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Article
Current prevalence of dental caries in Iraqi preschool children. A comparison to national and international studies.

Authors: Ban A. Salih --- Iman T. Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2006 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-75
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: This study described the occurrence of dental caries among children in kindergartens and described changes in caries prevalence and experience from 1983 to 1998, and to provide a baseline for the evaluation of the preventive oral health programs.
Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 946 kindergarten children, 512 (54.13%) boys, and 434 (45.87%) girls age ranged between 4 - 5 years, and the kindergartens were randomly selected in different regions in Baghdad city.
Results: In this study the mean value of caries experience (dmft) was found to be equal to (4.83 ± 4.05) for boys, and (4.15 ± 4.00) for girls in age 4 - 5 years.
Conclusion: It was concluded that in spite of the drastic changes concerning diet, especially sugar and carbohydrates due to sanctions, but what was found that there were few fluctuations around the same values of (dmft) from 1983 -1998. It was concluded that the present (dmft) value was among the highest reported values among recent international studies and neighboring arabian countries.
Key words: Dental caries, caries- epidemiology; preschool children. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2006; 18(1) 72-75)

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Article
Evaluation of primary school pupils with traumatized anterior permanent incisors in relation to different variables in Mosul city (Comparative study)

Authors: Ban A Salih --- Aghareed G Al–Qassab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 218-224
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To assessing and comparing the prevalence of fractured permanent incisors between pupils of age (6–15 years) for the right and left banks of Mosul Province Materials and Methods: A cross–sectional survey carried out through clinical examination of upper and lower permanent incisors for ten thousand and 915 children and teenagers between the age 6–15 years of old, who enrolled in the public primary schools of both right and left banks of Mosul city. All the pupils examined at their schools. The diagnosis and recording of the permanent teeth crown fracture registered according to Ellis classification. Results: The most frequent traumatized teeth occurred among pupils aged 8–9 years old in both banks (49.4%). Boys demonstrated more crown fractures than girls (6.4%, 4.2% respectively), at P ≤0.001. Statistically; Pupils with class II division 1 malocclusion, inadequate upper lip coverage were significantly more affected with crown fractures (70.5% for boys, and 58.6% for girls) . The most common type of the fracture was the fracture that involve the enamel–dentin with outpulpal involvement (46.7%). The aggressive and the hyperactive behaviours of the pupils significantlyshowed more crown fractures, and were more common in pupils of the right bank as compared with thepupils of the left bank (P ≤0.001). While no significant difference found between pupils of both banks concerning season of the crown trauma occurrence Conclusions: The prevalence of the crown fracture was 5.4% for the total sample, while the prevalence of the crown fractures for pupils of the right bank was statistically highly significant (6.7%) than the prevalence for pupils of the left bank (4.3%).

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Article
Assessment of dental anxiety by physiological measurement (salivary cortisol) and psychological measurement (dental anxiety scale) in children

Authors: Abeer M.H.Zwain --- Ban A.Salih
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2014 Volume: 22 Issue: 9 Pages: 2578-2568
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Dental anxiety is considered one of the most common sources of fear and anxiety that cause activation of adrenal gland to increase secretion of cortisol hormone. The aims of the present study are: measurement of the level of dental anxiety by physiological measurement (cortisol level in saliva) and psychological measurement (dental anxiety scale (DAS); evaluation of the stress response during several stages of dental treatment; assessment of the effects of dental anxiety on the oral health status of the child; and evaluation of factors that could affect dental anxiety in the children. The studied group included 85 children, aged between 9-13 years, 39 female, 46 male, selected from patients attended to the Dental Preventive Health Center in Al-Kadhimiya City, accompanied by the mother. Interviewing with each child's mother were conducted including a questionnaire about different variables affect dental anxiety, then another interviewing with each child including (DAS). Then saliva samples were collected from the children at the waiting room. All children received dental treatment according to their chief complaint, except 15 children, they received amalgam restoration under local anesthesia and saliva samples were collected from them during different stages of the treatment:1. After anesthetic injection, 2. After cavity drilling, 3. At the end of the treatment.The control group included 30 children, from them saliva samples had been collected in their school away from dental fear. A highly significant difference in the level of salivary cortisol was found between control and studied group and a significant correlation was observed between DAS scores and salivary cortisol level at the waiting room which indicates that both of these two methods are valid and can be used as a tool for the assessment of dental anxiety. Anesthetic injection was associated with a higher increase in the level of salivary cortisol. Patients reported high scores in DAS, have less filled, more decayed surfaces and more plaque accumulation than those who reported low scores in the scale. It is found that anesthetic injection, and pain associated with dental treatment is the most common sources and reasons for dental anxiety, so the dentist must decrease or eliminate any procedure that provoke anxiety and fear because of its effect on later perception of the child to the dentistry in general.

