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Article
A Study of Serum Protein Electrophoresis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

Author: Hind Shakir Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 494-498
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by the malignant proliferation of plasma cells through the bone marrow. The clinical features are due to disordered immunoglobulin synthesis and/or secretion from the cell. The amount of protein in the vascular compartment depends on the balance between the rate of synthesis and catabolism or loss. Electrophoresis is a technique that separates compounds such as proteins according to their different electrical charge. In this way, five main groups of proteins namely albumin and the α1, α2, β, γ-globulins, may be distinguished after protein staining and may be visually compared with those in a normal control serum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum protein electrophoresis in Iraqi MM patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted during the period from August 2012 until the end of November 2012. The patients were admitted to Medical City Hospital and all the measurements were performed in the Medical Teaching Laboratories in Baghdad. Total serum protein was measured by colorimetric Biuret method, while serum albumin was measured by bromocresol green method, serum globulin, and serum protein electrophoresis were measured in 25 patients with MM; their age range was (50-70) years and compared with 25 healthy controls.RESULTS: Total serum protein and serum globulin were significantly increased (86.76±17.05 g/l and 55.36±20.54 g/l respectively) in patients with MM, as compared with their controls, (P=0.0001). While a significant decreased was found in serum albumin (29.6±8.77 g/l) and albumin to globulin ratio (0.64±0.36 g/l) for patients with MM as compared with their controls, (P=0.0001). CONCLUSION:Abnormal concentrations of total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and M-band are associated with MM


Article
Metabolic and Hormonal Changes Associated with Menopause

Author: Hind Shakir Ahmed
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 77-82
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Menopause is the perpetual cessation of menstruation due to defeat of ovarian follicular activity. Menopause in women leads to various physiological changes in the body.Objective: To study the metabolic and hormonal changes in postmenopausal women.Patients and Methods: Forty five postmenopausal women were articipated in the study and compared them with 45 premenopausal women who had aregular menstruation. They were attending the Medical City Hospital/Obstetrics and Gynecology Department during the period from July 2016 until the end of December 2016. Anthropometric and physiological parameters were taken. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were measured for all individuals.Results: In this study, there was a significant increase in serum apolipoprotein E levels, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, urea, and thyroid stimulating hormone in postmenopausal group as compared to premenopausal group, (P ≤0.05). Serum total tri- and tetra-iodothyronine levels were decrease in postmenopausal group as compared to premenopausal group, but it was not significant. There was a significant increase in apolipoprotein E in postmenopausal women who had family history for dyslipidemia, (P =0.001). There was a significant positive correlation betweenapolipoprotein E and thyroid stimulating hormone. While there was a significant negative correlations among apolipoprotein E with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and estradiol, (P ≤ 0.01)Conclusions: The physiological basis and the complex interaction between thyroid hormones and apolipoprotein E and their relation with estradiol hormone among postmenopausal women trigger the lipids control mechanism.


Article
A Comparative Estimation of Metabolic and Hormonal Parameters Among Iraqi Hypothyroid Patients

Author: Hind Shakir Ahmed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 204-209
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a crucial physiological role to maintain balance of metabolism of body. Deficiency of iron can produce hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism causes several lipid metabolism disorders. Visfatin and leptin are adipocytokines and have been suggested as important regulators in patients with thyroid dysfunction.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the circulating levels of lipids, iron, visfatin, and leptin in newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted in medical city teaching hospital on 45 newly diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism aged 35-50 years and compared with 45 healthy in¬dividuals as control group during the period from June 2016 to January 2017. This study investigated the serum concentrations of lipid profile, some iron status parameters and hematological parameters, total- and free-, triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone, visfatin, and leptin in hypothyroid patients and compared them with the controls.RESULTS: There was a significant increased in serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in hypothyroid patients compared to the control, (P=0.001). There was a significant decreased in hemoglobin, serum iron, and ferritin while a significant increased in total iron binding capacity in hypothyroid patients compared to the control, (P≤0.05). Means value of thyroid stimulating hormone levels were significantly increased in hypothyroid patients compared to the control group. On the other hand, the levels of total- and free-, tetraiodothyronine, free triiodothyronine were significantly decreased in hypothyroid patients as compared to the control group. There was a significant increased in visfatin and leptin concentrations in hypothyroid patients compared to the control group, (P≤0.05).CONCLUSION: These data suggest that thyroid hormone insufficiency may lead to deficiency of iron and lipids abnormalities. Thus, estimation of iron and related parameters with lipids may be quite useful during the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroid patients. Also, alterations in thyroid status change serum visfatin and leptin in hypothyroid patients. It is advisable to routinely investigate them for early detection allowing its early management.


