil. Data of infertile couples were collected from already prepared patient’s files. Results: The frequency of primary and secondary infertility among women was 62.97% and 37.03%, respectively. Among 370 couples, 35.68% had female factor, 29.46% had both male and female factors, and 19.73% had male factor, while 15.14% of the couples had unexplained infertility. Conclusion: Primary infertility was common health problem in couples, also the causes of infertility in women is noticed more than men.

Keywords

Infertility --- Etiology --- Hormones --- Semen


Article
Assessment of Antibiotics Misuse among People in Erbil City
تقيم شيوع استعمال المضادات الحيوية و تأثيراتها السلبية على الاشخاص في مدينة اربيل

Authors: Ismail Bilal Ismail --- Kazhal Hassan Hama --- Aza Bahadeen Taha
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-35
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Antibiotics are only useful for treating bacterial infections. Inadequate use of antibiotics includes overuse, inappropriate type, dose, duration and/or frequency of administration had been a major problem. Antibiotic use has been identified as a major contributor to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: Assessment self-medication and inappropriate of antibiotics were used among people in Erbil city. To find out the associations between the antibiotic use and knowledge related antibiotic consumption.Methods: The study was used a cross-sectional study, which conducted on 500 randomly, selected adult residents in Erbil by using a face-to-face questionnaire. Results: About half of the study samples (52.40%) did not know that antibiotics has adverse effect on humans body, 37.80% were agree to used antibiotic for headache treatment, 65.80% of them did not know that antibiotics kill normal flora, and 57.20% were did not know that bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. In addition, 46.00% were used antibiotics on advice of someone other than a physician or pharmacist, 46.20% of peoples were some time used antibiotics against colds and flu, 52.40% of peoples were some time used antibiotics as injection, and 57.20% of peoples were some time used antibiotic as one capsule when needed.Conclusion: Self-medication and inappropriate use of antibiotics were problems among people in the community.Recommendation: Strict precautions should be taken about antibiotics use and sale without prescriptions.

خلفية البحث : تعد المضادات الحيوية واحدة من اكثر الادوية استخداما من قبل الاشخاص للقضاء على للالتهابات البكترية. ان استعمال المضادات الحيوية تحتاج الى دقة في الاستخدام النوعي والكمي و تحديد المدة الزمنية اللازمة لاخذ المضادات الحيوية, فهذه المضادات الحيوية تسبب مشاكل عدة للمرضى والاهم من ذلك تولد مقاومة للمضادات الحيوية و انتشار هذه المقاومة . الهدف : ان الهدف من هذه الدراسة تقيم ظاهرة استخدام المضادات الحيوية من قبل الاشخاص بشكل عام ومعرفة مدى دقة استخدامها ومعلومات المستخدم حول المضادات الحيوية بدون استشارة الاطباء. المنهجية: في هذه الدراسة تم اخذ 500 عينة بشكل عشوائى عن عن طريق اجراء مقابلات مع الاشخاص البالغين من مختلف المناطق في اربيل .النتائج: نتائج هذه الدراسة اظهرت ان مايقارب نصف المستخدمين (52.4%) للمضادات الحيوية لم يكن لديهم ايه معلومات عن الاعراض الجانبية و ان 37.8% من المشاركين في البحث كانت لديهم فكرة خاطئة عن استخدام المضادات الحيوية لعلاج الصداع. ان 65.8% من المشاركين لم يكن لديهم فكرة على ان المضادات الحيوية قد تقضي و تساعد في قتل البكتيريا المفيدة للجسم. وان 57.2% من المشاركين لم يكن لديهم اي فكرة حول ازدياد مقاومة البكتريا للمضادات الحيوية عنده كثرة استخدامها. اظهرت هذه الدراسة ان 46% من المشاركين كانوا يستخدمون المضادات الحيوية بدون استشارة الاطباء او الصيادلة وان 46.2% منهم يستخدمونها لعلاج الانفلونزا وان 52.4% من المستخدمين يفضلون استخدام المضادات الحيوية عن شكل حبوب اوالكبسولات . الاستنتاجات : أظهرت هذه الدراسة مدى انتشار استخدام المضادات الحيوية وبشكل غير علمي ودقيق مما يسبب مشاكل عديدة واعراض جانبية لدى المستخدمين .التوصيات: توصى هذه الدراسة على عدم صرف المضاداة الحيوية من بدون استشارة الاطباء من قبل الصيدليات.


Article
Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility among clinical isolates in Erbil City
المكورات العنقودية الذهبية مع انخفاض حساسية فانكومايسين بين العزلات السريرية في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Sabria M. Said Al-Salihi --- Aza Bahadeen Taha
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 651-658
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is responsible for a wide range of diseases and increased number of the strains that acquired resistance to antibiotics. The emergence of Vancomycin resistance of S. aureus has been a significant impact on human health. The distribution of Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in S. aureus isolates, and compared antibiotic susceptibility to non-glycopeptideantibiotics in different Vancomycin MIC value groupswere assessed in this study.Methods: S. aureuswere isolated by standard method and subjected to MIC tested by broth microdilution method for Vancomycin and eight non-glycopeptideantibiotics, alsoVancomycin MBCs were determined.Results: Approximately 56% of S. aureus with a 0.5 µg/ml Vancomycin MIC were accounted, whereas 1.77% of S. aureushadan 8 µg/ml Vancomycin MIC. In other hand, most S. aureus had 1 and 2 µg/ml Vancomycin MBC.Conclusion: About half of the S. aureus isolates had 0.5 µg/ml of Vancomycin MIC. Relationship between Vancomycin MIC and resistance to non-glycopeptideantibiotics were observed, with increased Vancomycin MIC, the resistance to others antibiotics also elevated, and vice versa.


Article
Community and Hospital Acquired Infection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Erbil City
حصول المجتمع والمستشفى على العدوى من المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للميثيسيلين في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Sabria M. Said Al-Salihi --- Aza Bahadeen Taha
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 52-60
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in both community and hospitals, and associated with high morbidity and mortality rates with rapid development of resistance. The ethicillin-resistance occurs due to the presence of PBP2a of the bacterial cell wall, which has low affinity for β-lactam antibiotics. MRSA are often multi-resistant to both β-lactams and non-β-lactams antibiotics. The study was documented the occurrence of community and hospital acquired MRSA infections.Method: The clinical specimens were collected from patients at three teaching hospitals in Erbil city. All Staphylococcus aureus were identified as MRSA by detection of PBP2a.Results: Out of 377 Staphylococcus aureus isolated, 30.24% were MRSA. The wound was the most common infection site for both community and hospital acquired MRSA. Statistically the patients with hospital acquired MRSA were older than the community acquired MRSA.Conclusions: MRSA is one of the most common causes of serious infection in community and hospital settings. The most common site infected by MRSA is the surgical wound infection.

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