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Article
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Al-Rawag tree (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) Cultivated in Iraq and Efficacy the Antimicrobial activity.

Author: Esam J. Al-Kalifawi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Issue: Special Issue A Pages: 39-48
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In the present study, environment friendly and cost effective silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the leaves extract of Al-Rawag tree cultivated in Iraq as the reducing and capping agent. The nanoparticless were characterized using UV-visble, FT-IR, XRD, and SEM methods. The surface plasmon resonance peaks in absorption spectra for silver colloidal solution showed an absorption peak at 430 nm in a UV-visible spectrum. The functional biomolecules such as carboxyl groups present in the seaweed responsible for the silver nanoparticles formation were characterized by FT-IR. The XRD results suggested that the crystallization of the bio-organic phase occurs on the surface of the silver nanoparticles or vice versa. The broadening of peaks in the XRD patterns was attributed to particle size effects and the average particles size about 30 nm which was calculated by using the Dubai-Scherrer equation. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the help of Al-Rawag leaves extracts were scanned using SEM. It reveals that a silver nanoparticle seems to be spherical in morphology.The results shows that silver nanoparticles synthesized by leavesextract of Al-Rawag tree has effective antibacterial activities on the test isolates as indicated by the diameter of their zone of inhibition. The inhibition zone was 14 mm for Enterobactercloacae and Escherichia coli, 20 mm for Klebsiella pneumonia, 16 mm for Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus sp. and Streptococcus spp.12 mm for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 18 mm for Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity of leavesextract of Al-Rawag tree has effect against tested isolates less than Silver nanoparticles synthesis by it.The study revealed that the silver nanoparticles synthesis by using leaves extract of Al-Rawag tree could be as a therapeutic agent for human microbial infections.


Article
Purification of the Tigris River water using seeds extract of Al-Ruwag tree (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) cultivated in Iraq.
تطهير نهر دجلة بذور المياه باستخدام مستخلص من شجرة آل Ruwag (بان زيتوني لامارك) المزروعة في العراق.

Author: Esam J. Al-Kalifawi عصام الخليفاوي
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2016 Issue: Special Second International Scientific Conference for the Life Sciences Pages: 14-22
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This study is the first in Iraq, in which the use of the Al-Ruwag tree seeds that were planted from seeds imported from Sudan and the age of the tree three years, and this is the second season of harvested bods. Al-Ruwag tree is very useful and all parts of the tree have potent medicinal value and seed has coagulant activity to remove the turbidity from water as a natural coagulant instead of chemical coagulant. In the present study preparation of dried seed powder of Al-Ruwag tree in many concentrations and that was treated with raw water. After treatment with raw water by Jar test, samples were analyzed for all the parameters such as pH, turbidity, TSS, and bacterial examination. The results of the present study showed that Al-Ruwag seed has more coagulant activity specific at concentration 10 and 15 percentage, in this concentration the turbidity values and total suspended solid were zero. The results of the present study demonstrated the of Al-Ruwag seeds extract was efficient against bacteria found in raw water. The concentration (1%, 2%, 3% and 5%) of Al-Ruwag seeds extract reduced the number of bacteria in raw water to about (93.75%, 95.5%, 99.37% and 99.68%) respectively. Whereas the concentration (10% and 15%) of Al-Ruwag seeds extract reduced the number of bacteria to 100% .We conclude from the current study that the Al-Ruwag seed is environmentally friendly, non-toxic and a natural coagulant, which is effective against the causes of water-borne diseases.

هذه الدراسة هي الأولى من نوعها في العراق، التي استخدام بذور شجرة آل Ruwag التي زرعت من بذور المستوردة من السودان وعمر الشجرة ثلاث سنوات، وهذا هو الموسم الثاني من مجلس ادارتها المقطوع. شجرة آل Ruwag مفيد جدا وجميع أجزاء الشجرة لها قيمة طبية قوية والبذور والنشاط تجلط الدم لإزالة العكارة من المياه بوصفها تجلط الدم الطبيعي بدلا من تجلط الدم الكيميائي. في إعداد الدراسة الحالية من مسحوق البذور المجففة لشجرة آل Ruwag في العديد من تجمعات وأنه تعامل مع المياه الخام. بعد العلاج مع الماء الخام عن طريق اختبار جرة، وقد تم تحليل عينات لجميع المعلمات مثل درجة الحموضة، التعكر، TSS، والفحص الجرثومي. وأظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن آل Ruwag بذور لديه المزيد من النشاط تجلط الدم معين في تركيز 10 و 15 مئوية، في هذا التركيز على القيم العكارة ومجموعه علقت صلبة كانت صفرا. أظهرت نتائج هذه الدراسة في جريدة Ruwag البذور استخراج كانت فعالة ضد البكتيريا الموجودة في المياه الخام. تركيز (1٪ و 2٪ و 3٪ و 5٪) من آل Ruwag البذور استخراج خفض عدد البكتريا في الماء الخام إلى حوالي (93.75٪، 95.5٪، 99.37٪ و 99.68٪) على التوالي. في حين أن تركيز (10٪ و 15٪) من آل Ruwag البذور استخراج خفض عدد البكتريا إلى 100٪ ونحن نستنتج من هذه الدراسة أن بذور آل Ruwag صديقة للبيئة، غير سامة، وتجلط الدم الطبيعي، الذي وهو فعال ضد مسببات الأمراض المنقولة عن طريق المياه.