الخوف من طب الاسنان يعتبر واحد من مصادر الخوف والتوتر الشائعة والتي تسبب تنشيط الغدة الكظرية لفرز هرمون الكورتيزول . الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو : قياس مستوى الخوف من طب الاسنان بواسطة المقياس الفسلجي( مستوى الكورتيزول اللعابي) و المقياس النفسي( المقياس المدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان((DAS),تقييم الاستجابة للتوتر خلال عدة مراحل من العلاج في عيادة طب الاسنان , تقدير تاثيرات الخوف من طب الاسنان على حالة صحة الفم للطفل ,تقييم العوامل التي قد تؤثر على الخوف من طب الاسنان عند الاطفال.العينة المدروسة تشمل 85 طفل تتراوح اعمارهم بين 9-13 سنة,39 انثى,46 ذكر, مختارة من مراجعين حاضرين عيادة طب الاسنان مصاحبين والداتهم. مقابلة مع والدة كل طفل جرت لجمع اجابات عن اسئلة حول مختلف المتغيرات المؤثرة في الخوف من طب الاسنان, مقابلة اخرى جرت مع كل طفل متضمنة اسئلة تشمل(المقياس المدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان للاطفال((DAS), عينات من اللعاب جمعت من الاطفال في غرفة الانتظار. كل طفل تلقى العلاج حسب الشكوى الاساسية له, 15 طفل اجريت لهم حشوة بمادة الاملغم تحت التخدير الموضعي ومنهم عينات اللعاب اخذت في مراحل مختلفة من العلاج:1- بعد اعطاء البنج الموضعي 2- بعد حفر السن 3- عند نهاية العلاج. العينة المسيطر عليها تشمل 30 طفل منهم عينات اللعاب اخذت وهم في المدرسة بعيداعن عيادة طب الاسنان. اختلاف ذو مغزى عالي وجد في مستوى الكورتيزول اللعابي بين العينة المدروسة و العينة المسيطر عليها, وايضا اختلاف ذو مغزى لوحظ بين المقياسالمدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان ((DAS و الكورتيزول اللعابي في غرفة الانتظار مما يدل على ان كلتا الطريقتين مضبوطتين و يمكن ان تستخدم لتقييم الخوف من طب الاسنان. اعطاء ابرة البنج ارتبط مع اعلى ارتفاع في مستوى الكورتيزول اللعابي خلال العلاج. الاطفال الذين سجلوا علامات عالية في المقياس المدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان ((DAS لديهم حشوات اقل وتسوس اكثر وتجمعات من الصفيحة الجرثومية اكثر في اسطح اسنانهم من الاطفال الذين اوردوا علامات قليلة.لقد وجد ان ابرة البنج و الالم المرتبط مع علاج الاسنان هو المصدر الشائع لسبب الخوف من طب الاسنان لذلك يجب على طبيب الاسنان ان يقلل او يزيل اي اجراء يحث التوتر و الخوف من طب الاسنان لتاثيره اللاحق على فهم الطفل لطب الاسنان بصورة عامة.


Article
Assessment of Different Techniques to Detect Recurrent Carious Lesion Around Amalgam Filling

Authors: Noor M. Kadhim --- Ban A. Salih
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 193-198
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This in-vitro study was to evaluated bitewing radiograph and tactile examination for detection secondary caries adjacent to amalgam restorations.Material and method: Sixty primary extracted molars with class I and class II amalgam restorations were selected from children, and examined by bitewing radiographs were taken by using film holders and interpreted on a backlit screen without magnification. Then, we used tactile examination with blunt probe.Result: The result of this study showed that the best cut-off points for the sample were found by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis, and the area under the ROC curve and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the techniques were calculated for enamel (D1) and dentine (D2) thresholds. These parameters were found for each techniques and then compared by the Cochran's Q test. The tactile examination presented the fair techniques for detecting secondary caries at enamel thresholds for both occlusal and proximal surfaces, While, bitewing radiograph presented good techniques at dentin thresholds.Conclusion: Tactile examination represented the best performance for detecting enamel secondary caries. While, bitewing radiograph represented the best performance for detecting dentin secondary caries


Article
Selected salivary constituents, physical properties and nutritional status in relation to dental caries among 4-5 year’s old children (Comparative study)

