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Article
Descriptive Study of Some Epiphytic Algae (Non diatoms) After Restoration of Mesopotamian Marshes, Southern of Iraq

Authors: Jinan S. Al-Hassany --- Fikrat M Hassan
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 96-108
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The present study conducted on epiphytic algae from four host macrophytes (Phragmites australisTrinex, Typha domengensis Pers, Ceratophyllum demersum L., and Potamogeton pectinatus L.) in restoring marshes of Mesopotamian marshes, southern Iraq. The study was carried in Al- Hawizah marshes. Three classes, nine orders, twenty three genera and thirty-four species of epiphytic algae were described in the studied restoration marshes.


Article
Assessment of a lotic ecosystem by using diatomic indices (Epipelic Algae), Iraq

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan --- Ali O. Shaawiat
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 87-100
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Benthic diatoms are considered as bio-indicators in lotic ecosystems. The present study is conducted to assess the environmental status of Al-Shamiya river by applying of diatomic indices (epipelic diatom). Fifteen diatomic indices were used in this study. Saprobic index, Pollution Tolerance Index, Palmer Pollution Index, Percent Sensitive Species and Index of Pollution Sensitivity were used as pollution indices. While trophies indices were trophic State Index, Trophic Diatom Index, Diatomic Index, Generic Diatomic Index and Biological water Quality. Furthermore, the study included the diversity indices such as Simpson index, Richness Index, Shannon-Weaver Index, Evenness Index and McIntoch Diversity Index. According to these indices the quality of the river is ranged from less polluted to moderate pollutes., as well as, they indicate the trophic status of the river.


Article
SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN ALWND RIVER – IRAQ
التغيرات الفصلية في الهائمات النباتية لنهر الوند ، العراق

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan فكرت مجيد حسن --- A. M. ISMAIL
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture المجلة العراقية للاستزراع المائي ISSN: 1812237X Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 89-99
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The seasonal variations in algal compositions quantitatively and qualitatively have been studied for two stations in Alwnd River, represented before and after passing Khanqeen city through eight months starting in December 2000. A total of 123 phytoplankton taxa were identified, dominated by diatoms (63 species) followed by greens (34 species), blue-greens (15 species) and 11 species for other groups. The total cell number of phytoplankton ranged between 34565 and 37940 cell/cm3 in both stations with two peaks in spring and summer. The higher density of cell number and species was recorded in the second station during the studied period.

تمت دراسة التغايرات الفصلية للهائمات النباتية كميا ونوعيا لمحطتين في نهر الوند تمثلان قبل وبعد مروره بمدينة خانقين لمدة ثمانية اشهر ابتداءا من كانون الاول 2000. تم تشخيص 123 نوعا من الهائمات النباتية كانت السيادة فيها للدايتومات (63 نوعا) تبعتها الطحالب الخضر (34 نوعا) والخضر المزرقة (15 نوعا) والمجاميع الاخرى (11 نوعا). تراوحت الاعداد الكلية لخلايا الهائمات النباتية بين 34566 و 37940 خلية/سم3 في المحطتين الاولى والثانية على التوالي وبذروتين ربيعية وصيفية. لقد سجلت اعلى كثافة للخلايا والانواع في المحطة الثانية خلال مدة الدراسة.


