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Article
Proportion and Determinants of Uncontrolled Hypertension among Treated

Author: Faris Al-Lami
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-63
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome with a high morbidity and mortality, despite advances in medical treatment. Death from dangerous ventricular arrhythmias is frequently implicated.
Patients, materials & methods: Eighty patients with heart failure (HF) (fitting the criteria of heart failure) who were admitted to the medical city teaching hospital during a period of 8 months, were studied for incidence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (N.S.V.T.) (detected by Holter monitoring) and its association with the severity of left ventricular dysfunction (measured by ejection fraction), ventricular size (measured by left ventricular end diastolic dimension), and other factors .
Results: It was found that out of 80 patients with H.F, 20 patients (25%) have N.S.V.T. N.S.V.T was found to be significantly associated with the severity of H.F. and left ventricular dimension. Hypertension (HT) remains poorly controlled even in the developed countries in spite of theimprovement in management. Many studies found that about 70% of people with HT remainuncontrolled. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, and determinants ofuncontrolled HT (UHT) among treated hypertensive patients. A random sample of 214 knownhypertensive patients, on regular treatment for a minimum of one year was included. The mean ofthree blood pressure (BP) readings measured two weeks apart was considered. Controlled BPwas defined as systolic BP≤140mmHg, and diastolic BP≤90 mmHg. A questionnaire was used tocollect data on certain demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, educational status,crowding index), smoking habit, salt, and alcohol intake, number of used antihypertensive drugs,frequency of BP checking, co morbid illnesses, and certain anthropometric measurements. Theproportion of UHT is 68%. Although the proportion of UHT was higher among older agepatients, males, currently married, college graduate, those using three antihypertensive drugs,patients with no dietary salt restriction, or no co morbid illnesses, but these factors were notproved to be statistically significant. Current smoking, Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25Kg/m2(reflecting overweight/ Obesity), and frequency of BP checking were statistically significantpredictors of UHT.

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Article
Overweight and Obesity in A Sample of Primary School Children in Baghdad

Author: Riyadh Alredainy*, Faris Al Lami**
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 452-458
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century, that has many serious long-term consequences for health. The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing at worrying rates across the globe.OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence and identify potential risk factors of overweight and obesity among a sample of primary school children in Baghdad, Iraq.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 10 primary schools from different localities of Baghdad, followed by a systematic random sample of 620 children aged 10 years or more of both sexes. A questionnaire sent to the parents to gather information on socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits, daily physical activity, steroids use, family history of obesity and parents` education and job. Children's height (cm), weight (Kg), and BMI-for-age were measured and parents` height and weight were obtained through a questionnaire sent to the parents and accordingly BMI (Kg/m2) was calculated. Child's weight status was categorized based on WHO 2007 Growth Reference.RESULTS:The prevalence of high BMI was 30.3%, including 16.3% overweight and 14% obesity. Following application of binary analysis, the significant risk factors included in the logistic regression model that revealed the following significant risk factors: not having regular sports (OR: 4.1; P=0.000), child inactivity (OR: 3.1; P=0.001), high meal frequency (OR: 2.6; P=0.006), positive family history of obesity (OR: 2.5; P=0.01) and more sweets and bicarbonate beverages (OR: 2.2, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was high among primary school children. Children should be considered the priority population for intervention strategies and to combat early childhood obesity..


Article
Proportion and Determinants of Incomplete Vaccination among Children Aged Less than Two Years in Baghdad City

Authors: ,Faris Al-Lami --- Loai S. Fadil
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 169-173
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunization is the most important public health advance of the 20th century and the most cost-effective and a life-saving intervention. The public health initiative is to get 90% of the nation's children adequately immunized before their third birthday. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and determinants of incomplete vaccination among a sample of children aged less than two years in Baghdad city. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: A random sample of 11 Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad city. Data Collection time: Feb/1st-May/31st / 2008 SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A systematic random sample of 562 children aged less than two years, living in Baghdad city, and attended the selected Primary Health Care Centers for various health complaints apart from immunization. Vaccination status of children was verified for their age and according to the national Expanded Program of Immunization. RESULTS: The proportion of incomplete vaccination was18.8%; 0.5% were completely non-vaccinated. The proportion of incomplete vaccination increased with increasing age (P=0.000). Males showed higher proportion of incomplete vaccination (24.1%) than females (14.2%) (P =0.003). The major proportion of incomplete vaccination was among children of illiterate mothers (43%) (P =0.000). The main causes of incomplete vaccination were immigration problem (46.23%), security problem (29.25%), and parent’s related problem (15%), and other causes (9%). CONCLUSION: Around one of every five children aged less than two years in Baghdad was incompletely vaccinated; immigration and security obstacles were the main causes of incomplete vaccination


