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Article
Prevalence of Autoantibodies to Various Tissue Antigens Before and During S2 – Complex Immunotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Author: Batool M. Mahdi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 213-222
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT :BACKGROUND:A total of 63 terminal untreatable stage IV head and neck cancer patients were investigated for clinicalresponses and presence of autoantibodies to various tissue antigens before and during S2- compleximmunotherapy.METHODS:S2 –complex is a new low molecular weight biological response modifier (BRM) with a potantimmunostimulating and anti tumor activities.RESULTS:Autoantibodies detected at pretreatment period were those directed towards the following antigens :nuclear, thyroid microsomal, epithelial cells, gastric parietal cells, smooth muscles, peripheralleukocytes, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, thymus reticular epithelial cells and Hassall’scorpuscles. Beside, autoantibodies with specificities to glomerular basement membrane and vascularendothelial cells were present at low incidence. Short term use of S2- complex induced a transientincrease of the following autoantibodies: nuclear, thyroid microsomal, epithelial, parietal cells, smoothmuscle, thymus reticuloepithelial cells, Hassal’s corpuscles, thymocytes, peripheral blood leukocytes,T, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, as well as kidney glomerular basement membrane and vasculrendothelial cells.DISCUSSION:In the later follow up period i.e. 2-6 months most of these autoantibodies responses returned to normalhealthy control levels. Moreover, two exceptions were demonstrated which were the incidences of theantiglomerular basement membrane and vascular endothelial antibodies which remianed higher than thepretreatment frequencies. In addition, autoantibodies specific to mitochondria , thyroglobulin and redblood cells were only occasionally seen in our head and neck cancer patients both before and during S2-complex therapy.


Article
Systemic Humoral Anti Helicobacter pylori Immune Response in Dyspeptic Patients

Author: Batool M. Mahdi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 153-158
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Helicobacter pylori (HP) cause a continuous gastric inflammation in virtually all infected persons. It induces a vigorous systemic and mucosal humoral and cellular immune response. In spite of these responses, the vast majority of infected hosts are unable to clear the infection and it persists for decades.OBJECTIVE:Determination the humoral immune response to HP infection in dyspeptic patients.PATIENTS AND METHODS:The immunological serological tests were evaluated in 80 dyspeptic patients divided into two groups: (HP +) and (HP-). Levels of specific HP IgG antibodies were determined through a specific immunological non invasive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test from Biohit PIC, Helsinki, Finland. Immunoglobulin levels and complement were done (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4) using single radial immune diffusion (BioMaghreb-Tunis).RESULT:About 62.5 % of dyspeptic patients had HP + infection. There was no significant differences between two groups in the levels of (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4) and most of them were within normal values.CONCLUSION:Humoral immune response had an important role in the control and limits the inflammation of gastric mucosa.


Article
Immunological Non Invasive Blood Tests to Evaluate Gastric Mucosa in Iraqi Dyspeptic Patients

Author: Batool M. Mahdi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 277-284
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Dyspepsia is a common symptom in general practitioner. Using non invasive serological biomarkers would help to identify individuals at increased risk of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. In present study, the evaluation of the utility of a serological gastric panel test combining pepsinogen I (PGI), pepsinogen II (PGII), pepsinogenI/ pepsinogenII ratio (I/II), gastrin-17 (G-17) (basal and stimulated) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) IgG antibodies as a screening method and to predict the state of gastric mucosa: non atrophic, atrophic gastritis and its sequel of developing gastric carcinoma and intestinal metaplasia.OBJECTIVE:Prediction of gastric mucosa using non invasive immunological blood tests from dyspeptic patients.PATIENTS AND METHODS:The serological gastro panel test was evaluated in (54) Iraqi dyspeptic patients divided into two groups: (HP +) and (HP-). Levels of PGI, PGII, PGI/PGII ratio, G-17 basal and stimulated and HP IgG antibodies were determined through a specific immunological non invasive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test from Biohit PIC, Helsinki, Finland. Using fasting and postprandial samples from those patients.RESULTS:60% of dyspeptic patients complain from epigastric pain and 62.96% of them had HP +.There were significant increase in PGI, PGII (p<0.05) in NAG .In case of I/II ratio, there was no significant difference between two groups of HP+ and HP-.The other parameter was done is basal G-17 which is significantly increased in HP+ (p>0.05) and postprandial G-17 showed no significant difference between two groups.CONCLUSION:Most of those Iraqi dyspeptic patients had non atrophic gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori infection that leads to increased in the PGI, PGII, G-17 through many mechanisms. If HP not treated properly this may leads to atrophic gastritis , peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. Gastric panel test was considered as a non endoscope immunological blood test in the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and its outcome in dyspeptic patients.