Article
Enhancement of biodiesel production from local isolates of microalgae

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan --- Nadhem H. Hyder --- Samara Saad Faraj Hammadi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 66-81
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Ten microalgae isolates were isolated from some ponds and Tigris River in Iraq, and screened for growth and lipid production. The results showed that the isolates Chrococcus dispersus, Anabaena augstumalis and Chlorella vulgaris exhibited higher growth rate and lipid production and reached (0.95, 1.9 and 1.17) g/l, respectively. The selected isolates stimulated by studying the effect of different levels of pH and salinity on growth and lipid production. The results showed higher lipid production by C. vulgaris reached maximum (3.45g/l) at lower pH 6, followed by A. augstumalis (2.75g/l at pH11) and C. disperses (2.68 g/l at pH9). The results also showed that lipid production by C. dispersus and A. augstumalis was stimulated by decreasing salinity concentration and reached maximum (2.94 and 2.5 g/l), respectively at 0.4 g/l of NaCl. While, maximum lipid production by C. vulgaris was (1.72 g/l) obtained at salt concentration of 1g/l. The combined effect of pH and salinity on lipid production studied. Maximum lipid production by C. dispersus (8.43 g/l) observed at (pH9 + salt 0. 4g/l). In case of C. vulgaris, total lipid production reached 4.43g/l which obtained at (pH6 + salt 0.75g/l). While, lipid production in microalgae of A. augstumalis was favored by alkaline condition, and maximum lipid production (4.42 g/l) observed at (pH11 + salt 0. 75g/l). Higher oil content was observed in C. vulgaris and reached 33.2% (0.332 g of oil / g of dry algal biomass) when the microalgae cultivated at (pH9 + salt 0.4 g/l). In comparison, to lower oil content (%) observed with A. augstumalis and C. dispersus reached to 16 % and 13.8% when the isolates stimulated at (pH11 + salt 0.4 g/l) and (pH 6 + salt 0.75 g/l), respectively. Analysis of lipid content by GC technique had shown that the lipid content of microalgae C. dispersus contained only stearic acid. While, oil content in C. vulgaris and A. augstumalis contained only stearic acid, but palmtic acid and oleic acid were detected in control and stimulus conditions.


Article
Seasonal Variation of Environmental Properties and Phytoplankton Community in Al- Hussainya River, Holly Karbala – Iraq

Authors: Fikrat M . Hassan --- Jasim M . Salman --- Sara H . Abdulameer
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-82
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

A comprehensive ecological study was conducted on Al-hussainya river during the period from October , 2012 To Septemper 2013 . This study includes measuring some chemical and physical properties of water , in addition to the study of Phytoplankton community quantitatively and qualitatively .The values of the parameters ranged between 12.7 – 31.3 C°, 8.5 – 45C° for water and air temperature respectively , 7.5–9.4forPH,840–1416.67μs/cm,413.33–700mg/l, 6.33–55.07mg/l,0.54‰–0.91‰for each of electrical conductivity (EC ) , Total dissolved solids (TDS) , Total suspended solids (TSS) and salinity respectively , 11.68 – 37.77 cm / sec. , 33.67 – 148.67 cm for each of water current velocity and water penetration respectively , 4.97 – 12.63 mg/l , 0.4 – 4.84 mg/l for dissolved oxygen (DO) and BOD5 respectively. Nutrients such as silica , total nitrogen and total phosphorous showed variation during this study , their values ranged between 1.63 – 6.26 mg / l , 1.4 – 3.5 mg/l and 1.33 – 17.29 μg/l for each of them respectively .A total of 242 taxa of phytoplankton identified during this study belonged to six classes of algaedominated by Bacillariophyceae which constitute 62.81 % of the total number of the species followed byChlorophyceae by 20.66 % and Cyanophyceae by 11.16 % respectively . Dinophyceae andEuglenophyceae constitute the 2.07 % , while the the Cryptophyceae constitute the lower percentage whichamounted to 1.24 % of the total species , some genera like as Nitzschia , Navicula , Cymbella ,fragilaria , Scenedesmus and Oscillatoria were dominated by their species numbers in the Phytoplankton 3community .The total numbers of Phytoplankton cells ranged between (446.8 - 9177) × 10 cell / l recorded for March and October respectively .


Article
Qualitative and quantitative study of phytoplankton in lotic ecosystems, Iraq

Authors: Fikrat M Hassan --- Ibrahim M Alslman --- Hadeel M. T. Abdulameer
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-63
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Phytoplankton is the key factor of primary production in streams and other lotic systems. This study focused on phytoplankton in bani- Hassan stream in Karabala province. Five sites were selected along the stream where monthly sampling was carried for 12 months. The physicochemical parameters were studied in addition to diversity, spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton and biological diversity indices. A total of 136 taxa of phytoplankton were identified which belonged to 65 genera . Where 65, 34, 17, 3 and 1 taxa belonged to Baciallriophyceae, Charophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and both Euglenophyceae and Cryptophyceae, respectively. Temporal and spatial variations in total number of 3 phytoplankton were noticed in this study. Highest total number was (2.42 cell x 10 /l) recorded at site 2 in 3 May 2013 and the lowest was (0.18 cell x 10 /l) recorded at site 4 in January 2013. Cyclotell, Aulacoseria, Cocconeis, Cymatoplerura, Nitzschia, Cymbella and Oscillatoria were all recorded over study time.