Article
Lipoprotein (a) and Inflammatory Markers in Hypertensive Patients
البروتين الدهني (أ) والدلائل الألتهابية لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدم

Author: Hind Shakir Ahmed د.هند شاكر أحمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2015 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 139-144
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is the most important public health problem in developing countries and one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Lipoprotein (a) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and systemic inflammation such as interleukin-6 and high sensitive C-reactive proteinareimplicated in the development of hypertension.Objective: The aim of the present study wasto detectthe associations between inflammatory markers as interleukin-6 and high sensitive C-reactive protein with atherogenic indices in hypertensive patients and compared with the control.Patients and Methods: This study was conducted in Medical City Hospital during the period from November2013 until the end of June2014. Ninetyhypertensive patients were enrolledin this study(45 male and 45 female); their age range was (40-55) years and compared with 90 healthy subjects as control group. They studied for their serum lipoprotein (a) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol in fasting state. Also inflammatory marker such as interleukin-6 and high sensitive C-reactive protein were measured in those patients and compared with the control group.Results:There was a significant increase in lipoprotein (a) levels, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non high density lipoprotein cholesterol, interleukin-6, and high sensitive C-reactive protein in hypertensive patients as compared to the control, (P=0.0001).Also, there wasa significant increase in lipoprotein (a) levels, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non high density lipoprotein cholesterol, interleukin-6, and high sensitive C-reactive protein in grade 3 hypertensive as compared to grade 1 and 2 hypertensive patients.Conclusions: It can be concluded thatlipoprotein (a) level was significantly higher in hypertensive patients as compared with the control group. So lowering its concentration would help prevention of cardiovascular diseases.Serum interleukin-6 and high sensitive C-reactive protein estimation can be used as potential tools for early identification of individuals at the risk for development of hypertension and eventually cardiovascular diseases.

خلفية البحث: ارتفاع ضغط الدم هو مشكلة صحية عامة وتعد الأكثر أهمية في البلدان النامية واحد عوامل الأصابة الرئيسية بالأمراض القلبية الوعائية. ويعد البروتين الدهني (أ) هو أحد عوامل الخطر المعروفة للأمراض القلبية الوعائية والأنظمة الألتهابية مثل الأنترلوكين -6 والبروتين- Cالتفاعلي شديد الحساسية ممكن أن تساهم في تطور ارتفاع ضغط الدم. الهدف من البحث: معرفة الارتباط بين الدلائل الألتهابية مثل الأنترلوكين-6 و والبروتين- Cالتفاعلي شديد الحساسية مع مؤشرات تصلب الشرايين لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدم ومقارنتها مع مجموعة السيطرة. المرضى وطرق العمل: أجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى مدينة الطب خلال الفترة من تشرين الثاني 2013 حتى نهاية حزيران 2014. تضمنت الدراسة تسعون مريضاً مصاباً بارتفاع ضغط الدم (45 من الرجال و 45 من النساء)؛ وكان معدل أعمارهم يتراوح بين (40-55) سنة، وتمت مقارنتهم مع 90 شخصاً من الأصحاء كمجموعة سيطرة. تم قياس البروتين الدهني (أ) والدهون التي تضمنت الكوليسترول الكلي، الدهون الثلاثية، البروتين الدهني عالي الكثافة، البروتين الدهني منخفض الكثافة، البروتين الدهني شديد انخفاض الكثافة، والبروتين الدهني غير عالي الكثافة في حالة الصيام وأيضا تم قياس الدلائل الألتهابية مثل الأنترلوكين-6 والبروتين- Cالتفاعلي شديد الحساسية لدى هؤلاء المرضى ومقارننهم مع مجموعة السيطرة. النتائج: كانت هناك زيادة كبيرة في مستويات البروتين الدهني (أ)، الكوليسترول الكلي، البروتين الدهني منخفض الكثافة، البروتين الدهني غير عالي الكثافة، الأنترلوكين-6، والبروتين- Cالتفاعلي شديد الحساسية لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدم بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة،(P=0.0001) ، أيضا كانت هناك زيادة كبيرة في مستويات البروتين الدهني (أ)، الكوليسترول الكلي، البروتين الدهني منخفض الكثافة، البروتين الدهني غير عالي الكثافة، الأنترلوكين-6، والبروتين- C التفاعلي شديد الحساسية لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدم من الصنف الثالث بالمقارنة مع الصنف الأول والثاني من المرضى. الاستنتاجات: ويمكن أن نستنتج أن مستوى البروتين الدهني (أ) كان أعلى بكثير لدى مرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدم بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. لذا فأن خفض تركيزه ممكن أن يساهم في الوقاية من الأمراض القلبية الوعائية. ومن الممكن ان يستعمل تقدير الأنترلوكين-6 والبروتين- Cالتفاعلي شديد الحساسية في إمكانية التعرف المبكر على خطر تطور ارتفاع ضغط الدم وبالتالي الأمراض القلبية الوعائية.


