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Variation in concentrations of some elements in leaves and fruits of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) and soil irrigated with polluted water from Abu Al-Khaseeb River, Southern Iraq

Author: F.J. M. Al-Imaraha ; A.A. Mahmooda ; A.A. Abbasb and K.F. Abbas
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2008 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 104-113
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

During the cultivation period, growth and ripeness of Guava (Psidium guajava) plant in the fields of Abu Al-Khasseb, Southern Iraq were studied for estimation of chemical elements contents, Cd, Co, Cu , Fe, Mn and Zn in leaves and fruits of Guava irrigated by water from Abu Al-Khaseeb river polluted by crude oil spilled in Shatt Al-Arab River. Two sites were selected, Bab Debagh and Abu Mugherah. The study was conducted throughout two seasons, for the periods,Oct.2003-March 2004 and March 2004–August 2004. The first season is characterized by bud blooming and plants were irrigated with rain water, while the second season is characterized by growth of leaves and buds, bloom and ripeness, water used in this stage for irrigation was from Abu Al-Khaseeb River. Moreover a clear model was used during these seasons as a control irrigated with tab water. Some chemical elements were estimated by adopting the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry in the leaves and fruits of Guava plant. Highest differences in the concentrations of studied elements were recorded in leaves and fruits before and after ripeness during the first season and for both sites. While concentrations were increased for all studied elements except Cd in leaves after fruit ripeness in both sites, and all elements except Cd, Fe and Mg in fruits after ripeness in Bab Debagh site, while elements Cd, Cu and Mg decreased with no change in Co and Fe and increase in Zn only in fruits after ripeness for Abu Mugherah site. Guava fruit characterized by diameter, length in cm and weight in gm as 12.6, 5.4 and 30.36 respectively for Bab Debagh site and 15.5, 7.2 and 45.3 respectively for Abu Mugherah site during the first season. For the second season, elements showed decrease in leaves except Co after ripeness of fruits and increased in fruits except Co and Mn with no effect for Cd in Bab Debagh site and decreased in elements except Cd with no effect for Fe in leaves while in fruits, elements were decreased except an increase of Zn with no effect for Cd and Cu. Fruits characterized as 17.7, 8.1 and 59.8 respectively in Bab Debagh site and 19, 9.6 and 83.8 respectively in Abu Mugherah site. Statistical analysis showed non significant differences for Cd and Cu between leaves and fruits for both study sites. Significant differences were recorded for Co and Mn between leaves and fruits, while for Fe significant differences were recorded between leaves and fruits for Bab Debagh only, and for Zn there were significant differences between leaves before ripeness compared with after ripeness and both significantly different from fruits whether before or after ripeness. During the second period of study , Co didn't record any significant differences, but Cu and Fe reported significant differences between leaves before and after ripeness from fruits after ripeness, while Fe and Mn didn't show any significant differences for leaves before and after ripeness from fruits before and after ripeness. It is concluded that concentrations of chemical elements showedalteration levels in leaves and fruits of Guava plant during the cultivation period.

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