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Article
Editorial :NEW HUMAN BODY PARTS DISCOVERED

Author: Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 197-199
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Reports about new discoveries in human anatomy could help in the progress of medical care in term of diagnosis and management. Among the many of these was the hidden system of vessels discovered in the human brain in 2015, the anterolateral ligament of the knee joint describe in 2013, Dua's layer discovered in the human cornea in 2013, and the description of the anatomic structure of the G-spot done in 2012. These new part of the human body may be more properly considered as newly discovered variations in the human body.Keywords: Anatomy, human discoveries, brain lymphatics, knee joint, Dua's layer, G-spot.


Article
1. Editorial :THE INTERSTITIUM (THE PRE-LYMPHATIC REGION), IS IT A NEWFOUND 'ORGAN'

Author: Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 230-231
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Many of the human anatomists wouldn't expect to discover a new body part, however, researchers claim that they found a network of fluid-filled spaces in connective tissues all over the body that hadn't been seen before and it acts like an "open, fluid-filled highway" that is supported by a lattice of thick collagen "bundles". The researchers stated that tissue fixation during the procedure of histological tissue processing causes collapse of this network of fluid-filled spaces, and these spaces were not seen during light microscopic examination till the new imaging technique were developed to allow examination of living tissues on a microscopic level.Keywords: Interstitium, anatomy, neworgan, cancerCitation: Mubarak HJ. The Interstitium (the pre-lymphatic region), is it a newfound 'organ'. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(3): 230-231. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.3.1

Keywords

Interstitium --- anatomy --- neworgan --- cancer


Article
9.THE PROFILE OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-9 IN RELATION TO COILING INDEX OF HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD

Authors: Hiba A. Abdul Sattar هبة احمد عبد الستار --- Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 165-174
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Fetal blood flow through the umbilical cord vessels associated with abnormal coiling of the cord can have serious deleterious effects on the health of the fetus and newborn. Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) is a class of enzymes that are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix collagen and other proteins.Objective: To investigate the profile of MMP-9 immunohistochemical reactivity in the umbilical cord with variable coiling indices.Methods: In this study, 60 umbilical cords with inclusion criteria (full term newborns with normal perinatal outcome whose mothers were normal) collected from labor rooms of Ibn Al-Balady Hospital in Baghdad. The cords were used for immunohistochemistry matrix metaloprotenase-9 study.Results: The results of Immunohistochemical study showed variability in mesenchymal tissue reactivity among the three groups of the umbilical cords in different regions (sub amniotic region, perivascular region and central region) of the umbilical cords. The results obtained were evaluated by using the Aprio image scope analysis software.Conclusion: The immunohistochemical reactivity could indicate that the MMP-9 localization has role in degradation of collagen and proteins to maintain a harmless perivascular pressure in association with hypercoiling and hypocoiling of the cord and that could preserve the normal vascular blood flow to a certain limit.Keywords: Umbilical cords, human, coiling index, matrix metalloprotienase-9, normal pregnancy, immunohitochemistry.Citation: Hiba A. Abdul Sattar, Hayder J. Mubarak. The profile of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in relation to coiling index of human umbilical cord. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 165-174 . doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.9


Article
13.HISTOMORPHOMETRIC AND ENDOTHELIN-1 IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTAL VILLI CORRELATED WITH UMBILICAL CORD COILING INDEX

Authors: Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Sarah A. Ahmed سارة عبد الحسين احمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 198-205
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Umbilical cord coiling index plays a role in predicting the pregnancy outcome and risk of low birth weight. Endothelin-1 binding sites exist on placental stem villi vessels and trophoblastic layer of the villi. Endothelin-1 is involved in regulation of the feto-placental circulation and specific trophoblastic functions.Objective: To investigate the profile of anti-endothelin-1 antibody expression in the human normal placental villi in relation to the coiling indices of the umbilical cords attached to these placentas.Methods: Normal human placentas were collected with inclusion criteria (full term newborns with normal perinatal outcome whose mothers were normal), and classified according to their umbilical cord coiling index into three groups: (N, H, and H), endothelin-1 marker used to investigate the localization of the endothelin-1 in the placental villi of each group.Results: There was a difference between the mean positivity percentage of endothelin-1 immunohistochemical reactivity in normocoiled group in comparison with hypercoiled group and hypocoiled group. There is a difference between the mean number of terminal villi in the three groups and in the perimeter of blood vessels.Conclusion: The pattern of endothelin-1 reactivity is associated with vasodilatation of the villous vascular bed to maximize the exchange function of the placenta as a physiological response to overcome the sequel of obstruction of umbilical vessels in both types of abnormal coiled cords during pregnancy.Keywords: Placental villi, umbilical cord, coiling index, normal pregnancy, endothelin-1, immunhistochemistry.Citation: Hayder J. Mubarak, Sarah A. Ahmed. Histomorphometric and endothelin-1 immunohistochemical study of human placental villi correlated with umbilical cord coiling index. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 198-205. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.13


