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Article
Nucleolar organizer regions in giant cell lesions of the jaws in relation to clinico-pathological parameters

Author: Balkees T. Garib
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2009 Volume: 21 Issue: 4 Pages: 59-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: It is to clarify the proliferatiove activity of the multinucleated giant cells and cellular component in giant
cell lesions of the jaw in correlation to their clinico-pathological features.
Materials and methods: This study was carried on 23 cases diagnosed as GC lesion of the jaw. Patient's personal and
clinical information were collected from their files. H&E and sliver nitrate stains were applied on their formalin fixed
paraffin embedded tissue sections.
Results: the mean AgNOR count in MGC/cell was 49.83 and NORs/nucleus was 5.8, and 74% of them were grouped
in large clusters and 26% were scattered. In PGCG the mean AgNOR count /MGC and /nucleus were significantly
lower than that of CGCL (38.2 vs 59.5 and 4.6 vs 6.8 respectively, P<0.04). The mean AgNOR count of spindle and
mononuclear cells were 4.7 in CGC lesions and 2.5 in peripheral lesions
Conclusion: evaluation of AgNORs showed that both MGC and fraction of mononuclear cells in CGCG were
significantly higher than that in PGCG. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2009; 21(4): 59-62).

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Article
Nucleolar organizer regions in giant cell lesions of the jaws in relation to clinico-pathological parameters

Author: Balkees T. Garib
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 67-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The aim of this study was to clarify the proliferatiove activity of the multinucleated giant cells and cellular component in giant cell lesions of the jaw in correlation to their clinico-pathological features.
Materials and methods: This study was carried on 23 cases diagnosed as GC lesion of the jaw. Patient's personal and clinical information were collected from their files. H&E and sliver nitrate stains were applied on their formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections.
Results: The mean AgNOR count in MGC/cell was 49.83 and NORs/nucleus was 5.8, and 74% of them were grouped in large clusters and 26% were scattered. In PGCG the mean AgNOR count /MGC and /nucleus were significantly lower than that of CGCL (38.2 vs 59.5 and 4.6 vs 6.8 respectively, P<0.04). The mean AgNOR count of spindle and mononuclear cells were 4.7 in CGC lesions and 2.5 in peripheral lesions
Conclusion: Evaluation of AgNORs showed that both MGC and fraction of mononuclear cells in CGCG were significantly higher than that in PGCG.
Key words: Giant cell lesion, nucleolar organizer. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):67-70)

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Article
The prevalence of oral developmental disturbances and dental alignment anomalies in females of secondary schools in Thamar city (14-21years)

Author: Balkees T. Garib
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-39
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Abnormalities of the oral and dental tissue are detected frequently during routine dental examination. and the prevalence of these anomalies is varying among different population.
Materials and methods: A thousand young aged females (14-21 years) were collected randomly from secondary school in Thamar city- Yamen. Full oral examination was carried for the prevalence of any oral-dental anomalies.
Results: Flourosis enamel hypoplasia is the predominant dental anomaly 10.2%. The second problem was the retained deciduous teeth 4.1% and the non erupted permanent dentition 3.9%, while malposed alignment accounts 12.8%. Soft tissue showed fissure and geographical tongue in n2.6% and 2% respectively. Other anomalies present in minimal percentages.
Discussion: Esthetic problem are predominant in young females of Thamar city including both changes in enamel tooth structure (Flourosis) and mal alignment (crowding, spacing and malposed tooth). An obvious disturbance in shedding is present (4%) which may relate for further dental mal alignment.
Key words: Developmental anomalies, flourosis, dental mal alignment. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(2) 35-39)

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Article
Significance of Agnor Statuus in Epithelial Salivary Gland Tumors

