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Article
Preparation of Polyvinyl Alcohol from Local Raw Material

Authors: Saad H. Ammar --- Cecelia K. Haweel سيسيليا خوشابا
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Polyvinyl alcohol, (PVA) was prepared using polyvinyl acetate emulsion (manufactured by Al-Jihad factory, That-Al-Sawary Company) as a local raw material. In this investigation, polyvinyl acetate emulsion was converted to solid form by coagulation the polymer from its emulsion using sodium sulphate salt as coagulant aid, then alcoholyzed the solid polyvinyl acetate in methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, polyvinyl alcohol produced by this method is a dry, white to yellow powder. Three affecting variables on the degree of hydrolysis of PVA were studied, these variable are Catalyst to polymer weight ratio in the range of 0.01 – 0.06, reaction time in the range of 20 – 90 min, and reaction temperature in the range of 25 – 50 oC. The effect of degree of hydrolysis of PVA produced on its properties such as water solubility and degree of polymerization were studied also. Finally the alcoholysis reaction kinetics were studied to determine the reaction constants such as initial rate constant and degree of autocatalytic effect of the alcoholysis reaction. It was found that the degree of hydrolysis of formed polyvinyl alcohol increase with increasing of variables catalyst concentration, reaction time and reaction temperature, furthermore, the water solubility of PVA increase with increasing degree of hydrolysis up to about 87 % after this value the solubility is decrease, also the degree of polymerization of PVA decrease with increasing of degree of hydrolysis up to about 89 %.


Article
Drop Interface Coalescence in Liquid-Liquid System

Authors: Cecelia K. Haweel سيسيليا خوشابا هاويل --- Asseel M. Rasheed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This investigation is a study of the length of time where drops can exist at an oil-water interface before coalescence takes place with a bulk of the same phase as the drops. Many factors affecting the time of coalescence were studied in this investigation which included: dispersed phase flow rate, continuous phase height, hole size in distributor, density difference between phases, and viscosity ratio of oil/water systems, employing three liquid/liquid systems; kerosene/water, gasoil/water, and hexane/water. Higher value of coalescence time was 8.26s at 0.7 ml/s flow rate, 30 cm height and 7 mm diameter of hole for gas oil/water system, and lower value was 0.5s at 0.3 ml/s flow rate, 10 cm height and 3 mm diameter of hole for hexane/water system. It is observed that time of coalescence increased with increase in the dispersed phase flow rate, continuous phase height, hole size in distributor, and viscosity ratio of oil/water system. The results have been analyzed by dimensional and statistical analysis, and a correlation was developed relating coalescence time with the operating factors and the physical properties of the three oil/water systems.

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