Article
Estimation of Antibodies against Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Patients with Indeterminate Colitis

Author: Batool M. Mahdi بتول مهدي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Indeterminate colitis (IC) originally referred to those 10–15% of cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which there was difficulty distinguishing between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) in the colectomy specimen and histopathology examination. However, IC is increasingly used when a definitive diagnosis of UC or CD cannot be made at colonoscopy examination, colonic biopsies or at colectomy. The diagnostic difficulties may explain the variably reported prevalence of IC. Clinically, most patients with IC evolve to a definite diagnosis of UC or CD on follow up.Patients and methods: PATIENTS GROUP: Consisted of 80 patients with indeterminate colitis (IC), their age ranged (16-84 years), mean age was 45.5 years, 50 (62.5%) were males and 30 (37.5%) were females. CONTROL GROUP: Consist of 40 healthy volunteers, mean age was 39.3 years, 20 of them were male and the rest were females. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) were detected using indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) test. Results: Results of ASCA antibodies in the serum of IC patients showed significant higher frequency (66.2%)(p>0.001) than control group(7.5%). The commonest isotype of this ASCA antibody was IgG (53.7%) that is significantly higher than control group (P>0.001). The sensitivity of ASCA was 63.1 %, specificity was 28.5% and positive predictive value of ASCA was 80% and negative predictive value was 78.5%.Conclusions: In conclusion, higher frequency of ASCA (IgG) expression in IC was useful in early estimation of IC and could be used as serological marker.Keywords: Anti Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Antibody (ASCA), indeterminate colitis, immuno fluorescence.


Article
HLA ANTIGENS OF ARAB CHRISTIANS IN IRAQ

Author: Batool M. Mahdi* د. بتول مطر مهدي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 2 Pages: 145-155
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

SummaryBACKGROUND: Iraq had more than twenty-four millions inhabitants of populations. This nation is one of the most populated countries in the world. It is difficult to define Iraqi populations genetically (HLA polymorphism) because they are structured of a mixture of many groups. HLA phenotype frequencies that encoded by many closely linked genes that are responsible for a variety of cell surface alloantigen proteins that are responsible for differences in different ethnic groups. Arab Christians in Iraq, accounting for more than three millions inhabitant mostly the northwest and other parts of Iraq. This raised the need for a preliminary study of the HLA trend in this population. Aim of study:1-Estimating the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) and class II (DR and DQ) alleles in Iraqi Arab Christians.2-Assessing the genetic relationship between Iraqi Arab Christians and other Arabian, Asian and European populations.Materials and Methods: A total of unrelated 568 Iraqi Arab Christians (AC) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al- Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine) were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004.Results and conclusions: The phenotypes of all loci of (AC) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In case of HLA-A locus, three variants dominate this locus Al(0.123), A2 (0.149) and A3(0.134) which showed some similarities with Arabian , Asian and European people in the world. A3 had been found to be associated with Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) but the risk increased when there is a linkage disequilibrium between A3/B14. Fortunately, BI4 allele had a low frequency in this group and common allele was B35(0.154) and 851(0.128) which had an association with Behqet 's syndrom. So one can predict high incidence of this disease in this group of population. Last locus was studied in class I was Cw4 that had a higher rate (0.173) in HLA -Cw loci.In case of class II, it was done on small number of persons and the common allele was DR2(53.84%) which is protective from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus disease while DQ1 is common allele in HLA-DQ loci.HLA typing of (AC) had some similarity with Arabian people because of their same ancestry and also had some similarity with Caucasoid Europeans because of outbreading and intermixing with those populations due to migration.Key wards: HLA, Christian, Arab, Iraq.

Keywords

HLA --- Christian --- Arab --- Iraq.


