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Article
HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES OF LIGAMENTA FLAVA IN ‎LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION AND SPINAL CANAL ‎STENOSIS

Authors: Hatem A Hatem --- Khalida K Jbara --- Thamer A Hamdan
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 24-37
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

‏ ‏Samples of ligamenta flava were obtained after surgical operations from 50 patients with a ‎lumbar disc herniation, another 50 patients with a lumbar canal stenosis, and 25 patients with ‎spinal fractures who were used as control group. ‎‎ Ligamenta flava from control patients aged below 46 years consisted of large elastic fibers, ‎thin bundles of collagen fibers, and few spindle-shaped fibroblast cells.‎In close proximity to the laminal insertion, the ligamentum flavum had fibrocartilagineous ‎features. in the control patients who were aged 46 or older, the areas that had fewer and thinner ‎elastic fibers and a more abundant collagen component were visible occasionally. The spindle-‎shaped fibroblast cells were fewer compared with control patients aged below 46 years. Also ‎remnants of necrotic cells and few, short, thin, interwoven, fragmented, non-branching elastic ‎fibers, as well as small calcified areas, were occasionally visible. ‎‎ In close proximity to the laminal insertion, the ligamentum flavum had larger fibrocartilaginous ‎features with more collagen fibers compared with younger patients. ‎‎ In patients with disc herniation, the ligamenta flava had nearly similar morphologic features to ‎those of the control patients of similar ages. The ligamenta flava from patients with lumbar ‎spinal stenosis aged below 46 years showed areas of fibrosis in which the cells were often ‎represented by fibroblast cells and in stenotic patients older than 46 years, central portion of ‎ligamentum flavum showed areas of fibrosis, in which the elastic fibers appear normal in some ‎areas, showed little changes in others and in most of these areas showed great changes. ‎Fibrous septa, degenerating elastic fibers as well as small calcified areas were observed often.‎‎ In conclusion, Lumbar ligamentum flavum as any tissue in human body undergo degenerative ‎changes during aging. In lumbar canal stenosis, the degenerative changes were more obvious ‎compared with normal spine or lumbar disc herniation. In stenotic patients, ligamenta flava ‎show a significant decrease in the elastic component as a result of fibrosis and chondroid ‎metaplasia of the tissue, as well as degeneration of the elastic fibers. These changes, and the ‎presence of calcified areas within the tissue, decrease the elasticity of the ligaments. An elastic ‎tissue can be deformed under traction and gradually return to its normal size, proportional to ‎the decrease of the elastic tension. Ligamenta flava do not normally bulge into the spinal canal ‎when spine is in the neutral position.‎


Article
Reducing the effects of paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rat With fluvastatin drug

Authors: Mahdi M. Thuwaini --- Hanaa S. Kadhem --- Hatem A. Hatem
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: 66291818 Year: 2016 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-16
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The goal of current study was to actualization the protective effect of the probability of Fluvastatin hepatoprotection. Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event. In present study, the effects of Fluvastatin(10mg/kg) and (20mg/kg) on PCM-induced hepatotoxicity were examined. Rats were divided randomly into five groups containing 9 rats each. The control group received normal saline (the vehicle). Other groups were treated with Fluvastain alone (20mg/kg), PCM alone (600mg/kg), (600mg/kg PCM + 10mg/kg Fluvastatin), and (20mg/kg PCM + 20mg/kg Fluvastatin) respectively, for 4 weeks. Paracetamol induced male rat hepatotoxicity represented by significant decline in the serum total albumin (P< 0.05). However, the study appeared significantly increment (P< 0.0001), bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP as shown in group2 (induction group) in comparison with group1 (control group). However, simultaneous administration of fluvastatin (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) with paracetamol, significantely was attenuated the adverse changes in the serum total albumin, bilirubin, ALT IU/L, AST, and ALPOn the other hand, the biochemical observations were supported by histopathological examination of liver sections. Where, showed marked attenuated the severity of paracetamol –induced hepatotoxicity, However, all these toxic effects were improved by administration of fluvastatin, but didn’t bring them to the control limits.