Authors: Balkees T. Garib --- Suha A. H.Hindi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 379-387
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The present retrospective wo* was conducted on epilhelial salivary gland tumo$ (ESCTS) (benign andrnalignant ) anong lmqi patients with the main objective ofchancterizing differenl biological behavio. ofdifferent salivary gland tumors- The AgNOR status was assessed in relation to the cellular activity ofThis study comprised a total of40 patients diagnosed as salivary gland tunors in rhe depadmenr oforal-Pathology at college of Dentistry, Universiq, ofBaghdad.Thjs se es consisted of(18) cases of benig'rtumon and (22) cases ofrnalignant tumors thal affected both major and minof salivaD, glands.The convenlional examinalion revealed that,the 18 cases ofbenign ttrmorc consisted of la cases (i5%)pleonorphic adenoma and 4 cases ( 1 o%)caDalicular adenoma while the (22) cases of malignanl lumo|sconsisted of 9 cases (22.5%) mucoepidermoid carcinona,Scases (20%) aderocystic carcinoma and scases(12.5%) adenocarcinolna.'l'he estimatior of AgNOR status was car ed out on 4 $n tumor secrions using one step silvef stainingtechDique. lhe mean AgNOR count ,was calculaied and the size and distribution of AgNOIt dors wercsubjectively evaluated as fine or lafge aDd grouped, peripheral or scattered respectively. Data demorstrateddrar benign tumoN has less mean AgNOR count (3.61) than malignant lumors (7.is).and tlre difiercnceerseen I en, s q,lr .r.ally .rgnifica.,lResults showed tlat there is significant difTefeDc< beL$ccn pleomoryhi( rderonD ir(l iirll LUlaf adenonra.Malignant iumors sholved significanl differeDce among differ€nt types and irterestingly ther€ js asignificanl diffcrcnce beLwcen two dillbrent gfolr,th pattem ofadenocyslic carcinonra (solid and cribritomEvaluarion ofrhe size and distribLdon ofAgNOR dots within these tumors revealcd ihar benign rumorspresented mainly whh large NORs dots (52-59%),aggrcgated in grouping paftern mainly (67-71%) ,whilemalignant tLrmoN presenied mainly with fine size NoRs(63-68%),distributed in grouping paftern foradenocyslic carcinoma (61%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (50%) which is more asgressive .In conclusion our resuirs indicated that AgNOR status is an additio al useful tool in diffefentiation betweeDbengnr and nraligDant ESGTS, and prcdicting lhe degee of aggressiveness of each tLnnof which may a1faclthe pfognosis oflhesc lumors.Fof the best ofour knowledge this is the first study on ESGTS diagnosis, usnrg AgNOR marl(er as indicatorfor aggressiveness and prognosis ofthese tumor

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Article
Possible effects of chemical weapons used in Halabja martyr city at 16th march 1988 on developing oral and dental tissues

Authors: Saeed A. Abdulkareem --- Balkees T. Garib --- Mohammed A. Mahmood
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The development of oral and dental tissue is a complex process regulated by genes that are very
sensitive to disturbances in the environment. Although many studies were conducted in different parts of Iraq,
Halabja city is different; it had been subjected to chemical weapons in 1988, that if not produce death, it is
expected to produce developmental anomalies.
Methods and methods: A total of 457 persons were selected and divided to include 3 age groups, those born before
1971 (control group), those who were in utero during 1988 (group2), and those born in 1993 in Halabja city (group3).
Full extra-oral and intra-oral examination was carried out to diagnose any existing anomalies.
Results: Oro-dental anomalies were associated with history of parents’ exposure to chemical weapons (r = 0.3); no
sex difference was detected. Clinically missing teeth and retained deciduous teeth were the predominant
anomalies(11%) and correlated with history of parents’ exposure to chemical weapons predominantly in group2
(r=0.24). Enamel hypoplasia and local enamel opacities observed in 9.85%; macroglossia, fissured tongue, and
ankyloglossia were seen in 6.13%.
Conclusion: History of the exposure to chemical weapons effects teeth number, structure, and tongue anomalies.
Clinically missing teeth and retained deciduous teeth were the predominant anomalies.
Key words: Halabja city, chemical weapons, developmental anomalies. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):25-30.

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Article
Cytological Features of Oral Cytobrush Smears in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Balkees T. Garib --- Mohammad T. Ahmed محمد طه احمد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2012 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 6-12
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Oral cytology is a renewed field that aids in diagnosis and observation of possible epithelial changes associated with oral mucosal diseases. Aim; to study the main cytomorphological alteration in gingival and buccal smears from type II diabetics in relation to their hyperglycemic status. The study includes 40 type II diabetic patients (20 new-diagnosed and 20 treated diabetics patients) and 20 healthy persons of both sex. Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from their cheek and gingiva. The morphological features of 100 unfolded epithelial cells were evaluated under light microscope. Results of this study show that diabetics’ oral mucosa cells characterized by large nuclei with frequent evidence of binucleation, granular chromatin, prominent nucleoli. However, there was frequent small blue cytoplasm and buccal smears showed altered keratinization. As conclusion oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphological changes that is site specific and indicate epithelial cell regeneration and degeneration with altered keratinization especially in buccal mucosa.


Article
Oral signs and symptoms and hyperglycemic status of type II diabetic patients in relation to cytomorphometric findings of gingival and buccal cytobrush smears