Article
A Study on Humoral Immunity and Oral Bacterial Diversity in Patients with Trichomonas Tenax Infection

Authors: Batool M. Mahdi --- Waffa Hazim --- Bassma Maki --- Ali Ghalib M. Mahdi --- et al.
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 339-343
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Trichomonas tenax (T tenax) is a protozoan that inhabit the oral cavity of poor oral hygiene. It is found in the dental caries, tartar and periodontal area. It feed on the normal flora of the mouth. It had been found to cause pulmonary infection and respiratory diseases in immunocompromised patients and patients wi advanced cancer.thOBJECTIVE:To determine the humoral immune response to Trichomonas tenax and studying if there is any relation with specific bacteria.METHODS:Forty patients who consult Al-Kindy Teaching hospital –maxillofacial and dental department from June-2008 to January -2009.Two gingival swabs were taken from those patients, one examined directly for the presence of T tenax by light microscope and other swab was cultured on Blood, Chocolate and MacConkey's agar for isolation of oral bacteria. Blood was collected from patients for estimation of serum IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C4 levels by using radial immune diffusion method.RESULTS:The study group consists of forty individuals, their ages range from 6-65 years. Male more than female (22:18), thirty of them was smoker, 25% of them were positive for T tenax. The types of bacteria that were isolated are a normal flora of the mouth like Streptococcus viridans. In spite of the level of Immunoglobulins and complement in both groups lie within normal values, there was a significant increased in serum IgM level and significant decreased in serum IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 level.CONCLUSION:There was increased in the prevalence of T tenax infection due to low social class and low oral hygiene .There was no specific bacteria that was confected with it. Lastly, increased in T tenax infection when there is an immune suppression as in advanced cancer patients and on radiotherapy and or chemotherapy.


Article
HLA Antigens Among Iraqi Muslims Arabs And Kurds

Authors: Batool M. Mahdi --- Khalida M. Al-Moussawy --- Abdul Wahab A.R. Al-Shaikhly --- Ali H. Ad’hiah
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 94-97
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The HLA system is a relevant tool in population genetics analysis. From the genetic point of view, the HLA system is of general interest because of the extreme polymorphism of all known HLA loci. The allele and haplotype frequencies have a wide diversity among human population and differ in geographically and racially among populations. Iraq had a high percentage of Muslims people that distributed in two groups (Arab and Kurd). These groups are ancient populations and affected by many settlement in many centuries ago. These ancient settlements had left marks on the genetic structure of the modern Iraqi populations. The later immigrations to other countries were high in later years. The aim of study is to estimate the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) alleles in Iraqi Arab Muslims and Kurd Muslims and determine the genetic differences between them. METHODS: A total of unrelated 1400 Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and 705 Kurd Muslims (KM) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al-Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine, were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004. RESULTS: The phenotypes of HLA typing of Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and Kurd Muslims (KM) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Regarding HLA class I (A and Cw loci), there was a significant differences between these groups. Lasly, there was no significant difference between them in HLA-B. CONCLUSIONS: This may be due to their inhabitants different area in Iraq, and also due to their different origin as Arab and Kurd races with mild differences due to outbreeding and migration. The effects of invaders and settlements from out side the country and intermixing with them may play an important role in these differences


Article
HI A ASSOCIATION WITH CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

Authors: Dr. BATOOL M. MAHDI ‘M.B.Ch.B., M.Sc. SALAWA M. SHAREEF “(B.S.) د. بتول مطر مهدي --- salalwa M.Shareef
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 2 Pages: 140-144
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:OBJECTIVE Many associations have been found between specific HLA antigens and increased susceptibility to various diseases . So we tried to associate class I and class II antigens with acute lymphoblastic leukemia . We also demonstrate the presence of antibodies in serum of acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients against HLA class I.DESIGN: Prospective study.SETTING: Tissue typing and histocompatibility center at Al- Karamah Teaching Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 70 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients from pediatric hospitals. HLA ( human leukocyte antigens) typing done for them by serological method and cross matching and blood grouping were also done for them.RESULTS: there was significant difference between patients and control groups regarding HLA -C6.DR1, DR4, DR7, DQ1.DQ2 ,DQ3, DQ4. There was 14.2 % (10/70) of patients had antibodies against HLA class I. There was no significant association between blood group and acute lymphoblastic leukemia .CONCLUSION: Genetic factor increased susceptibility with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( HLA- DR1 DQ1, HLA - DR4 DQ4, HLA- DR4 DQ3, HLA- DR7 DQ2. This HLA typing increased susceptibility to be affected with leukemia after infection.RECOMMEND A TION: HLA typing was done to acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients by molecular -DNA based method (PCR-SSP, RSCA) in addition to serological method.KEY WARD : ALL, HLA typing, antibodies, blood group.

