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Article
New Anti-knock Additives to Improve Gasoline Octane Number

Author: Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2011 Volume: 136 Issue: 3 rd Pages: 1-14
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Gasoline is a volatile mixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived chiefly from crude petroleum, which is used principally as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals.The octane number of gasoline increases continuously and linearly with antiknock additives percentages in gasoline. Hence, P (180-E.BP) is a fractionation cut of power formereffective compound for increasing the value of the octane number of gasoline when added to unleaded gasoline in percentage of 5, 10, and 15 on volume basis. The engine performance improves as the percentages of P increase in the blend. Fuel additives are used to improve gasoline performance in vehicles and to reduce specific emissions.


Article
Performance and Sensitivity analysis of Factors Affecting NOx Emissions from Hydrogen Fueled SI Engines

Author: Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2016 Volume: 120 Issue: 12th Pages: 47-74
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) sensitivity analysis using suitable MATLAB code on the factors affecting oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a hydrogen powered 4-stroke, water-cooled spark-ignition engine was conducted in this work. This was done using specialized engine performance and emission simulation software. The parameters studied were the engine speed, air-fuel equivalence ratio, spark plug location in addition to some other combustion parameters like combustion duration, heat loss besides some other useful performance parameters. It was found that NOx formation is minimum at peripheral spark location, slightly lean (PHI=0.9), and less advance timing is needed. Further, based on ANOVA analysis, the combination of engine speed and spark location has more significance (effect based on P-value) compared with engine speed and equivalence ratio. The combination of engine speed and ignition timing has more significance (effect based on P-value) compared with engine speed and equivalence ratio. Also found that NOx emissions behavior is more clear at lean mixture (PHI = 0.7), central spark location (XSP = 0.5) and retarded ignition timing (IGN near zero).


Article
Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitor Blend Efficiency in Recirculation Cooling Water of Al-Doura Refinery

Authors: Dr. Shatha A. Sameh --- Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2012 Volume: 212 Issue: 6th Pages: 138-157
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

The corrosion behavior of carbon steel in circulating cooling water (C.T.) of Al Doura Refinery and performance of sodium nitrite (SN) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) inhibitor blend for inhibition of such corrosion process have been investigated at different temperatures, i.e., 303, 313, 323 K.Weight loss experiment, under isothermal conditions, together with polarization method were carried out at 303, 313, and 323K using C.T., and make up with SN:SHMP (500:100) solutions. The results proved that the inhibition efficiency of the corrosion inhibitor used in this work is better than that obtained by the corrosion inhibitor used in C.T. of Al Doura Refinery and less effected by the change in temperature.


Article
Effects Of Biodiesel Fuel Upon The Exhaust Emission And The Performance Of Compression Ignition Engine
تأثير وقود البيوديزل على انبعاثات وأداء مكائن الاحتراق الداخلي

Authors: Ayad M. Salman إياد محمود سلمان --- Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet إيمان علي إحسان شيت
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 107-123
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Biodiesel is a renewable source of energy since it is made of renewable sources such as corn and soybeans, thus reduces the dependence on oil and eliminates the monopoly of certain countries on oil. This research studied effects of three types of fuel, biodiesel from new oil, biodiesel from waste cooking oil and diesel fuel on engine performance and emissions. A diesel engine and a gas analyzer is used in this research. The effect of each fuel on the performance of the engine at different set of speeds at a fixed throttle setting (full throttle and medium throttle) is studied, with the recording of amounts of gas emissions from the exhaust, and compare the results obtained for these cases. Also obtained a set of fuel characteristics to help with the calculations for better understanding of fuels through various experimentations.The results showed that waste cooking oil performance is a mediate one between new oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The emissions of waste cooking oil biodiesel are low with consideration to its efficient combustion. Biodiesel in general has a higher brake power and torque because it is clean burning and has a smoother running.Key words: Biodiesel fuel, diesel fuel, exhaust emission, diesel engine performance.

