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Women and Smoking: General and Social Perspectives
النساء والتدخين منظور اجتماعي وعام

Authors: Faris B. Al-Sawaf د. فراس السواف --- Dhafer B. Al-Youzbaki د. ظافر اليوزبكي --- Maha A. Al-Nuemai د. مها النعيمي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 4 Pages: 308-314
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Tobacco is the second major cause of death in the world. It is currently responsible for the death of one in ten adults' worldwide (about 5 million deaths each year). If current smoking patterns continue, it will cause some 10 million deaths each year by 2020. Half the people that smoke today -that are about 650 million people- will eventually be killed by tobacco. Tobacco is the fourth most common risk factor for disease worldwide. The economic costs of tobacco use are equally devastating. In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of breadwinners and nations of a healthy workforce. Nonetheless regarding women smoking currently depriving families from main care givers causing many preventable diseases among women and their babies. Aim: To examine the impact of different socio-economic and medical characteristics on the development of smoking habit among women. Study design: Case-control study, where 110 currently smoker women with, were allocated as cases. Another 110 non-smoker women were considered as controls. Study period: From the 1st. March 2007 to 1st December 2007.Data collection tools: Including, assessment of socio-economic features such as personal characteristics, life events and social context. In addition, previous history of abortion and the presence of one or more of chronic non-communicable diseases were also gained. Results: Regarding Personal Characteristics; positive family history was found to be significantly associated with the development of smoking behavior (P=0.001), the same thing was applied to abnormal marital status (P=0.001) and personality type A (P=0.002). According to Life Events; stress, social discontinuities, geographical mobility and catastrophic life events in this work appeared to be significantly associated with the development of smoking behavior (P= 0.010, P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.001 respectively). Regarding Social Context, sudden change in economic status was also found to be significantly related to the initiation and promotion of smoking behavior (P=0.001), moreover, living alone and urbanization appeared to have similar significant effects (P=0.03, P=0.02 respectively). According to Other Variables, the presence of one or more of chronic non-communicable diseases is found to be associated with smoking (P=0.016), and previous obstetric history of abortion also was associated with smoking (P=0.007). Lastly, women who are belonging to social class I and II (professional and semiprofessional) appeared to be protected significantly (P=0.009, P=0.03 respectively) against the habit of smoking, unlike women who are belonging to social class IV (semiskilled manual worker) appeared to be significantly (P=0.005) prone to the development of smoking habit. Conclusion: Women with positive family history, with abnormal marital status, personality type a, stress, social discontinuities, geographical mobility, catastrophic life events, economic factor, and urbanization, chronic diseases, previous history of abortion, social class IV are at risk for development of smoking habit. Nevertheless, women from social class I and II are more immune against development of smoking habit. Key words: General, social, risk, factors, smoking, women.

الخلفية:تدخين التبغ هو السبب الاساسي الثاني للوفاة في العالم. و الان هو المسؤول عن وفاة واحد من عشرة من البالغين في العالم. واذا استمرت نسب التدخين كما هي الان فانه من المتوقع ان يتسبب في وفاة 10 ملايين شخص في عام 2020 كل سنة. بالاضافة للتكلفة العامة العالية لعلاج الامراض الناتجة من التدخين, فان التدخين يقتل الناس في ذروة انتاجهم حارما بذلك العوائل من كاسبي لقمة العيش و الدول من القوى العاملة. و ليس اخيرا و بالنسبة للنساء فان التدخين يحرم العوائل من الرعاية الاساسية لللامهات ومؤديا الى عدد كبير من الامراض التي يمكن الوقاية منها لهن و لاطفالهن.تصميم الدراسة:دراسة العينة و الشاهد.وقت الدراسة:من الاول من اذار 2007 الى الاول من كانون الاول 2007.النتائج:النساء اللاتي لهن الصفات التالية مثل : تاريخ العائلة الايجابي للتدخين, وضعية زواج غير طبيعية, نوع الشخصية ا, الاجهاد, عدم التواصل الاجتماعي, الهجرة, الحوادث المفجعة, التحضر, العوامل الاقتصادية, الامراض المزمنة غير الانتقالية, الاجهاد, التاريخ السابق لحالة اجهاض, ومن المستوى الاجتماعي الرابع , كل تلك النساء معرضات لخطر تطور عادة التدخين لديهن.

Keywords

General --- social --- risk --- factors --- smoking --- women.

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