Article
INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE EXPRESSION OF ZO-1 AND PAN-CADHERIN DURING MATURATION OF HEPATOCYTES AND BILIARY NETWORK FORMATION IN MICE

Authors: Noor F.M. Ali نور فؤاد محمد علي --- Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 242-249
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: The tight junctional complexes had been demonstrated in hepatocytes and in both epithelium and endothelium. In multicellular organisms, cell-cell adhesion is critical for development and morphogenesis.Objective: To investigate the spatiotemporal organization of the immunohistochemical markers anti ZO-1 and anti Pan-cadherin during the prenatal development of the mice liver and to correlate the expression of these markers with histogenesis during hepatocyte maturation and biliary network formation.Methods: Forty eight (48) pregnant mice were scarified at subsequent gestational days from day 14 till the first day of postnatal life. Paraffin blocks and sections of the liver extracted from the embryos obtained from these pregnant mice and from neonates at the first postnatal day of life were prepared. The sections were stained using the anti ZO-1 and anti Pan-cadherin immunohistochemical markers.Results: The sequential steps of anti ZO-1 indirect immunofluorescence reactivity in the developing liver tissue showed chronological variability, during days 14, 15, and 16; positive cell surface labeling was weaker adjacent to the blood vessels. The next step includes anti ZO-1 reactivity in late prenatal and postnatal liver tissue showing marked uniform reactivity. The sequential steps were also demonstrated in the anti Pan-cadherin immunohistochemical reactivity. The reactivity of the liver tissue during days 14, 15, and 16 showed disregarded cell surface labeling that increased markedly in later prenatal and postnatal periods.Conclusion: The initial stages in the development include the undifferentiated specification the hepatic lineage characterized by regional establishment of zonula occludens in the developing liver cells and paucity in the development of the zona adherens complexes. The later stages showed histological and functional maturation reflected by anti ZO-1 and anti Pan-cadherin reactivity that represent a requirement for the physiological functions in the entire liver tissue.Keywords: Embryo, mice, Zo-1, Pan-cadherin, immunhistochemistry. Citation: Ali NFM, Mubarak HJ. Indirect immunofluorescence expression of ZO-1 and Pan-cadherin during maturation of hepatocytes and biliary network formation in mice. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(3): 242-249. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.3.5

Keywords

Embryo --- mice --- Zo-1 --- Pan-cadherin --- immunhistochemistry


Article
LECTIN HISTOCHEMISTRY OF TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEAL REGION IN CHICK EMBRYOS

Authors: Hayder J Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Amal A. Al-Taee امال علي الطائي --- Ali Sh. Al-Araji علي شعلان الراجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 4-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Glycosylation is an important modification involved during embryonic development. Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins; they can be employed as specific probes to localize defined monosaccharide and oligosaccharides on cell surface and on cytoplasmic structures, and in extracellular matrix.Objectives:The lectins (SBA, PNA, WGA, SWGA, UEA-I) binding were used as a sensitive, stable, and easy tool that can provide an extraordinarily sensitive detection for changes glycosylation and carbohydrate expression that may occur during embryogenesis and development of trachea-esophageal region.Methods:Fertilized chick eggs were incubated at 38 °C, embryos were fixed with Bouin’s solution. Sections were treated with fluoresce ineisothiocyanate (FITC) labeledlectins.Results:The histochemical study during the 2ndand 3rddays of development revealed variable tempo-spatial variability of lectin bindings to the mesenchymal tissues and other embryonic structures at the trachea-esophageal region.Conclusions:The lectin bindings could be an indicator for the glycoconjucate changes that play an essential role in developmental phenomenon of trachea-esophageal morphogenesis by marking cellular differentiation, cellular migration, and cellular interactions.Key words:Trachea, esophagus, chick, embryo, lectin, histochemistry.

