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Article
Molecular Analysis of Class II HLA-DRB Polymorphism

Author: Haider Hashim Zalzala
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: supplement Pages: 760-764
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) system is a polymorphic system and the extensive polymorphism of MHC gene in human and the allelic distribution in different ethnic population become a key component in investigating the genetic relations between populations. Geographical variety is one of the factors that affect HLA polymorphism.OBJECTIVE:This study is designed to study class II HLA-DRB polymorphism in Iraqi populations by molecular method.METHODS:Seventy four healthy Arab Iraqi populations were enrolled in this studyduring the period between November 2012 till April 2013. Direct interview was done with the populations and HLA typing was done by molecular method using Sequence Specific Primer (PCR-SSP) method using One Lambda Kit-USA. RESULTS:The most frequent alleles are DRB1*03,*11,*07 with a frequency of (0.47, 0.41, and 0.26) respectively. There are no significant difference between male and female regarding non-DRB1 alleles.CONCLUSION:1-The most frequent alleles in Arabic Iraqis populations are DRB1*03,*11, and *07.2-Gender is not a significant factors affecting the frequencies and hetro- or homozygosity for the nonDRB1 alleles in adults.KEY WORDS: HLA-DRB1, HLA polymorphism .


Article
Cephalosporins Susceptibility Test in Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Mithaq Sabeeh Al-Nassiry --- Haider Hashim Zalzala*
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 262-269
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:This study was conducted at the Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital to determine the resistance patterns to cephalosporins of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs). A total of 270 urine specimens were collected from February, 2008 to May, 2008.OBJECTIVE:Determination the Resistance patterns to cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urinary tract infection.METHODS:Urine specimens were processed for culture, and susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by twofold dilution.RESULT:Escherichia coli was found to be the most organism, followed by Klebsiella spp. The results of susceptibility of isolates under study to different cephalosporins were moderately or highly resistant to many of the test agents. The observations on the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for the cephalosporins explained the high level of resistance to cephalothin and cefaclor, and a moderate level of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefixime.CONCLUSION:The increasing MIC of cephalosporins, especially third generation, indicates decreasing susceptibility of these organisms to these types of β-lactam agents due to the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs).


Article
Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Patients with End Stage Renal Disease in Hemodialysis Unit -Al Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad

Authors: Wijdan Akram Hussein --- Ahmed Abed Marzook --- Haider Hashim Zalzala
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1525-1530
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common global public healthproblem, and it is a significant problem among patients with end stage renal diseaseon hemodialysis (HD).Aim: To determine the risk factors of HCV infection among patients with end stage renaldiseae on HD.Patients and methods: A case control study was performed in HD units of Al-kindyteaching hospital in the period between October 2011- August 2012. A total of ninetypatients with Positive Anti HCV and ninety patients with Negative anti-HCV were enrolledin this study.Anti-HCV antibody was detected by the third generation enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).Direct interview was done with each patient, odds ratio and 95% CI were used to testsignificant differences.Results: The results showed that 40 males and 50 females with positive antiHCV test didn’tshow any significant difference in comparison with 38 Males 52 females with negative HCVtest regarding gender or age. It was found that as the number of dialysis passed 50 timesthe chance of getting HCV infection would be significantly high but as the frequencypassed 100 times, the probability of getting infection would be significantly less.History of blood transfusion made prediction of having HCV infection significantly high.Absence of history of jaundice did not affect significantly probability of having hepatitis Cinfection among patients on HD. There was no association between history of diabetesmellitus and/or hypertension and probability of getting HCV infection.Conclusion The blood transfusion was significantly associated with HCV infection. FrequentHD increase probability of getting HCV but not when the number passed 100 times.


Article
HLA Typing in Iraqi Patients with Obesity and Primary Osteoarthritis.

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Abstract

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease. It is one of the major causes of disability in developed and developing countries. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) as part of immune system has a role in the disease process.Objectives: To investigate whether there is an association between HLA class II-DRB and OA.Methods: A case control study with 26 patients with osteoarthritis and 22 apparently healthy obese control persons matching in ethnicity were enrolled in this study during the period between October 2012 till March 2013. Direct interview was done with each patient and HLA typing was done by molecular method using Sequence Specific Primer (PCR-SSP) method using One Lambda Kit-USA. Results: The results showed that females were more affected than males with disease when compared with control. Odds ratio were used to test level of significance. This study showed that HLA DR4 (DRB1*04), DR2 (DRB1*15 and DRB1*16), DR9 (DRB1*09), DR10 (DRB1*10, DRB5*, DRB4* and DRB3*) (odds ratio: 14.26, 9, 9, 9, 14.26, 9.5 and 4.5) respectively are associated with OA.Conclusions: OA is highly associated with HLA class II DR4 (DRB1*04), DR2 (DRB1*15, DRB1*16), DR9 (DRB1*09), and DR10 (DRB1*10).DR5 (DRB1*05) is not associated with OA.

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