الوقود الحيوي (الديزل الحيوي) يعتبر مصدر طاقة متجددة حيث يصنع من مصادر قابلة للتجدد مثل الذرة وحب الصويا، هذا يخفض الاعتماد على النفط ويزيل احتكار بعض البلدان للنفط. في هذا البحث تم دراسة تأثير ثلاثة أنواع من الوقود هي الديزل الحيوي من زيت نقي والديزل الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي ووقود الديزل على أداء وانبعاثات الغازات من المحرك عمليا باستخدام محرك ديزل ومحلل غازات مختبريه. تم حساب تأثير كل نوع من الوقود المستخدمة على أداء المحرك لمجموعة من السرع المختلفة ولوضع صمام الخنق بحالتين خنق تام وخنق متوسط حيث تم تسجيل كميات انبعاث الغازات من العادم. وكذلك تم الحصول على مجموعة من خصائص الوقود وبمساعدة الحسابات لفهم أفضل للوقود من خلال التجارب المختلفة. بينت النتائج إن أداء وقود الديزل الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي يتوسط بين أداء الوقود الحيوي الجديد ووقود الديزل. انبعاثات الوقود الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي هي الأقل نتيجة احتراقه الكفؤ. عموما الديزل الحيوي له عزم وقدرة كبح أعلى من وقود الديزل بسب احتراقه النظيف والدوران المنتظم.


Article
Modeling and Control of Fuel Cell Using Artificial Neural Networks
النمذجة والسيطرة لخلية وقود باستخدام الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية

Authors: Hayder Sabah. Abad Al-Amir حيدر صباح عبد الامير --- Hayder Abed Dahd حيدر عبد ضهد --- Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet ايمان علي احسان شيت
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 12 Pages: 124-138
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper includes an experimental study of hydrogen mass flow rate and inlet hydrogen pressure effect on the fuel cell performance. Depending on the experimental results, a model of fuel cell based on artificial neural networks is proposed. A back propagation learning rule with the log-sigmoid activation function is adopted to construct neural networks model. Experimental data resulting from 36 fuel cell tests are used as a learning data. The hydrogen mass flow rate, applied load and inlet hydrogen pressure are inputs to fuel cell model, while the current and voltage are outputs. Proposed model could successfully predict the fuel cell performance in good agreement with actual data. This work is extended to developed fuel cell feedback control system using PID controller to stabilize the fuel cell voltage. Particle swarm optimization technique is used to tune the PID controller gains. The voltage error and hydrogen flow rate are input and the actuator of the PID controller respectively. Simulation results showed that using PID controller with proposed model of fuel cell can successfully improve system performance in tracking output voltage under different operating conditions.

تتضمن هذه الورقة دراسة عملية لتاثير معدل كتلة تدفق الهيدروجين و ضغطه على أداء خلية الوقود. بالاعتماد على النتائج التجريبية، تم اقتراح نموذجا لخلية الوقود مبنيةعلى أساس الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية. طريقة الانتشار الخلفي مع دالة التفعيل من النوع (log-sigmoid) اعتمدت لانشاء نموذج الشبكة العصبية. استخدمت البيانات التجريبية الناتجة من 36 اختبار لخلية الوقود كبيانات للتعلم. معدل تدفق كتلة الهيدروجين و الحمل المطبق و ضغط الهيدروجين اخذت كمدخلات لنموذج الخلية، في حين أن التيارالكهربائي والجهد الكهربائي اصبحت المخرجات. النموذج المقترح تمكن من التنبئ بنجاح بأداء خلية الوقود مع حصول توافق جيد مع البيانات الفعلية. هذا العمل تم توسيعه ليشمل تطوير نظام سيطرة لخلية الوقود باستخدام المتحكم التناسبي التفاضلي التكاملي لتحقيق الاستقرار في جهد الخلية . استخدمت تقنية أمثلية حشد الجسيمات لحساب البارمترات المثالية للمسيطر التناسبي التكاملي التفاضلي. الخطأ الجهد ومعدل تدفق الهيدروجين هما الادخال و المشغل للمتحكم على التوالي. أظهرت نتائج المحاكاة أن استخدام جهاز تحكم مع النموذج المقترح لخلية الوقود امكنه تحسين أداء المنظومة في تتبع انتاج الجهد الكهربائي المطلوب في ظل ظروف التشغيل المختلفة .

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