Article
Apolipoproteins and lipid profile in patients with oral diseases and systemic arterial hypertension

Authors: Huda Shakir Ahmed --- Noor Thair Tahir --- Hind Shakir Ahmed
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 75-79
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Article
Chemerin as a New Marker in Iraqi Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
الكميرين كدلالة جديدة لدى المرضى العراقيين المصابين بداء السكري النوع الثاني والمشخصين حديثاً

Authors: Hind Shakir Ahmed هند شاكرأحمد --- Noor Thair Tahir نور ثائر طاهر
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2015 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-13
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Chemerin is a novel adipokine, suggested to be involved in insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes and may be an attractive candidate for assessing risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the role of chemerin as a new marker in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied with obesity and study the effect of age and gender in chemerin concentration. This study included 53 (24 male and 29 female) newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients who visited the National Diabetic Center, University of AL-Mustansiriyah. Those cases were referred to the Center during the period from November 2013 until the end of August 2014. They were subdivided according to body mass index; their age range was (38-52), and (35) healthy subjects were selected as a control group; they were well matched age with patients group. There was a significant increase in waist, waist/hip ratio, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance 2, and chemerin levels in newly diagnosed diabetic patients as compared to the control, (P=0.0001). The results appear there was a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. A significant difference was found in serum chemerin levels among lean, overweight, and obese of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, (P=0.01).There was a significant positive correlation between serum chemerin versus fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile except high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance 2, while there was a significant negative correlation between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and chemerin, (P<0.05).It can be concluded that high levels of serum chemerin found in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients suggest that chemerin may play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

الكيمرين هو أديبوكاين حديث، وأقترح أن يتضمن في مقاومة الانسولين في السمنة ومرض السكري من النوع الثاني وربما يستعمل لتقييم مخاطر الإصابة بأمراض تصلب الشرايين القلب والأوعية الدموية. الهدف من هذا البحث هو دراسة دور الكيمرين كدلالة جديدة لدى مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني المشخصين حديثاً والذين يعانون من البدانة ودراسة تأثير العمر والجنس على تركيز الكيمرين. تضمنت هذه الدراسة 53 شخصاً (24 ذكور و 29 أناث) من المصابين حديثاً بالنوع الثاني من مرض السكري الذين راجعوا المركز الوطني للسكري/ الجامعة المستنصرية خلال الفترة من تشرين الثاني 2013 حتى نهاية اب 2014، وقد تم تقسيمهم وفقا لمؤشر كتلة الجسم، وكان معدل أعمارهم بين (38-52) سنة، وقد تم اختيار (35) شخصاً سليماً كمجموعة سيطرة وتم ضبط العمر مع مجموعه المرضى. أظهرت النتائج أن هناك زيادة معنوية في محيط الخصر، محيط الخصر/الورك، مؤشر كتلة الجسم، الكيميرين، السكر في الدم، الهيموكلوبين السكري، الدهون الكلية، الدهون ثلاثية الكليسيرايد، البروتين الدهني قليل الكثافة، الببتيد-C، مقاومة الانسولين حسب طريقة (HOMA 2)، والكيمرين لدى مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني والمشخصين حديثاً بالمقارنة مع السيطرة، (P= 0.0001). أيضا، كانت هناك اختلافات معنوية في مستويات الكيمرين في المصل بين الأشخاص النحيفين، البدناء، والذين يعانون من السمنة المفرطة، (P= 0.01). كانت هناك علاقة إيجابية ذات دلالة إحصائية بين الكيمرين في المصل مقابل السكر في الدم، الهيموغلوبين السكري، ومستوى الدهون في الدم باستثناء البروتين الدهني عالي الكثافة، الببتيد-C، ومقاومة الانسولين حسب طريقة (HOMA 2) بينما كانت هنالك علاقة سلبية معنوية بين البروتين الدهني عالي الكثافة والكيمرين، (P<0.05).يمكن الاستنتاج أن ارتفاع مستويات الكيمرين التي وجدت في مصل مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني والمشخصين حديثا ممكن أن تلعب دوراً هاماً في تطور مقاومة الأنسولين ومرض السكري من النوع الثاني

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