Article
Prevalence and determinants of Physical Inactivity among Diabetic and Hypertensive Patients, Baghdad-Iraq, 2015-2016
مدى انتشار و محددات الخمو الجسدي لدى المرضى المصابين بالسكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم في مدينه بغداد-العراق 2015-2016

Authors: Faris Al Lami فارس اللامي --- Munaf Faik مناف فايق
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2016 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 16-22
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: The prevalence of NCDs is increasing throughout the world. Lifestyles changes particularly, unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity (PA) have been contributed to the increased prevalence of NCDs. Globally, the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI) is about 31%, however there is insufficient data about prevalence and determinants of PI among adults with Hypertension (HTN) and/or Diabetes (DM) in Baghdad.Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the prevalence and identify high risk groups of PI among adults with HTN and DM in Baghdad, Iraq, 2015-2016.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of 584 adults with HTN and/or DM (age≥18 years) who attended primary health care centers in Baghdad, Iraq. Data were collected using structured questionnaire to gather socio-demographic information of the participants. 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews, developed by WHO and incorporated within the WHO Stepwise instrument, and scored as per standard protocols used to measure the PA variables. A metabolic equivalent task (MET) score of less than 600 indicates the presence of PI.Results: The total participants were 584. Overall, PI was found to be 57.5% (95% CI: 53.49%-61.51%).The study population was found to be least active in the leisure time domain (6.7%) compared with the work (45.7%) and transport (47.6%) domains. Binary analysis revealed the following risk factors: Age, sex, marital status, occupation, educational level, hypertension, combined hypertension and diabetes, BMI, and PA advice. Logistic regression analysis applied and revealed the following un-confounded risk factor: Aging (OR=1.047), Divorced or Widowed (OR=1.323), Retired or housewives (OR=1.331), Illiterate level of education (OR=1.439), obesity (OR=1.46) and lack of PA advice (OR=3.443).Conclusion: more than half of HTN and/or DM subjects in Iraq was physically inactive. Low education, obesity and lack of advice were the most important modifiable risk factors


Article
Food Poisoning Outbreak in Tikrit City, Iraq, 2013: Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium were the Incriminated Pathogens

Authors: Asaad Mehdi Asaad --- Faris Al Lami --- Bashar Abdullatif --- Ayad Kareem --- et al.
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 169-175
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:On June, 22nd, 2013, Communicable Disease Control Center (CDCC) in Baghdad notified on an outbreak of Food Poisoning (FP) involving more than 100 persons attending a restaurant in Tikrit City, Salah Al Din province on21st, June. OBJECTIVE: to identify source, and causative agents of the outbreak. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A case seeries study conducted on accessed cases in Tikrit and Sala Al Din hospitals. Information on basic, clinical and food item consumed were collected using a questionnaire. Environmental assessment of the restaurant using a standardized checklist and bacteriology testing of food samples, patients’ stool specimens and different specimens from food handlers were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 214 persons who attended the restaurant sought medical care for acute gastroenteritis; 82 (38.3%) were admitted. Only 175 patients (including 11 affected food handlers) were accessed. Main symptoms were diarrhea (92.5%), nausea (87.5%), and vomiting (84.5%). Apart of one death, all other patients recovered completely. 32% of patients’ stool samples were positive for Salmonella typhimurium, and 30% of food specimens were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 10% for coliform bacteria; 13 food handlers were examined and specimens of blood, urine; and stool, and under the finger nail swabs, were negative. Health inspection of the restaurant revealed unhygienic food processing and poor personal hygiene of food handlers.CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were the responsible pathogens. Contaminated food stuff and unhygenic foodhandlers practices were the source. Strengthening the role of health inspection, and upgrading local laboratory capacity were recommended.