Keywords

Trachea --- esophagus --- chick --- embryo --- lectin --- histochemistry


Article
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MALONDIALDEHYDE ANTIBODIES CHANGES OF THE ADULT MICE TESTES AFFECTED BY PRENATAL MANGANESE CHLORIDE EXPOSURE

Authors: Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Nameer F. Gaeab نمير فاضل غائب --- Hussein A. Jarullah حسين عباس جار الله
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-19
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The harmful effect of manganese chloride on postnatal spermatogenesis was evidently concluded in previous experimental researches, however, the molecular changes related to this effect of manganese chloride needs further elaboration. Objective:To investigate the toxic effect of prenatal manganese chloride exposure on adult mice testes using malondialdehyde (MDA) antibodies as an immunohistochemical marker.Methods:In this study, 30 pregnant mice were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental animals were given 0.1 ml of manganese chloride solution (8000 mg/Liter concentration) orally during the first 17 days of pregnancy. The control group of pregnant mice was given 0.1 ml of distilled water orally rather than the solution of manganese chloride. Paraffin sections of the offspring mice testes were stained for general histological features and for anti-MDA immunohistochemical evaluation. The Aperio Image Scope v.9 software was used to evaluate the immunohistochemical reaction.Results:Sections of testes from mice of the experimental group showed distorted morphology and organization of the stages of sperm development with distorted histological criteria of the interstitial tissue. Results from mice testes revealed statistically significant variability of anti-malondialdehyde (MDA) immunohistochemical expression in the experimental group compared to that of the control group.Conclusion:Manganese chloride induced lipid peroxidation as part of its toxic effect. This lipid peroxidation caused cellular injury leading to apoptosis and autophagy.Keywords:Testes, development, manganese chloride, mice, toxicity, immnuohistochemistry, apoptosis


Article
11.AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE NEWBORN MICE FRONTAL AND PARIETAL CEREBRAL CORTICES AFFECTED BY PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO KETAMINE

Authors: Mohanad S. Najm مهند سهيل نجم --- Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Lamia H. Mohammed لمياء هادي محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 191-200
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Ketamine is N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors blocking drug, it affects the cerebral cortex and play an essential role in learning and memory. Amyloid β (Aβ) is a cleavage product of a large, trans-membrane protein, termed amyloid precursor protein (APP); it may have a role in controlling synaptic activity.Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical beta APP reaction in newborn mice frontal and parietal cerebral cortices after prenatal exposure to therapeutic doses of ketamine as an attempt for scientific judgments of making better understanding for effects of ketamine on developing brain, which may help to reduce adverse effects.Methods: Thirty pregnant mice were divided into two groups named experimental and control groups (15 mice for each groups). The experimental group animals were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg ketamine, the control group animals were injected with intraperitoneal distilled water. Paraffin sections of newborn mice frontal and parietal cortices were stained immunohistochmically with anti-APP antibodies.Results: The immunohistochemical labeling in the experimental group showed scattered clumps of brown staining distributed randomly in the cerebral cortex. The brown stained deposits vary also in shape and size, the larger and more intense staining was seen in the more superficial layers of the frontal cortex. The statistical analysis found non-significant differences in staining pattern between frontal and parietal cortices of control group, while significant differences were found between frontal and parietal cortices in experimental group.Conclusion: The immunohistochemical APP reactivity showed different intensities and different morphology in the frontal and parietal cortices in the all experimental group animals were that injected with ketamine in this study. These differences could be related to the requirement of this substance in repair and differentiation of the developing NMDA dependent interneuron impaired by prenatal ketamine exposure.Keywords: Frontal cortex, parietal cortex, amyloid precursor proteins, ketamine, prenatal, immnuohistochemistryCitation: Najm MS, Mubarak HJ, Mohammed LH. Amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical changes in the newborn mice frontal and parietal cerebral cortices affected by prenatal exposure to ketamine. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(2): 191-200. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.2.11

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