Authors: Mohammad T. Baban محمد بابان --- Balkees T. Garib بلقيس غريب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Brush cytology is an accepted technique that gets renewed interest. It is now used as an aid for thediagnosis and observation of possible epithelial changes that could be associated with oral mucosal diseases. Thisstudy aimed to evaluate the cytomorphometric changes in gingiva and buccal mucosa of type II diabetics and toassess their relation to oral symptoms and glycemic status.Materials and methods: Cytological Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from cheek and gingiva of 20 nontreated cases, 20 treated diabetics and 20 healthy persons of both sex after measuring their HbA1c and recordingtheir oral symptoms. Hundred unfolded epithelial cells were evaluated qualitatively using MCID software to measurenuclear and cytoplasmic areas, ratio, perimeters, and form factors. Different statistical analyses were used todetermine relations between studied parameters.Results: Diabetics smears showed large nucleus, small cytoplasm, and small cytoplasm/nucleus ratio compared withhealthy persons with no sex variation. Xerostomia and burning sensation were significantly correlated with nuclearparameters, while HbA1c was significantly correlated with both cytoplasmic and nuclear parameters. Well-controlledpatients showed reduction in nuclear area, but nucleus and cytoplasm form factors were unlike normal.Conclusions: Oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphometric changes that isbetter demonstrated in buccal than gingival mucosa and tend to return partially to their normal values in wellcontrolledpatients, with no sex variation. NA seems to be the main parameter that changed during hyperglycemiaand xerostomia, while both NA and CA were related to burning sensation


Article
Immunohistochemical Coexpression of VEGF and CD34 in Ameloblastoma

Authors: Alaa G. Hussein* MSC (path), FICMS (path --- Balkees T.Garib --- wassan H. Younis
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 1 Pages: 42-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Angiogenic potential m most tumors; characterized by VEGF and vascular bed densityaround tumor islands, is believed to be an important marker in predicting tumor growth,recurrence and metastasis.Materials and Methods:The study included 50 cases of ameloblastomas. From each case 4 μm sections werestained IHC with antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody- and endothelial linedvessels anti CD34 antibody to evaluate their expression and intensity in relation to theirFac Med Baghdad clinicopathological features.2008 ; Vol.50 ,No.Results:Generally, VEGF was significantly highly expressed with strong intensity in outer celllayer of tumor islands, and the newly formed blood vessels were significantlypredominantly rounded and small in size in comparison to dental folicale and papilla oftooth germ. Young aged patients (≤ 20yrs) had highest mean MvD around tumor islands(35.9). Regarding WHO classification; follicular, plexiform and lining cells in UAB hadhigher expression then acanthomatous and types, but 67% of those in plexiform were ofmoderate intensity. There was no significant differences in mean MvD in all histologicalsolid subtypes, and characterized by round and small vessels. Except those in plexiform,they were elongated and medium. UAB had significant lower microvessel count aroundlining tumor cells (but not around mural growth) and more percentage of elongated mediumsized vessels than follicular but less than plexiform. There was significant correlationbetween VEGF expression and the shape of microvessels. Considering differentmorphological cellular pattern, basal cells showed the highest VEGF positivity and intensity(87.5).1Received Sept. 2006Conclusions:The present study indicate the usefulness of the VEGF expression and MvD inexplaining the aggressive, locally invasive biological behavior of ameloblastoma. The highangiogenic potential is enhancing tumor cell survival and the increase in the production ofnew blood vessels formation is facilitating tumor growth, and by time will enhance theproliferation potential of the incompletely removed surviving tumor islands, so increasingthe chance of ameloblastoma recurrence.

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Article
Oral Hemangiopericytoma: Literature Review and Two Cases from Sulaimani. (An Analytic Study)

Authors: Marwa A. Hamied --- Salwa M. Al-Shaikhani --- Bayad J. Mahmood --- Balkees T. Garib --- et al.
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2018 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 2-21
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an uncommon vascular neoplasm.Objectives This study was designed in order to review and summarize published cases with oral HPC since 1949, and unpublished cases from histopathological centers in Kurdistan region/Sulaimani/Iraq. The specifc objective is to correlate cases related medical data with treatment option and prognosis. Materials and Methods A web-based search was initiated for published articles and case reports by using PubMed, and Google. Another search was done in the database of histopathological centers in Sulaimani. Results Two new cases of oral HPC diagnosed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology - Dentistry College - Sulaimani University were reported in details. Literature review disclosed sixty-six HPC of the oral cavity and additional fve cases were reported from Sulaimani (total 71 cases). Male to female ratio was 1:1.5, with a wide age range from newborn to 91 years, 50% of oral HPC was between 15 and 51 years. The tongue was the most common site that HPC originated from, then jawbones, and buccal mucosa. Neither sex nor age seems to have any effect on the outcome of oral HPC (p>0.05). HPCs that originate from oral mucosa including 13 cases from buccal mucosa and gum were benign, while jaw bones HPC was with malignant behavior in six cases. The behavior of twenty-six cases was not recorded. Different sites had no effect on the tumor outcome (p=0.08). Most cases which were treated only by surgery showed no recurrence (p=0.01). Conclusion HPC has a high rate of recurrence with undeterminable malignant potential, and require surgical excision with adequate margins and long-term follow up.


Article
Immunohistochemical coexpression of VEGF and CD34 in ameloblastoma

Authors: Dr. Ala’a G. Hussein .** د. الاء حسين --- Dr. Balkees T. Garib.* د.بلقيس طه --- Dr. Wassan H. Younis.* د. وسن يونس
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 318-326
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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