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Article
Dental caries prevalence among inter-mediate and secondary school students in Thamar–Yemen

Author: Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 15 Pages: 83-89
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the prevalence of dental caries among intermediate and secondary school students 13–16 years old to determine the age and sex difference and to obtain data that can help in planning preventive dental health programs for school students in Yemen. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 512 intermediate school students,449 secondary school students were examined. Interme-diate school student sample was divided into 3 age groups namely 13,14,15 and secondary school stu-dent sample was divided into 3 age groups namely 16,17,18 years old. The WHO methodology (1997) was used to assess the individual tooth status. Results: The mean DMFT for the total sample was 5.2±0.13; which increased with the increasing of age from 4.54 to 4.84 to 6.47 for the age groups 13,14,15 years old respectively; without significant sex difference as total 5.44 for males and 5.14 for total females. Results of dental caries for the secondary school students showed that the mean DMFT for the total sample was 5.98± 0.14, which decreased with the increasing of age from 5.60 to 6.49 to 5.85 for the age groups 16,17,18 years old respectively, with peak value at 17 years old without signifi-cant sex difference, 5.74 for total males, 6.21 for total females. Conclusion: The mean DMFT for both intermediate, secondary schools increased with increasing age with statistical significant difference with no sex differences.


Article
THE EFFECT OF FISSURE MORPHOLOGY ON CARIES SEVERITY OF ADULTS IN NORTH IRAQ
تاثير شكل الشقوق الطاحنه على شدة النخر عند البالغين في شمال العراق

Author: Faraed D. Salman
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 29-37
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

Background: The presence of pits and fissures are normal occurrence found in molars, premolars. They can be considered as areas with high susceptibility to caries lesion.Materials and Methods: The extracted premolars were 655 for orthodontic purposes. Ekstrand clinical severity index (1995) was used to assess the severity of primary fissure occlusal caries. They were divided into 5 subgroups on the basis of fissure morphology (I, V, U, IK and Y types)(Nagano,1961). Thereafter, the teeth were sectioned into buccolingual direction in central fossa and microscopically analyzed by stereomicroscope (150× magnification).Aim of study: The study was designed to examine the effect of fissure morphology on primary caries of occlusal fissures in premolars in North of Iraq. Results : V– and IK– shaped fissures were found to have the maximum percentage (48% and 22.44%, respectively). Percentage was very poor for I (18.77%), Y (18.01%) and U (17.09%) types of fissureConclusions: V– and U– shapes have less severity of dental caries in comparison with I–, Y– and IK– types with increasing severity index scores.

ان وجود الوهاد والشقوق هو تكوين طبيعي في الطواحن والضواحك ،فهي تعتبر مناطق عالية لحدوث النخر.صممت هذه الدراسة لفحص تاثير شكل الشقوق الطاحنة على النخر الابتدائي في هذه الشقوق للضواحك في شمال العراق .تم استخدام مؤشرEkstrand(1995) لقياس شدة النخرعلى السطوح الطاحنة. تم قلع (655) ضاحك مستخدمة لغرض التقويم ،قسمت الاسنان الى خمس مجاميع حسب شكل الشقوق لمؤشر )Nagano (1961. قطعت الاسنان في مركز الوحدة الدهليزية اللسانية ثم فحصت بالستيروميكروسكوب قوة تكبيره 150 مرة .اظهرت النتائج ان نوع الشقوق ((V&IK كان اعلى نسبة(22.44%&48 %) على التوالي متبوعا ب (I) (18.77%)،) (Y) 18.01) ثم (U) (17.09%). ظهران الاشكال ( (U&Vتمتلك اقل شدة للنخر مقارنة ب ( IK,I,Y) مع زيادة درجات شدة النخر مع عدم وجود فروقات معنوية لكلا الجنسين حسب توزيع اشكال الاخاديد المختلفة.


Article
Prevalence of dental fluorosis among pr-imary school children in Thamar– Yemen.

