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Article
EFFECTS OF ATORVASTATIN AND MELATONIN ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND LIPID PROFILE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

Authors: Haitham M. Kadhim هيثم محمود كاظم --- Faruk H. Aljawad فاروق حسن الجواد --- Hashim M. Hashim هاشم مهدي هاشم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 72-77
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Dyslipidemia is a modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor that remains largely uncontrolled in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Administration of melatonin may improve tissue responses to insulin and increase the efficacy of drugs which act through this pathway like Sulfonylurea.Objective:To investigate the effectiveness of Atorvastatin and melatonin that possess antioxidant and/or hypolipidemic effects on the changes that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus due to uncontrolled glycemic status.Methods:Forty one diabetic patients (26 female and 15 male) with an age 35-60 years and disease duration of 5-10 years were studied. Patients allocated to 3 groups, first group was treated with Placebo (starch 50mg; n=13), second group was treated with (Atorvastatin 20mg/day; n=14), while third group was treated with (Melatonin 10mg/day; n=14), in addition to the already given oral hypoglycemic agent (glibenclamide) and dietary control for 12 weeks. Biochemical parameter (baseline, 6 and 12 weeks later) including and lipid profile tests were done.Results:Atorvastatin and melatonin administration significantly increases fasting serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels, with significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. However, the effects on these parameters were variable between the studied groups.Conclusion:The administration of Atorvastatin may induce hyperglycemia despite of its hypolipidemic effect, while melatonin could improve both glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Key words:Atorvastatin; melatonin; glycemic control; type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Article
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SERUM COPPER, OXIDIZED HDL AND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN RELATION TO MICROALBUMINURIA
الترابط بين النحاس و تأكسد البروتينات الدهنيه عالية الكثافة والسيطرة الأيضيه بالنسبة إلى فرط الزلال الضئيل في الإدرار عند مرضى السكري ( نوع 2)

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Abstract

Background: diabetes mellitus (DM ) is associated with a markedly increased mortality rate from cardiovascular and renal disease, not explainable by traditional risk factors. Although data are not yet conclusive, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, glycemic control and possibly lipid peroxidation has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macrovascular disease. Little is known, however, about the role of copper in type 2 diabetes.Aim:The present study includes measurement of free radical activity marker (lipid peroxides expressed as malondialdehyde MDA) along with the serum and urine copper, serum lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in addition to urinary protein : creatinine ratio in 55 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) .Results: The patients were divided according to the spot urine albumin excretion (urinary albumin ug / mg creatinine ratio) into two groups:- microalbuminurics & normoalbuminurics.The results were compared with those obtained from 37 age-matched apparently healthy control subjects.There was a significant elevation in serum malondialdehyde MDA , the percentage of oxidized non high-density lipoprotien (ox. non-HDL%) and serum copper with a significant reduction in the percentage of oxidized high-density lipoprotien (ox. HDL%) in the diabetic patients (particulary in the microalbuminurics) as compared with the control subjects. Serum MDA was significantly and positively correlated with serum copper in microalbuminurics and HbA1c% in both diabetic groups.LDL size index was significantly increased in microalbuminuric T2DM patients as compared to the controls and normoalbuminurics indicating smaller LDL size in the diabetics in general and in microalbuminuric in particular. Conclusion: the results of present study suggest an increase in free radical activity , dyslipidaemia and serum copper level favoring atherosclerotic state more in poor glycemic control in type 2 DM particularly in microalbuminurics.The suggested mechanisms underlying these events are discussed.Key words: Copper, lipid peroxides, diabetes mellitus., Microalbuminuria

خلفية الدراسة: يرتبط داء السكري بنسب عاليه من الوفيات بسبب اعتلالات الأوعية الدموية والكلى التي لا تعود للأسباب الأعتياديه المعروفة ، وبالرغم من عدم كفاية الأدلة فان الجهد ألتأكسدي واختلال الدهون ودرجة السيطرة الأيضيه وكذلك زيادة نسبة فوق الأكاسيد لدهون الدم يجعلها من العوامل ألمسببه لأمراض الأوعية الدموية أما علاقة النحاس بكل ذلك فما هو معروف عنه قليل نسبيا.هدف الدراسة: هو قياس دلالات زيادة الجذور الحرة واكاسيد الدهون ممثلة بال- MDAواكاسيد البروتينات الدهنيه وتركيز النحاس ونمط الدهون في الدم وتركيز الهيموغلوبين المتسكر ( HbA1C)ونسبة الزلال في الإدرار عند 55 مريضا بداء السكري ( نوع 2 ) ومقارنتها بمثيلاتها في 37 شخصا طبيعيا ( مجموعة السيطرة ) .ألنتائج: أدت إلى تقسيم مجموعة المرضى إلى نوعين :1- المصابين بفرط الزلال في الأدراربدرجة قليله microalbuminuria 2- المرضى الذين كانت نسب الزلال في الإدرار طبيعيه normoalbuminuria وبالمقارنة مع نتائج مجموعة السيطرة ظهر وجود زيادة ملحوظة عند مرضى السكري في تراكيز أكاسيد الدهون متمثلة بال-MDA وأكاسيد البروتينات الدهنيه عدا العالية الكثافة حيث أظهرت نقصانا مع وجود علاقة طرديه ملحوظة بين تركيز النحاس وال MDA في المجموعة الأولى من المرضى فقط ومع الهيموغلوبين المتسكر HbA1C في كلي المجموعتين.وقد تزامنت هذه التغييرات مع صغر حجم البروتينات الدهنيه الخفيفة LDL عند مرضى السكري بصورة عامه والمجموعة الأولى )المصابين بفرط الزلال في الإدرار) بصورة خاصة.وبينت الدراسة التفسيرات ألمحتمله للظواهر المذكورة.مفتاح الكلمات: النحاس ، أكاسيد الدهون ، داء السكري ، فرط الزلال الضئيل في الإدرار.