تم اختيار هذه الدراسة للتحقق في التأثير الوقائي المحتمل لعقار الفلوفستاتين على الجرعات السمية للباراسيتول على كبد الجرذان.قسمت جرذان التجربة عشوائيا الى خمس مجاميع(9 جرذ لكل مجموعة): المجموعة الاولى (السيطرة) وفيها اعطيت الجرذان سائل الملح الطبيعي فقط. بينما المجاميع الاخرى وفيها جرذان المجموعة الثالثة استلمت عقار الفلوفستاتين فقط(20ملغمكغم), المجموعة الثانية (مجموعة الاحداث) اعطيت الجرذان 600ملغمكغم فقط , المجموعة الرابعة والخامسة وفيها اعطيت الحيوانات جرعتين مختلفتين من عقار الفلوفستاتين مع الباراسيتول (10ملغمكغم + 600ملغمكغم, 20ملغمكغم + 600ملغمكغم) على التوالي ولمدة 4 اسبوع.أظهرت الدراسة ان حقن الباراسيتامول في الجرذان ادى الى انخفاض معنوي ملحوظ في البومين المصل الكلي وزيادة معنوية مهمه(P<0.05 ) في مستويات كل من البليروبين وانزيمات الكبد وزيادة معنوية مهمة(P<0.0001) في مستويات كل من البليروبين وانزيمات الكيد( bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALT ) بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. بينما اظهر ان اعطاء عقار الفلوفستاتين بجرغتين مختلفتين (10ملغمكغم و20ملغمكغم) مع الباراسيتول ادت الى تقليلها بشكل هام معنويا" وبتأثير معاكس لتلك المستويات.من جانب اخر, أدعمت تلك المعايير الكيمياوية في مصول حيوانات التجربة بالفحص النسيجي المرضي لتلك التغيرات لمقاطع نسيجيه من الكبد. حيث اظهرت تلك المقاطع النسيجية تحسن ملحوظ لتلك التغيرات النسيجية لاكباد جرذان التجربة التي عوملت بالباراسيتول التي عوملت بالباراسيتول عند اعطائها عقار الفلوفستاتين.


Article
Reducing the effects of paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rat With fluvastatin drug

Authors: Mahdi M. Thuwaini --- Hanaa S. Kadhem --- Hatem A. Hatem
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: 66291818 Year: 2016 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-19
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The goal of current study was to actualization the protective effect of the probability of Fluvastatin hepatoprotection. Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event. In present study, the effects of Fluvastatin(10mg/kg) and (20mg/kg) on PCM-induced hepatotoxicity were examined. Rats were divided randomly into five groups containing 9 rats each. The control group received normal saline (the vehicle). Other groups were treated with Fluvastain alone (20mg/kg), PCM alone (600mg/kg), (600mg/kg PCM + 10mg/kg Fluvastatin), and (20mg/kg PCM + 20mg/kg Fluvastatin) respectively, for 4 weeks. Paracetamol induced male rat hepatotoxicity represented by significant decline in the serum total albumin (P< 0.05). However, the study appeared significantly increment (P< 0.0001), bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP as shown in group2 (induction group) in comparison with group1 (control group). However, simultaneous administration of fluvastatin (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) with paracetamol, significantely was attenuated the adverse changes in the serum total albumin, bilirubin, ALT IU/L, AST, and ALP. On the other hand, the biochemical observations were supported by histopathological examination of liver sections. Where, showed marked attenuated the severity of paracetamol –induced hepatotoxicity, However, all these toxic effects were improved by administration of fluvastatin, but didn’t bring them to the control limits.

تم اختيار هذه الدراسة للتحقق في التأثير الوقائي المحتمل لعقار الفلوفستاتين على الجرعات السمية للباراسيتول على كبد الجرذان.قسمت جرذان التجربة عشوائيا الى خمس مجاميع(9 جرذ لكل مجموعة): المجموعة الاولى (السيطرة) وفيها اعطيت الجرذان سائل الملح الطبيعي فقط. بينما المجاميع الاخرى وفيها جرذان المجموعة الثالثة استلمت عقار الفلوفستاتين فقط(20ملغمكغم), المجموعة الثانية (مجموعة الاحداث) اعطيت الجرذان 600ملغمكغم فقط , المجموعة الرابعة والخامسة وفيها اعطيت الحيوانات جرعتين مختلفتين من عقار الفلوفستاتين مع الباراسيتول (10ملغمكغم + 600ملغمكغم, 20ملغمكغم + 600ملغمكغم) على التوالي ولمدة 4 اسبوع.أظهرت الدراسة ان حقن الباراسيتامول في الجرذان ادى الى انخفاض معنوي ملحوظ في البومين المصل الكلي وزيادة معنوية مهمه(P<0.05 ) في مستويات كل من البليروبين وانزيمات الكبد وزيادة معنوية مهمة(P<0.0001) في مستويات كل من البليروبين وانزيمات الكيد( bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALT ) بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. بينما اظهر ان اعطاء عقار الفلوفستاتين بجرغتين مختلفتين (10ملغمكغم و20ملغمكغم) مع الباراسيتول ادت الى تقليلها بشكل هام معنويا" وبتأثير معاكس لتلك المستويات.من جانب اخر, أدعمت تلك المعايير الكيمياوية في مصول حيوانات التجربة بالفحص النسيجي المرضي لتلك التغيرات لمقاطع نسيجيه من الكبد. حيث اظهرت تلك المقاطع النسيجية تحسن ملحوظ لتلك التغيرات النسيجية لاكباد جرذان التجربة التي عوملت بالباراسيتول التي عوملت بالباراسيتول عند اعطائها عقار الفلوفستاتين.

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