Author: Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 13 Pages: 14-19
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in relation to age and sex for primary school children, aged 6 – 12 years old in Thamar -Yemen. Material and methods: The study included 600 primary school children aged 6, 9 and 12 years old randomly selected (300 males, 300 females) in Thamar – Yemen, who had lived since birth in moderate natural fluoride level (1.8 – 2.2 ppm) by the use of Dean index to assess dental fluorosis. Results: Showed that the prevalence of dental fluorosis was 19.83 % and 5.23 % within students and teeth respectively, ranging from very mild to moderate form of dental fluorosis with no significant sex difference for individuals at p ≤0.05 as total and significant difference between males and females for teeth as total at p ≤ 0.001, the percentage of severity had been found to be increasing with age. The community fluorosis index for Thamar Province was 0.4 %, which was regarded low. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental fluorosis had been increased with increasing age with no sex difference


Article
Assessment of oral cleanliness and gingival condition among intermediate Thamarian school students

Author: Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 12 Pages: 181-185
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the oral cleanliness and gingival health among intermediate school students and tofind if there was any variation between age and sex groups in Thamar–Yemen. Material andMethods: A sample of 596 students aged 13–15 years old (308 males, 288 females) were examinedusing plaque index score by Silness and Löe (1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963). Theclinical examinations were carried out in the school using plane mouth mirrors, WHO periodontalprobes to detect the dental plaque and gingival health. Results: The mean plaque score for the totalsample was 0.90. The plaque index was increasing with age, females reported less mean plaque scoresthan males with statistically significant difference between them. The mean gingival score was 0.52 forthe total sample and it was increasing with age with statistical significant difference. Females alsoreported less gingival scores than males with statistical significant difference between them. The study revealed that 45.1 % of the total sample did not brush their teeth. Conclusion: Gingival and periodontal diseases are indirectly related to the exposure of bacterial plaque for long time which calls for integrated, coordinated planning of preventive and treatment services as an urgent priority.


Article
Prevalence of dental caries among primary school children in Thamar Governorate in Republic of Yemen

Author: Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2003 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 127-132
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among primary school children in Thamar Governorate, Republic of Yemen. A random sample of 494 primary school children was examined. The sample was divided into 3 age groups; namely, 6, 9, and 12 years old. The WHO methodology (1997) was used to assess the individual tooth status. Results of dental caries in the primary den-tition showed that the mean dmft for the total sample was 3.40 + 0.15 which was decreased with increasing age from 3.59 to 3.57 to 2.19 for the age groups 6, 9 and 12 years respectively with significant sex dif-ference (males was higher than females) as total, 3.93 for the total males, 2.84 for the total females. For the permanent dentition, the mean DMFT was 3.35 + 0.12 which was increased with increasing age with statistically significant age difference as it was 2.39, 2.98, 3.85 for the age groups 6, 9 and 12 years respectively with no sex variation.


Article
Natural fluoride Content of Drinking Water in Two District Areas in Iraq and Yemen (A comparative study).

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 15 Pages: 90-103
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in two district areas: Iraq and Yemen, in relation to age and sex for students aged 13–16 years old. Materials and methods: the study was conducted among 904 students of both countries. Five hundred and seventy two students from Iraq (Sinjar province): 334 males and 238 females. Three hundred and thirty two students: 173 males and 159 females, from Yemen (Thamar province); aged 13–16 years old were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary schools who had lived since birth in two different areas with concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Sinjar with high concentration (2.05–2.22 ppm), Thamar with moderate concentration (1.8–2.2 ppm) by the use of Dean index (1934) to assess dental fluorosis. Results: the study had shown that the prevalence of dental flourosis in Sinjar province was 52.1%, 63.53% within students and teeth respectively was much higher than Thamar province which was 16.99%, 30.23% within students and teeth respectively; ranging from questionable, very mild forms for all age groups, while for Thamar it was ranging from very mild to moderate with significant sex difference for individuals (females reported less prevalence than males) for both provinces for the first three degrees of flourosis at P<0.001, P< 0.05. The percent age of severity for Sinjar was much higher than Thamar province which increased significantly with increasing age at P<0.001, P<0.01,and P< 0.05. Also the distribution of severity of frequency was much higher in Sinjar than Thamar with highest percentage in upper and lower posterior teeth (75%, 72%) at P<0.001. The community flourosis index for Sinjar was 1.62 (moderate) while for Thamar province was 3.05 for these age groups (very marked). Conclusions: prevalence of dental flourosis increased infrequently with age in Sinjar while systematically in Thamar with sex difference (females reported less percentage than males).