Article
Prevalence of Latent TB Infection among Health Care Workers in Three Main TB Health Facilities, Baghdad, Iraq, 2013
انتشار الاصابة بالتدرن الكامن بين العاملين الصحيين في ثلاث مؤسسات صحية رئيسية للتدرن في بغداد, العراق, 2013

Authors: Faris Al-Lami فارس اللامي --- Petru Armean بيترو ارميان --- Alaa H.Al-Ameri علاء حسين
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2014 Volume: 56 Issue: 3 Pages: 339-342
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis infection represents a global health problem and a great risk to Health Care Workers. Identifying individuals, particularly Health Care Workers with latent tuberculosis infection will support tuberculosis control through chemoprophylaxis and prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and some risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection among Health Care Workers in three tuberculosis health institutions in Baghdad.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Baghdad- Iraq on Health Care Workers working in the Specialized Respiratory & Chest Diseases Center (Tuberculosis institute), Ibn Zuhur Hospital for Chest Diseases and Al-Resafa Health District TB Clinic in Al-Sadr City. Information about age, gender and occupation was obtained. All subjects received a Mantoux tuberculin skin test. Induration of ≥10 mm was considered a positive test. Results: A total of 212 Health Care Workers were enrolled, 71.7% of them were males; none had recently received BCG vaccine. Fifty nine (27.8%) had a positive tuberculin skin test. Physicians (38.2%) and nurses & paramedicals (31%) have the highest rates of positive result than other occupations. The highest rate of positive results was seen among Health Care Workers in Specialized Respiratory & Chest Diseases Center (55.1%). There was a significant association between positive TST response with the occupation (job title) and the working site. No significant association was seen with age or gender (P>0.05).Conclusion: Around one third of Health Care Workers in these tuberculosis facilities had latent tuberculosis infection. Job and work place were significant determinants. Keywords: Health Care Workers, Latent Tuberculosis, occupational health, Iraq

الخلفية: تمثل الاصابة بالتدرن مشكلةصحية عالمية وخطر كبير على العاملين الصحيين. ان التعرف على الاشخاص وخاصة العاملين الصحيين ذوي اصابات التدرن الكامن يساهم في السيطرة على التدرن (من خلال العلاج الكيميائي الوقائي) والحد من انتشار المرض. تهدف الدراسة الى قياس انتشار الاصابة بالتدرن الكامنن بين العاملين الصحيين في ثلاث مؤسسات صحية رئيسية للتدرن في بغداد.طرق العمل: اجريت هذه الدراسة المقطعية في بغداد العراق 2013, على العاملين الصحيين في المركز التخصصي للامراض الصدرية والتنفسية (معهد التدرن) ومستشفى ابن زهر للامراض الصدرية وعيادة التدرن في مدينة الصدر في قطاع الرصافة الصحي. جمعت معلومات عن العمر والجنس والمهنة, وتم فحصهم بفحص التبركلين الجلدي والذي اعتبر موجبا اذا كان التصلب يساوي او يزيد عن 10 ملم. النتائج: شملت الدراسة 212 عامل صحي, 71.7% منهم ذكورلم باخذ اي منهم حديثا جرعة ال بي سي جي . اظهر 59 (27.8%) فحص تبركلين موجب.كانت اعلى النتائج الموجبة بين الاطباء (38.2%) والممرضات وذوي المهن الطبية (31.0%). كما كانت اعلى النتائج الموجبة بين العاملين الصحيين في المركز التخصصي للامراض الصدرية والتنفسية. كانت هناك علاقة احصائية معتدة بين ايجابية الفحص والمهنة (عنوان الوظيفة) ومحل العمل بينما لم تكن هناك علاقة احصائية معتدة بين ايجابية الفحص والجنس او العمر . الهدف: حوالي ثلث العاملين الصحيين في هذه المؤسسات لديهم اصابة بالتدرن الكامن وكانت الوظيفة ومكان العمل محددات معتدة. مفتاح الكلمات:العاملين في مجال الرعاية الصحية، السن الكامل، صحة مهنية ،العراق

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