Article
SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON IN ALWND RIVER – IRAQ
التغايرات الفصلية للهائمات النباتية في نهر الوند – العراق

Authors: ABBAS M. ISMAIL عباس مرتضى اسماعيل --- Fikrat M. Hassan فكرت مجيد حسن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture المجلة العراقية للاستزراع المائي ISSN: 1812237X Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-69
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The seasonal variations in algal compositions quantitatively and qualitatively have been studied for two stations in Alwnd River, represented before and after passing Khanqeen city through eight months starting in December 2000. A total of 123 phytoplankton taxa were identified, dominated by diatoms (63 species) followed by greens (34 species), blue-greens (15 species) and 11 species for other groups. The total cell number of phytoplankton ranged between 34565 and 37940 cell/cm3 in both stations with two peaks in spring and summer. The higher density of cell number and species was recorded in the second station during the studied period.

تمت دراسة التغايرات الفصلية للهائمات النباتية كميا ونوعيا لمحطتين في نهر الوند تمثلان قبل وبعد مروره بمدينة خانقين لمدة ثمانية اشهر ابتدءا من كانون الاول 2000. تم تشخيص 123 نوعا من الهائمات النباتية كانت السيادة فيها للدايتومات (63 نوعا) تبعتها الطحالب الخضر (34 نوعا) والخضر المزرقة (15 نوعا) والمجاميع الأخرى (11 نوعا). تراوحت الأعداد الكلية لخلايا الهائمات النباتية بين 34566 و 37940 خلية/سم3 في المحطتين الأولى والثانية على التوالي وبذروتين ربيعية وصيفية. لقد سجلت اعلى كثافة للخلايا والأنواع في المحطة الثانية خلال مدة الدراسة.


Article
A limnlogical study in Euphrates River from Al- Hindiya Barrage To Al- Kifil city – Iraq –

Author: Fikrat M. Hassan ; Maysoon M.S. Al–Taee and Awaz B . Mohammed
Journal: basrah journal of science البصرة للعلوم ISSN: 18140343 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 B conference Pages: 273-288
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study was conducted on the Euphrates River at its mid region starting from Al-Hindiya to Al-Kifil city in five selected sites along the river during July 2005 to June 2006. The present study was revealed that the river water is slightly alkaline, very hard and well oxygenated. The results were recorded values between ( 1104 – 204.5 -5 mg/l ),( 170.6 – 5885 mg/l ), (68.88– 682 mg/l ),(54.65mg/-l 145. 95 mg/l ), ( 0 . 001 – 0 . 06 mg/l ), (0 . 02 –1.32 mg /l ) and ( 1 . 15 – 332. 6 ) for TSS , TDS , sulphate , chloride , Total phosphorous, Total Nitrogen and TN / TP respectively. The 145 taxa of algae were identified and belong to Bacillariophyceae (94 taxa ), Chlorophyceae ( 25 taxa ), Cyanophyceae (20 taxa ), Chrysophyceae (3 taxa ), Euglenophyceae (2 taxa ) and 1 taxa for Xanthophyceae . The high number was recorded at sites 2 and 4 (109 taxa ) followed by sites 3 and 5 ( 91 taxa ) and 88 taxa at site 1 . The community genera at all sites were Chlamydomonasa, Oscillatoria, Chlorella, Cyclotella, Cocconeis, Englena and Phacus. The qualitative study showed the fluctuation in the number of phytoplankton between (34 92× 103 cell/ L ) at site 4 during Nov – 2005 and (207 × 103 cell / L ) recorded at site 5 during June 2006 .

