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MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC QUANTIFICATION OF THE SKELETAL MUSCLE GLYCOGEN CONTENTS WITH AGING

Author: Huda R Kareem هدى رشيد كريم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-35
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundSkeletal muscle fibers contain about 2% of its weight is glycogen, this glycogen used to keep the muscle functioning if it fails to receive sufficient oxygen. PAS stain is useful in detecting cytoplasmic accumulation of glycogen. Glycogen had been studied in skeletal muscles under various state of muscle activities and nutritional states but glycogen quantification with aging is not clearly defined till now.ObjectivesQuantification of the mean glycogen concentration in skeletal muscles fibers stained with PAS stain in various age groups by microspectrophotometry.MethodsThe tibialis anterior muscle of 20 Albino male rats (rattus rattus norvegious) of neonate, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18- months were selected. Paraffin blocks were performed, sectioned and stained with PAS stain.Analysis of the PAS stained sections by microspectrophotometry at 510 nm wave length. For the test group, mean absorbance, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, and mode values were estimated and compared with the control groups.ResultsA significant difference in PAS absorbtion between test and control groups, and among different age groups, being increased with age.ConclusionThe variation in PAS absorbtion with aging indicates that the glycogen content in skeletal muscle increase with aging, this could be due to the influence of age on skeletal muscle glucose transport and glycogen metabolism.Key wordsSkeletal muscle, PAS, Glycogen, Microspectrophotometry


Article
THE ROLE OF ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE ON VAGINAL CYTOLOGY DURING PROLIFERATIVE AND SECRETARY PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME

Authors: Huda R. Kareem هدى رشيد كريم --- Haider A. Jaafer حيدر عبدالرسول جعفر --- Zainab H. Hashim زينب حسن هاشم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-87
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:In the course of cyclic hormonal fluctuation, cytological changes in the vaginal epithelium can be correlated with the phases of the menstrual cycle, this can be utilized in diagnosis of hormonal status in women with pathological cycles as in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objective:To evaluate the effects of estrogen (E2) and progesterone hormones in PCOS on the vaginal cytology in different phases of menstrual cycle, and its relation to ovulation period.Methods:A non-random sample of one hundred women were enrolled in this study, divided into two groups; 50 women free from PCOS, and 50 were PCOS according to the criteria of Rotterdam 2003. All were underwent hormonal assay including estrogen and progesterone on 2nd and 21st day of the cycle respectively, vaginal smears cytology on the 2nd day, 14th and 21st day of the cycle, stained with H&E, the (parabasal, squamous, leukocytes) were identified and counted, ultrasound examination was done on 14th day of the cycle, that divide the sample into ovulatory and an ovulatory subgroups accordingly.Results:At the 2nd day of the cycle, there was a significant reduction in squamous cell count, highly significant increase in leukocyte, E2 hormone level increased markedly, with a significant negative correlation to leukocytes cells in patients' groups at P≤0.05. Squamous cells of vaginal smear attained more acidophilic cytoplasm and increase in nuclear pyknosis. At the 14th day of the cycle, a significant increase in squamous cells count at P≤0.05, cornified squamous cells predominantly seen associated with low ovulation rates of 44%. Ovulation showed significant reduction in parabasal cells count in patients group at P≤0.05. At 21st day of the cycle, progesterone level was reduced with a significant reduction in squamous cells, parabasal cells and leukocytes counts in patients, with no significant correlation between progesterone and vaginal cytology cells, squamous cells consisted of mature cornified cells that seen predominantly in vaginal smear.Conclusion:Hormonal changes in PCOS presented mainly by the effect of elevated E2 hormone, that associated with increase in squamous cells count and cornification, with reduction in leukocytes and parabasal cells toward mid cycle. Progesterone hormone exert no significant effect on vaginal cytology in PCOS.Keywords: PCOS, vaginal cytology, ovulation

Keywords

PCOS --- vaginal cytology --- ovulation


Article
THE PROLIFERATIVE PROFILE OF THE RHOMBENCEPHALICDEMILUNE IN THE DEVELOPING RAT CEREBELLUM: A QUANTITATIVE HISTOCHEMICALSTUDY

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Abstract

BackgroundStudies have shown that the cerebellum develops within the dorsal metencephalon creating a rhombencephalicdemilune (RD) which represents the formation site of the cerebellum granular cells progenitors. These studies used different histological techniques but all have provided qualitative information regarding the biosynthesis and cell mitosis at the RD.ObjectiveQuantifying the proliferative activity of the cellsat the RD during the embryonic period.MethodsSix age groups from day 16 to day 21 albino rat embryos Rattusrattusnorvegicus were investigated with Ag-NOR staining technique to quantify cell proliferation.ResultsThere wasa statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between cellular activity at different age groups with a surge during embryonic day 18.ConclusionsCorrelation with other studies revealed that Ag-NOR staining technique, which reflects protein biosynthesis and nuclear mitotic activity, provided a valuable quantitative measure of cellular proliferation in the developing rat cerebellum.Keywords Rhombencephalicdemilune, Rat, Developing Cerebellum, Ag-NOR, Quantitative, Histochemistry


Article
SEMI-AUTOMATED COMPUTATIONAL METHOD FOR SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER TYPING WITH LECTINS: CORRELATION WITH MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES

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Abstract

Background :Muscle fiber typing has been an extensive field of study for many years. Though, limited researches applied lectin histochemistry in the clinical diagnosis of muscle disorders; attention was directed mainly towards enzyme histochemistry.Objective:The use of lectins as recognition systems based on specific protein-carbohydrate interactions in correlation with muscle fibers morphometric standards and optical density features to favor the diagnostic procedures of muscle disorders.Methods:Cross-sections of tibialis anterior muscle from 15 adult rats were stained with Con A, PNA, SBA, WGA, SWGA, LFA, UEA-I, and UEA-II lectins. Photographs of stained sections were analyzed with ImageJ 1.44 software for muscle fiber area, perimeter, optical density, and integrated density.Results:There were statistically significant differences between the parameters of muscle fiber types under study (P<0.05) concerning Con A, LFA and UEA-II lectins, but not for the remaining lectins, regarding the optical density and integrated density of muscle fibers.Conclusions:Lectins make accurate recognition of muscle fiber types on fixed paraffin sections when combined with computerized methods to quantify the features seen in muscle biopsies destined for pathological investigations.Key words:Lectins, Muscle fiber typing, Quantitative, Optical density, Morphometry

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