Authors: Noor A. Kadoum --- Ban A. Salih بان علي صالح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 150-156
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Tooth decay is still one of most common diseases of childhood, child’s primary teeth are importanteven though they aretemporary. This study was conducted to assess the physiochemical characteristic of salivaamong caries experience preschool children and compared them with caries free matching in age and gender.Then an evaluation was done about these salivary characteristics to dental caries and evaluated the relation ofbody mass index to dental caries and to salivary variables.Materials and method: After examination 360 children aged 4-5 years of both gender. Caries-experiences wasrecorded according to dmfs index by (World Health Organization criteria 1987) during pilot study children with cariesexperience was divided in to three groups according to decay fraction of decay missing filled surfaces index .Mildwith decay surfaces<6, moderate with 6≤decay surfaces≤13 and severe with decay surfaces>13 and select thirtychildren with moderate caries experience and compared with thirty caries free children decay missing filledsurfaces=0 match in age and gender. Nutritional status of each child was assessed by measuring weight and heightto calculate body mass index. Unstimulated saliva collected from sixty child under standardized condition andpotential hydrogen and flow rate were measured. Total antioxidant concentration, total protein, calcium, inorganicphosphorus, zinc and copper were measured.Results: Statistically highly significant differences were found in concentration of salivary calcium and inorganicphosphorus between caries-experience and caries free children with higher mean value among caries free group.Statistically significant differences were found in concentration of salivary zinc between groups. Statistically nonsignificantdifferences were found in concentration of salivary total antioxidant, total protein, copper and body massindex between caries experience and caries free groups.Salivary flow rate and PH showed statistical non-significantdifferences between groups. Positive non-significant correlation was found between dmfs index, (ds) fraction of dmfsindex and salivary flow rate, total antioxidant and negative correlation with salivary PH, total protein, calcium,phosphorus, zinc and copper. Positive a non-significant correlation was found between BMI, salivary flow rate, PH,total antioxidant, zinc and copper while a negative weak correlation found with dmfs, ds fraction of index andsalivary total protein, calcium and inorganic phosphorus in caries experience group. Furthermore a non-significantpositive correlation was found between BMI, salivary flow rate, PH, total antioxidant inaddition to that negativeweak correlation was found with salivary total protein, calcium inorganic phosphorus, zinc and copper among cariesfree group.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that inorganic components of saliva play an important role inreminerlization of incipient caries and there is an inverse association between body mass index and dental caries


Article
Oral health status and treatment needs among 3-12 years old children with cleft lip and/or palate in Iraq

Authors: Zainab J. Ja’far زينب جعفر --- Ban A. Salih بان علي صالح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 145-151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study aims to illustrate the oral health status of children with cleft lip and/or palate.Materials and methods: 233 cleft lip and/or palate Iraqi patients had participated in this study. 108(57 boys, 51 girls)within the age (3-12) years were selected from the total sample and submitted to a questionnaire and clinicalexamination. Dental caries, plaque index and gingival index, the pocket depth were recorded.Results: The mean dmfs=14.606±1.477, dmft=5.862± 0.461, the mean DMFS=2.202±0.383, DMFT=1.339± 0.195 withstatistically non significant difference among different types of cleft. The highest percentage were in need to onesurface filling (79.6%), followed by two surface filling (65.7%). The mean PI=1.663±0.051, with statistically not significantdifference among different types of cleft. The mean GI=1.211±0.038, with statistically not significant differenceamong different types of cleft. Regarding pocket depth significant differences were in the distal site of the canine,mesial, palatal and labial sites of the lateral incisor, and all the sites of the central incisor, and highly significantdifference in the distal site of the lateral incisor.Conclusion: The cleft lip and/or palate patient have major oral health problems regarding the dental caries, dentalplaque, gingival condition, pocket depth and dental treatment needs


Article
Efficacy of Papacarie in Reduction Total Bacterial Count in Comparison with the Conventional Rotary Method

Authors: Muna H. Al-Swaidy منى السويدي --- Ban A. Salih بان علي صالح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 141-143
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The change in the concepts of cavity preparation and the development of reliable adhesive materials lead to the development of alternative methods of caries removal. Chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR) involves the chemical softening of carious dentin, followed by its removal with manual excavation.The present study was conducted to evaluate clinically the efficiency of caries removal using a new chemo-mechanical agent (Papacarie) compared to the conventional drilling method in reduction of total bacterial count.Material and methods: The study is a split mouth design. The sample composes from sixty mandibular deciduous molars teeth in thirty children, between six to nine years of age with bilateral class I deep occlusal carious lesions without pulp involvement. Samples of this study were classified into group A and B with thirteen teeth for each. In groupAtreatment by Papacárie while group B were treated by the conventional drilling methodResults: The results showed significant different in total bacterial count in period after treatment with Papacarie as comparative with drill method for caries remove.Conclusions: It was concluded that Papacarie could be an effective caries removal method to treat children, particularly those who present with early childhood caries or management problems

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