Article
Antimicrobial Effect of German chamomile Extractas Root Canal Irrigant (in vitro Study)
تأثير مضاد الجراثيم للمستخلص المائي لنبات البابونج عند استعماله كغاسل لقناة الجذر

Author: Faraed D. Salman فرائد داوود سلمان
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 74-80
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of German chamomile extract as a root canat irrigant in vitro,
and comparing its effect with chlorhexidine 0.2Yo inigant solution.
Materials and Methods: Twenty adult patients rvith age range l8+0 years attending dental school with
symptomatic uniradicular teeth with necrotic'pulp diagnosed by radiograph rvith no flstula or sinus tract
were chosen; l0 subjec_ts for each irrigant solution (the test and the control groups). Microbiological
samples rvere obtained from the root canal at the beginning of the first appointr.nt, and then moistined
paper point is placed in a screlv capped vial containing 5 ml Thioglycoiate broth for anaerobic bacteria
arrd thc otlter containing Brain I leart Infusion broth for aerobic bacteria, rvfiiclr is incubated directly for
l8 hours at37 "C. Turbidity test lvas used to compare antimicrobial effect of Cerman chamomile eKtract
with chlorhexidine 0.2%.
Rcsults: Mean reduction in bacterial count (0.36 t 0.09 for aerobic and 0.19 + 0.02 for anaerobic) for
Cerman chamornilc and chlorlrcxidinc 0.2% (0.084 + 0.03 and 0.052 t 0.016 respectivcly) were
detcrmincd by using onc santple t-tcst, rvhich rvas nruch lorvcr for Ccrrnan chantomilc than for
clrforlrcxidine 0'2Yo rvith significant diffcrcnce. For contparison bctrvccl trvo nratcrials for acrobic and
anacrobic, trnpairccl t-tcst rvas uscd. Rcsults wcrc considcred signiticant atp < 0.05.
Cottcltlsiott: Gcrtnan cltarnontilc e,ract is cfl'cctivc antirnicrobial irrigant solution cspecially on
anacrobic bactcrit bttt muclt lotvcr tlran chlorhcxidinc 0.2% irrisant solution.

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Article
A Clinical Association of Dry Socket and Postoperative Pain with Typhoid fever as Risk Factor

Authors: Mahmoud YM Taha --- Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 21 Pages: 71-77
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To identify the clinical picture and the association between dry socket and severe postoperative development with one of the systemic risk factors (typhoid fever). Materials and Methods: Twenty adult (both sexes) patients attended dental clinic searching for different dental treatments were studied. The clinical picture of 6 months period study was evaluated by completing two case sheet forms. They were diagnosed having dry sockets and severe postoperative pain. Blood samples were taken for bacte-riological, serological and hematological study to diagnose typhoid fever. These tests included WAT, WFT, WBCs and blood culture. Results: Significant correlation existed between postoperative pain and typhoid fever examined by BC and the highest percentage was with dry socket (61.5%) followed by WFT (57.1%(, WAT (44.4%) using two tests for diagnosis showed that WFT and BC gave 97.9% positive for dry socket and Kappa test was 88%, while WAT and WBCs or WFT and WAT gave the least non significant correlation. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between dry socket and typhoid fever and the most sensitive tests for diagnosis was BC followed by WFT, WBCs and WAT.


Article
Mercury release from a two surface amalgam restoration

Authors: Jabbar H KAMEL --- Faraed D SALMAN
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-64
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Mercury release from a two surface amalgam restoration has been determined in blood and urine at different time interval after performing amalgam restoration. The results showed that the average mercury released in blood reached relatively the level that was before restoration to be done after 3 weeks


Article
Dental caries risk indicators by using International Caries Detection and Assessment System in Mosul City.

Authors: Aisha A Qasim --- Saher S Gasgoos --- Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 21 Pages: 113-123
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the effect of risk factors such as income level, socioeconomic status, parents education, brushing behavior , dental attendance, type of treatment performed and others on dental ca-ries severity of permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Sample size was (531) students (260 males and 271 females) who were selected randomly from (10) primary and intermediate schools in Mosul City, their ages were ranged between (6-16) years. Risk factors considered on caries severity included parent's income level, parent's education, visiting the dentist, types of dental treatment performed and brushing behavior. Distribution of dental caries on each side of the mouth, DMFT and the percentage of caries free students were also considered. Caries severity was measured using International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Results: These factors have an effect to increase or decrease caries severity either significantly or not significantly. Conclusion: These risk factors should be kept in mind when we decide to reduce caries severity.

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