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Article
Qualitative and Quantitative study of Epipelic algae in Tigris River within Baghdad City, Iraq
دراسة نوعية وكمية للطحالب الملتصقة على الطين في نهر دجلة ضمن مدينة بغداد،العراق

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan فكرت مجيد حسن --- Saja H. Al-Bdulameer سجى حسن عبدالامير
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 1074-1082
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study conducted to study epipelic algae in the Tigris River within Baghdad city for one year from September 2011 to August 2012 due to the importance role of benthic algae in lotic ecosystems. Five sites have been chosen along the river. A total of 154 species of epipelic algae was recorded belongs to 45 genera, where Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) was the dominant groups followed by Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae. The numbers of common types in three sites were 47 species. Bacillariophyceae accounted 88.31% of the total number of epipelic algae, followed by Cyanophyceae 7.14 % and Chlorophyceae 4.55%. A 85 species (29 genera) recorded in site 1, 103 species (34 genera) in site2, 112 species (35 genera) in site3, 96 species (32 genera) in site4, and 85 species (29 genera) in site5.Spatial and temporal distributions of epipelic algae were noticed in this study. The higher total number of epipelic algae (91504.01cell cm-2) was recorded at site 5 in spring 2012, while the lower was (37017.98cell cm-2) in summer 2012 at site1. Some genera have recorded higher number species during the study period; these genera were Nitzschia, Navicula, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Synedra, Achnanthes, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya. The study revealed that Bacillariophyceae were more prominent within all study sites and followed by Cyanophyceae, while a few numbers of Chlorophyceae was appeared.

تناولت الدراسة الطحالب الملتصقة على الطين في نهر دجلة لمدة سنة من أيلول 2011 ولغاية اب 2012 للدور المهم للطحالب القاعية في نظم البيئة الجارية. جمعت العينات من خمسة مواقع على طول نهر دجلة . أوضحت النتائج تشخيص ( 154 نوع) من الطحالب الملتصقة على الطين تعود ل( 45 جنسا)، وكانت صف Bacillariophyceae (الدايتومات) هي السائدة وتليها صف الطحالب الخضر المزرقة Cyanophyceae وصف الطحالب الخضر Chlorophyceae . وكان عدد الأنواع المشتركة بين المواقع (47 نوعاً) وشكلت الدايتومات نسبة (88.31% ) من العدد الكلي للطحالب الملتصقة على الطين وتليها الطحالب الخضر المزرقة بنسبة (7.14%) ثم الخضر (4.55%). ولقد لوحظت تغايرات فصلية وموقعــية في معدلات الأعداد الكلـية للطحالب القاعية خلال مدة الدراسة، فقد سجل أعلى معدل للعدد الكلي9.15 × 410 خلية/سم2 في ربيع 2012 في الموقع الخامس ، أما ادنى معدل 3.70 × 410 خلية/سم2 فكان في صيف 2012 في الموقع الاول. اما بعض الأجناس التي تمايزت بعدد أعلى من الأنواع فهي: Nitzschia,Navicula,Cymbella, Gomphonema, Synedra, Achanthes ,Oscillatoria, Lyngbya)). ولوحظ سيادة صف الطحالب العصوية على بقية الأصناف في جميع المواقع المدروسة أذ تفوقت الدايتومات من الناحية الكمية ويليها صف الطحالب الخضر المزرقة ، وظهرت بعض الأجناس التابعة لصف الطحالب الخضر بأعداد قليلة خلال مدة الدراسة ولجميع المواقع.


Article
Evaluation industrial and domestic wastewater treatment plant of Diala's state company of electrical industries, Iraq

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan --- Adnan N. A. R. AL-Baidhani --- Sahira H. H. Al-Khalidi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 14-22
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study is conducted to evaluate the efficiency of plant treatment of the industrial and household wastewater of the Diala state company of Electrical Industries. Sampling was taken monthly for before and after-processing treatment during the period from November, 2014 to March, 2015. Some physicochemical factors were taken, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, Biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity, and salinity. In addition, the concentration of five heavy metals lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) was determined. Temperature of wastewater in treatment plant showed only a significant difference between temperature before and after treatment in December, 2014. PH was not significant in all study periods before and after the treatment process.Dissolved oxygen concentration was raised after the treatment process during all the study periods, except in February2015. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) concentrations were decreased after treatment. Electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity (S‰) values were decreased only in December 2104 and February 2015. All heavy metals concentrations were not affected scientifically by the treatment. The results revealed that the treatment plant was not efficient to remove the heavy metals from the industrial and household wastewater of the factory.

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