Article
GONADAL DYSFUNCTION WITH POSTPRANDIAL HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA IS RISK PREDICTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN MEN WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Authors: Zainab AA Al-Shamma زينب عبد الامير الشماع --- Yahya YZ Farid يحيى يحيى زكي فريد --- Hashim M Hashim هاشم مهدي هاشم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-152
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of cardiovascular disease is well documented. Insulin resistance is the hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes and there is evidence to suggest that testosterone is an important regulator of insulin sensitivity in men, with a role for testosterone in lipid metabolism and specially the triglyceride fraction.Objective:To emphasize the association of low level of total testosterone with that of the postprandial triglyceride in male patients’ with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods:Forty two type 2 diabetes mellitus male patients and 42 healthy controls of age range between 30-60 years, during the period from December 2011 to June 2012. Postprandial venous blood used for random blood glucose, lipid profile, urea and creatinine measurement. Luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin was done using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (Sandwich assay).Results:A negative correlation between testosterone, and postprandial triglyceride, in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups with a significant difference in testosterone between the two groups. The sex hormone binding globulin was also correlated negatively with postprandial triglyceride in only the control group.Conclusion:Hypogonodism in male (decline in testosterone level) leads to increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, which could, both, be considered of predictors for cardiovascular disease risk factors in male patients with type2 diabetes mellitus.Key words:Postprandial triglycerides, type2 diabetes mellitus, testosterone.


Article
POSTPRANDIAL TRIGLYCERIDE AND TESTOSTERONE IN WOMEN WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

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Abstract

Background : High androgen levels may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women through adverse effects on lipids, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism. Lipid abnormalitiesare often found in women with CVD.Objective:To study the relationship between postprandial triglycerides (TG) as a risk factor for cardiac disease and the androgenic activity in postmenopausal women with CVD.Methods:Postprandial lipid profile and sex hormone levels were measured in 30 patients with CVD and 25 postmenopausal women age and body mass Index (BMI) matched served as control group.Testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), Estradiol (E2), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were estimated.Results:Postprandial TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index (AI) were different between the two groups (P≤0.001). The SHBG and Free Androgenic Index (FAI) were significantly higher in the CVD postmenopausal women (P≤ 0.001) while no differences in testosterone, LH, FSH, and E2 levels noticed between CVD patients and the control group. Serum testosterone levels correlated positively with the postprandial TG and the atherogenic index, and negatively with HDL-C in the CVD patients.Conclusion:Elevation in androgenic activity could be a cause of higher elevation in postprandial serum TG which may increase the risk of CVD in women.Key Words:postmenopausal women, cardiovascular disease, postprandial lipid profile, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgenic index


Article
8.INTERLEUKIN-4 SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM C-590T POLYMORPHISMS IN RELATION TO ASTHMA

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Abstract

Background:Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter regions of genes encoding for some interleukins may associate with occurrence of asthma.Objective:To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (C-590T) and asthma.Methods:Forty-five patients with asthma and 40 apparently healthy subjects (represent the control group) were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from both patients and controls. DNA was extracted from blood samples and gene fragments corresponding to IL-4 C-590T were amplified with specific primers using conventional PCR technique. Results:The heterozygote genotypes of IL-4 C-590T (CT) showed significant association with asthma (OR = 3.922, 95% CI= 1.153-13.339, P = 0.028). Conclusion:These results suggest the significance of IL-4 C-590T polymorphism as a risk factor for asthma.Keywords:Asthma, interleukin-4, polymorphismCitation:Gaidan, Abbas AA, Hassan MA, Hashim HM. Interleukin-4 single nucleotide polymorphism C-590T polymorphisms in relation to asthma. Iraqi JMS. 2018; Vol. 16(1): 51-56. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.1.8

Keywords

Asthma --- interleukin-4 --- polymorphism

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