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Article
Design and Simulation of A New Proposed Single-Slope Integrating Analog-to- Digital Converter System Based on Non-Linear Amplifiers
تصميم ومحاكاة دائرة مقترحة جديدة لمغير الاشارة التماثلية الى رقمية نوع تكامل الانحدارالمنفرد مبنية على أساس مكبرات الغير خطية

Author: Azzad B. Saeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 6 Pages: 1241-1252
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this paper, a unipolar single-slope integrating analog-to-digitalconverter(ADC) is discussed, designed, and simulated, whereas, its conversiontime is less than that of the dual-slope integrating ADC.The proposed systemconsists of logarithmic amplifier,anti-logarithmic amplifier, integrator, counter,control logic unit and two timers stages.The proposed design characterizes some of significant properties whichmake it distinguished from the other previous designed systems, such as, it hasgood noise immunity because of passing of the analog input signal through theintegrator circuit which it considered as a low pass filter. This system is capableto convert an analog voltage of range of (0.0 – 0.6) volt using non-linearamplifiers. At last, this system has very good forward linearity relation between theoutput digital number and the analog input voltage value which is realized later bytheoretical calculation and simulation results.This system is simulated and tested using software package ElectronicWorkbench version V9, and one can see that simulation results approach to thetheoretical results, so for this reason, this system possesses acceptable design andperformance.

تم في هذا البحث, مناقشة وتصميم وتنفيذ منظومة جديدة احادية القطب لتحويل الإشارةحيث أن وقت ,( Single-slope integrating) التماثلية إلى رقمية نوع تكامل الانحدار المنفردتحويل الاشارة الخاص لهذه المنظومة هو أقل بكثير من الوقت الخاص للتحويل لمنظومة تكاملإن المنظومة المقترحة تحتوي على مكبر .(Dual-slope integrating) الانحدار المزدوجلوغارتمي ,مكبر معاكس لوغارتمي,مكبر تكامل,عداد, وحدة سيطرة منطقية ومرحلتي مؤقتين.ان المنظومة المقترحة تمتاز بعدة خواص مهمة والتي تجعلها ممبزة عن المنظوماتالمصممة مسبقا, فمثلا, انها تمتاز بمناعة جيدة ضد الضوضاء وذلك بسبب مرور اشارة الدخولالتماثلبة عبر دائرة المكامل والتي تعد بمثابة مرشح للترددات المنخفضة. كما تمتاز هذ ه0.6 ) فولت - المنظومة بأنها قادرة على تحويل الاشارات التماثلية الواطئة بمدى ( 0.0باستخدام المكبرات الغير خطية. وكذلك تمتاز بدقة العلاقة الخطية بين الرقم الناتج قيمة العداد ) وقيمة اشارة الدخول التماثلية والتي سوف يتم لاحقا اثباتها بالحسابات النظريةونتائج المحاكاة.Electronic Workbench نفذت هذه المنظومة وأختبرت باستخدام الرزمة البرمجيةحيث تمت مقارنة نتائج المحاكاة مع النتائج النظرية وكانت متقاربة جدا وبذلك اصبحت V9المنظومة مقبولة من حيث الأداء والتصميم.


Article
Design and Implementation of a New Proposed Electronic Clock System Based on The Integrating Amplifiers
تصمیم وتنفیذ منظومة مقترحة جدیدة لساعة الكترونیة مبنیة على أساس المكبرات التكاملیة

Author: Azzad B. Saeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 17 Pages: 5468-5480
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this paper, a new proposed system of electronic clock is discussed, designed and implemented, it consists of digital electronic components such as, logic gates and decade counters, and analog electronic components such as, integrating amplifiers. These integrating amplifiers converts the digital output signal of the minutes and hours counters to an analog triangular signal. Two signal indicators are used in this design to measure the minutes and hours output signal, which they are scaled in desired and proper manner. This system has vary good forward linearity between the measured time and the output signal of the integrating amplifiers. This system is practically implemented and tested using software package Electronic Workbench version V9, whereas, the practical, simulation and theoretical results were approximately identical, therefore, this system has successful design and implementation.