Article
The antimicrobial activity of Al-Ankabut's home (Spider's web) extract

Authors: Esam J. Al-Kalifawi --- Yasamine Jumaa Kadem
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2017 Issue: Special Issue C Pages: 54-63
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study is the first in Iraq, in which using Al-Ankabut's home extract as antibacterial biomaterial. Different solvents were used to extract Al-Ankabut's home (distilled water, ethanol and acetone). These extracts were examined to determination of antibacterial activity against pathogen bacteria. The results of the present study shows the acetone extract has effective antibacterial activities on the test isolates as indicated by the diameter of their zone of inhibition. The inhibition zone was 12 mm for Enterobacter cloacae, 8 mm for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 mm for Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis, 14 mm for Bacillus subtilis, 16 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, and 12 mm for Streptococcus spp. The antimicrobial activity of distil water extract and ethanol extract of Al-Ankabut's home has no effect against tested isolates. The antimicrobial activity of distil water extract and ethanol extract of Al-Ankabut's home has no effect against tested isolates. The results of the effect of different concentration of acetone extract of the Ankabut's home against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria shows the best concentration was 40 mg/ml, the inhibition zone was 12 mm for all Gram negative isolates. The inhibition zone was 14 mm for Enterobacter cloacae, 12 mm for Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus spp., 17mm for Staphylococcus aureus. Whereas the 10 mg/ml concentration gives the lowest effect, the inhibition zone was 8 mm for Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus spp. and 10 mm for Staphylococcus aureus. No effect against other Gram negative isolates. The study revealed that the acetone Al- Ankabut's home extract could be as a therapeutic agent for human microbial infections.


Article
Factors Influence on the yield of Bacterial Cellulose of Kombucha (Khubdat Humza)
العوامل المؤثرة على انتاج السليلوز الجرثومي للكمبوشا (كبده حمزة)

Authors: Inaam A. Hassan انعام عبد القادر حسن --- Esam J. AL-Kalifawi عصام جاسم الخليفاوي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 3ملحق ابحاث المؤتمر التنوع البايولوجي Pages: 1420-1428
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Kombucha(Khubdat Humza) is composed of yeast and acetic acid bacteria especially, Acetobacter xylinum which forms a cellulose pellicle on tea broth. Kombucha(Khubdat Humza) produces bacterial cellulose pellicles, with unique purity and fine structure. It can be used in many forms, such as an emulsifier, stabilizer, dispersing agent, thickener and gelling agent but these are generally subsidiary to its most important use of holding on to water. Recently, bacterial cellulose is used in many special applications such as a scaffold for tissue engineering of cartilages and blood vessels, also for artificial skin for temporary covering of wounds, as well as its used in the clothing industry. The yield of cellulose produced were investigated in this study, the tea broth was fermented naturally over a period of up to 20 days in the presence of different amounts of black tea and sucrose as nitrogen and carbon sources. 10g/L black tea produced highest weight of bacterial cellulose (55.46g/L) and 100g/L sucrose also exhibited high amount of pellicle (63.58g/L). Temperature was essential factor on growth, where the pellicle was formed at range (20°C - 50°C) and higher temperature over 50°C depressed the bacterial cellulose formation. The bacterial cellulose production increased with the increase of surface area and depth of the broth. Findings from this study suggest that the yield of cellulose depends on many factors that need to be optimized to achieve maximum yield.

الكمبوشا (كبده حمزة) تتكون من الخمائر وجراثيم حامض الخليك وخصوصا جرثومة Acetobacter xylinum والتي تكون غشاء سليلوزي على سائل الشاي. أن مزرعة الكمبوشا تنتج السليلوز الجرثومي بنطاق واسع مع نقاء فريد، ويمكن استخدامه في أشكال كثيرة، مثل مستحلب، مثبت، عامل تفريق، مثخن وكيل التبلور ولكن هذه عادة ما تكون تابعة لاستخدامه الأهم كمحتفظ للمياه. حاليا يستخدم السليلوز الجرثومي في العديد من التطبيقات مثل هيكل لهندسة الانسجة للغضاريف والأوعية الدموية كذلك كجلد صناعي للتغطية المؤقتة للجروح، فضلا عن استخدامه في صناعة الملابس .في هذه الدراسة بحث انتاج السليلوز، حيث خمر سائل الشاي طبيعيا لفترة اكثر من 20 يوما بوجود كميات مختلفة من الشاي الاسود والسكر كمصادر للنتروجين والكربون. ان 10 غم من الشاي الاسود انتج اعلى وزن من السليلوز الجرثومي (55.46 غم /لتر)، كذلك 100 غم /لتر سكر اظهر انتاج كميات كبيرة من الغشاء السليلوزي (63.58 غم /لتر). ان درجة الحرارة عامل اساسي مؤثر على النمو، حيث لوحظ ان الغشاء السليلوزي يتكون عند معدل 20-50 °م وان درجة الحرارة اكثر من 50 °م تقلل من انتاج السليلوز. انتاج السليلوز الجرثومي يزداد مع زيادة المساحة السطحية والعمق للسائل. تشير نتائج الدراسة الحالية الى ان انتاج السليلوز يعتمد على عدة عوامل اساسية من اجل الحصول على اعلى انتاج.

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