Keywords

ALL --- HLA typing --- antibodies --- blood group.


Article
Humoral Immune Response and Luminal Microorganisms in Patients with Indeterminate Colitis
الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية والجراثيم الجوفية في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب القولون

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Abstract:Background: Microorganisms that directly interact with the intestinal mucosa are obscured by fecal flora. Some members of the endogenous faecal microflora have a clear detrimental role in most animal models of colitis and enteritis. This is strongly suspected to be the cause of indeterminate colitis.Objective: Determination of humoral immune response and luminal microorganisms in patients with indeterminate colitis.Patients & Methods: The study consisted of two groups: 75 patients groups with indeterminate colitis and control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. Sigmoidoscope and colonoscope examination were done for the patients group and biopsy were also taken from ulcer lesion for histopathological examination for confirming the diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from them and serum were collected for immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) levels and complement (C3 and C4) level by single radial immune diffusion method (Biomaghrib-Tunis). Fecal and rectal swabs were taken from those groups, cultured on different bacteriological media. Results: Males more than females are affected. The majority of them were complaining from rectal bleeding. Most of their diseased location was in rectum then sigmoid and ascending colon. Bacteriological results showed a significant decrease in the existence of Bacteroids fragilis (anaerobic bacteria) in patients group compared with control. Studying humoral immune response demonstrated a significant higher level in IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 in patients group and significant decrease in IgM level.Conclusions: Reduction in anaerobic bacteria might be a cause in initiation colitis with stimulation of immunoglobulins production and complement activation to overcome this inflammation.Key wards: colitis, Immunoglobulins, anaerobic bacteria.

الملخص : خلفية : الكائنات الحية الدقيقة التي تتفاعل مباشرة مع الجدار المبطن للأمعاء والتي تحجب البكتريا التعايشية الموجودة في البرازمن اداء دورها . حيث وجد بعض الميكروفلورا البرازية الذاتية لها دور واضح في معظم النماذج الحيوانية في تسبب التهاب القولون والأمعاء و يشتبه بشدة أنها سبب في التهاب القولون غير المحدد الهدف :تحديد الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية والكائنات الحية الدقيقة الجوفية في المرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب القولون غير محدد. المرضى والأساليب :اشتملت الدراسة على مجموعتين : 75 مريضا مصاب بالتهاب القولون غير محدد ، و مجموعة مراقبة تتكون من 30 متطوع من الاصحاء تم فحص المرضى بناظور القولون واخذ خزعة نسيجية منهم ومسحة من المستقيم والبراز للمرضى ومجموعة الاصحاء . تم جمع عينات الدم منهم ، وجمعت ا لامصال للتحري عن مستويات الغلويبولينات المناعية المضادة (الاضداد) IgG,IgA,IgM والمتمم C3 و C4 بطريقة النشر المناعي الشعاعي Biomaghrib-تونس. اخذت مسحات البراز ومسحات المستقيم من هذه الجماعات ، وتربيتها على اوساط زرعية مختلفة وعزلت البكتريا باستخدام أساليب بكتريولوجية مختلفة لعزل البكتيريا المعوية وفقا لنوع البكتريا. النتائج : في هذه الدراسة كانت نسبة الذكور اعلى من الاناث وكان معظمهم يعانون من نزف دموي عن طريق المخرج. اظهرت الدراسة الجرثومية فرق مهم احصائيا في قلة الجراثيم اللاهوائية في مجموعة المرضى وكذلك اظهرت الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية فرق مهم احصائيا في زيادة الاضداد IgG وIgA والمتمم C3, C4.الاستنتاجات: يمكن أن نستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان قلة الجراثيم اللاهوائية من الممكن ان تؤدي الى التهاب القولون ومن ثم تحفيز انتاج الاضداد والمتمم.

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