تم في ھذا البحث, مناقشة وتصمیم وتنفیذ منظومة جدیدة مقترحة لساعة الكترونیة, حیث انھا تحتوي على مكونات الكترونیة رقمیة, كالبوابات المنطقیة والعدادات العشریة, وكذلك تحتوي على مكونات الكترونیة تماثلیة, كالمكبرات التكاملیة.حیث ان ھذه المكبرات التكاملیة تحول اشارة الخرجالرقمیة لعدادات الدقائق والساعات الى اشارة مثلثیة تماثلیة. تم استخدام اثنان من مبینات الاشارة في ھذا التصمبم لقیاس اشارة خرج الدقائق والساعات,بحیث تم تدریج ھذه المبینات بالصورة المرغوبة والصحیحة. كما تمتازھذه المنظومة بدقة العلاقة الخطیة الطردیة بین الوقت المقاس واشارة خرج المكبراتالتكاملیة. نفذت ھذه المنظومة عملیا وًأختبرت باستخدام الرزمة البرمجیةحیث ان النتائج العملیة والمحاكاة والنظریة كانت تقریباً ,Electronic Workbench V9 متماثلة, لذلك فان ھذه المنظومة تمتلك تصمیم وتنفیذ ناجحین.

Keywords

Counter --- divider --- integrator


Article
Realization of Direct Linear Relation Between Control Voltage and Resonance Frequency of the LC Voltage Controlled Oscillator

Author: Azzad B. Saeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 966-971
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The main problem of traditional LC ( L represents the inductance, and C represents the Capacitance) Voltage Controlled Oscillators VCOs, is the non-linearity relation between the tuning control voltage and output resonance frequency, which is caused by two following reasons: the first one is the inverse and non-linear relation between the tuning control voltage and produced capacitance of the used varactor diode in the VCO circuit, and the second is the inverse and non-linear relation between the capacitance value of the used varactor diode and the output resonance frequency. In this paper, a proposed circuit has been designed and implemented to solve this problem and realize a direct-linear relation between the tuning control voltage and output resonance frequency for the LC Voltage Controlled Oscillator that utilize the varactor diode as a voltage controlled capacitance. The proposed circuit has been realized using Logarithmic, Inverting, Ant-Logarithmic, and Difference Amplifiers, which they are characterized by their simplicity and low cost. The theoretical and practical results of testing the proposed circuit had been presented using MATLAB software package. The proposed work has been practically tested by 21 measurement points, whereas, it has exhibited stimulant results that supports the successfulness of its design and performance.


Article
New Accurate Wattmeter Based on Logarithmic Amplifiers

Author: Azzad B. Saeed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 11 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1165-1170
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Analog Computers can realize most of mathematical equations; theseequations can be solved using difference, adder, logarithmic, anti-logarithmic,integrator, and differentiator amplifiers. The logarithmic and anti-logarithmicamplifiers are the main components of the analog computers, whereas, they canconvert the multiplication and division operations to addition and subtractionones, and they can convert the exponential functions to multiplicationrelationships. These amplifiers depend on the non-linearity of the relationbetween forward current and applied voltage of the diode. All of previous types ofwattmeters, measure the consumed power of a specific load or resistor bymultiplying the difference voltage of that load by the current passes through it(i.e. P=V.I). In this paper, a proposed accurate wattmeter circuit has beendesigned and implemented using logarithmic, anti-logarithmic, non-inverting,and difference amplifiers. The proposed circuit has been utilized for measuringthe consumed power of a resistor that have any resistance value. It differs fromprevious conventional (analog, and digital) wattmeters due to its calculation ofthe consumed power for a given resistor by multiplying the voltage difference(V) across that resistor by itself once time, then the resultant value is divided bythe resistance (R) value of that resistor (i.e. P=V2/R).

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