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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Porous Ceramic Hollow Fibers with Nano-Molecular Size

Author: Hussein Qasim Hussein
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 18 Pages: E77-E92
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

This research exhibits a method for the fabrication of nano molecular size ceramic porous hollow fibers, using the internal diffusion technique. This method is based on preparation a spinning solution consists from nano gamma alumina < 50nm in an aqueous mixture of sodium alginate, and calcium carbonate. The mixture is spun into a lactic acid coagulation bath of pH= 1.6 to achieve ionic cross-linking. The green transparent ceramic hollow fibers were dried under ventilation at ambient temperature for 48h and sintered at different temperatures 1100 oC-1350 oC for 2h. The synthesized fibers were characterized and the effect of sintering temperature on surface morphology was studied. The phase transformation from gamma to alpha was specified by x-ray diffraction, at 1100 oC a few small and sharp peaks of α-alumina started while at 1250 oC α-alumina with a highly crystalline structure was obtained. Microstructure and surface morphology of nano ceramic fibers were studied at different sintering temperatures, a homogeneous particle distribution was gained at a temperature of 1250 oC. The thermal gravimetric analysis was referred to an existence of two thermal steps occurred during thermal treatment, dehydration up to 250 oC and alginate dehydration and decomposition from 250 oC to 400 oC. The nitrogen isotherm behavior indicates to a mesoporous / macroporous substance, an appearance of type H-2 hysteresis loop. BJH adsorption and desorption average pore diameter (4V/A) 14.4408 nm and 17.7124 nm respectively. Single point surface area is 9.268 m²/g, single point adsorption total pore volume is 0.023 cm³/g. The average interior and exterior pore size by mercury intrusion were 20 nm and 50 nm respectively.


Article
Study the Effect of Using Microwave Radiation and H-Donors on Improving Heavy Oil

Authors: Hussein Qasim Hussein --- Zeina Abbas Khedheer
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-13
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present research has investigated the effect of microwave energy on improving the flow properties of heavy crude oil. The fragmentation of crude oil molecules was carried out with and without using 1 and 10 wt. % concentration of various types of H-donors like tetralin, cyclohexane, and naphtha. Microwave power of 320, 385, and 540 W and radiation time 1-9 min, and temperature were studied. The kinematic viscosity and asphaltene content were measured for evaluation the improving of heavy crude oil. Results show that viscosity of crude oil decreased with increase H-donor concentration, a maximum percentage of viscosity reduction was10.63 % for tetralin at 6 min radiation time, while 8.67%, and 7.34% for cyclohexane and naphtha at 4 min respectively. The high H-donor polarity is the high viscosity reduction. The asphaltenes content of crude oil was decreased during microwave treatment process, a maximum percentage of reduction was 39.73% for tetralin at 6 min radiation time, while 34.40% and 46.29 % for cyclohexane and naphtha at 4 min respectively. The viscosity of crude oil was decreased with asphaltenes content decrease. The temperature of a crude oil was varied during the microwave treatment and it was depended on radiation time and radiation power and H-donor type. The best reduction of crude oil viscosity and asphaltenes content was achieved at a moderate radiation power385 W.


Article
Kinetic Study of Hydroisomerization of n-Decane using Pt/SAPO-11 catalysts
دراسة حركية تفاعل الازمرة الهايدروجينية للديكان الاعيتادي باستخدام العامل المساعد Pt/SAPO-11

Authors: Hayder Abdulkareem Aljandeel --- Hussein Qasim Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 11-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The hydroisomerization of n-decane was studied on SAPO-11 catalyst. Catalyst of 0.25wt.%Pt/SAPO-11 was prepared locally and used in the present work. The hydroconversion performed in a continuous fixed-bed laboratory reaction unit. Experiments of n-decane isomerization were performed in a temperature range of 200 to 275°C,LHSV range of 0.5-2 h-1, and hydrogen to decane mole ratio of 2.1-8.2. The results show that the n-decane conversion increases with increasing temperature and decreasing LHSV , the maximum conversion 56.77 % was achieved at temperature 275°C and LHSV of 0.5 h-1. The kinetic of n-decane isomerization was also studied and the reaction was first order. The kinetic analysis also showed that the activation energy equal to 61.1137 kJ/mol.

تمت دراسة عملية الازمرة الهايدروجينية للديكان الاعتيادي على محفزSAPO-11 حيث تم تحضير 0.25% Pt/SAPO-11 محليًا واستخدامه في العمل الحالي. يتم إجراء عملية الازمرة في منظومة ريادية تحتوي على مفاعل ذو الحشوات الثابتة. ان تجارب ازمرة الديكان تمت بدرجات حرارة تراوحت من 200 إلى 275 °م ، و سرع فراغية تراوحت من من 0,5-2 سا-1، والهيدروجين إلى نسبة الديكان الاعتيادي من 2.1 إلى 8.2.ان اعلى نسبة تحول هي 56,77% في درجة حرارة 275°م وسرعة فراغية 0,5 سا-1 . كذلك تمت دراسة حركية ازمرة الديكان وبينت النتائج ان تحول الديكان الاعتيدادي يزداد مع زيادة درجة الحرارة وتقليل السرعة الفراغية. ان التفاعل هو من الدرجة الاولى. كذلك ان التحليل الحركي يبين ان الطاقة المنشطة تساوي 61,1137كجول/مول.


Article
Viscosity Reduction of Sharqi Baghdad Heavy Crude Oil Using Different Polar Hydrocarbons, Oxygenated Solvents

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Abstract

This work studied the facilitation of the transportation of Sharqi Baghdad heavy crude oil characterized with high viscosity 51.6 cSt at 40 °C, low API 18.8, and high asphaltenes content 7.1 wt.%, by reducing its viscosity from break down asphaltene agglomerates using different types of hydrocarbon and oxygenated polar solvents such as toluene, methanol, mix xylenes, and reformate. The best results are obtained by using methanol because it owns a high efficiency to reduce viscosity of crude oil to 21.1 cSt at 40 °C. Toluene, xylenes and reformate decreased viscosity to 25.3, 27.5 and 28,4 cSt at 40 °C, respectively. Asphaltenes content decreased to 4.2 wt. % by using toluene at 110 °C. And best improvement in API of the heavy crude oil is 26.1 at 40 °C by using xylenes.


Article
Investigation of Binary Solvents Performance for Regeneration of Iraqi 15W- 40 Waste Lubricant

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of binary solvent for regeneration of spent lubricating oil by extraction-flocculation process. The regeneration was investigated by bench scale experiments by using locally provided solvents (Heavy Naphtha, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol). Solvents to used oil, mixing time, mixing speed and temperatures were studied as operating parameters. The performance on three estimated depended key parameters, namely the percentage of base oil recovered (Yield), percent of oil loss (POL), and the percent of sludge removal (PSR) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the employed binary solvent on extraction process. The best solvent to solvent ratio for binary system were 30:70 for Heavy Naphtha : n-Butanol (N:n-But) and Heavy Naphtha : iso-Butanol (N:iso-But). The optimum solvent to oil ratio or critical clarifying ratio (CCR) were 3.4, and 3.8 for N : n-But, and N : iso-But respectively. The optimized operating mixing time, mixing speed, and temperature which result in, maximum recovered base oil (87.75% and 88.88%), minimum oil losses (8.46% and 3.62%), and maximum sludge removal (5.63% and 6.12%), were (45 min, 700 rpm, 35 oC), and (30 min, 700 rpm, 35 oC ) for N:n-But, and N:Iso-But respectively.


Article
A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil
دراسة العوامل المؤثرة على عملية الاستخلاص-التلبد بالمذيبات للزيوت المستهلك

Authors: Hussein Qasim Hussein حسين قاسم حسين --- Ali Laith Abdulkarim علي ليث عبدالكريم
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 6 Pages: 63-73
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR) obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.): MEK (N:MEK), H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But), and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But). The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm), mixing time (15-60, min), and operating temperature (25-40,oC). This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

هذة الدراسة تتضمن دراسة تأثير الظروف التشغيلية على نسبة المواد المتكتلة المزالة خلال عملية معالجة زيت التزيت العراقي (15W-40) باستخدام طريقة الأستخلاص-التلبد بالمذيبات. لهذا الغرض أستخدمت مذيبات ثنائية و هي: النافثا الثقيلة : ميثايل ايثايل كيتون, النافثا الثقيلة : البيوتانول المستمر, بالاضافة الى النافثا الثقيلة : البيوتانول المتفرع. متغيرات العملية كانت سرعة الخلط (15- 60 دقيقة), مدة الخلط (300-900 دورة), و درجةحرارة (25-40 درجة مئوية). العملية اظهرت هذة الدراسة بأن الظروف التشغيلية المدروسة لها تأثير على العملية, حيث بزيادة مدة الخلط لغاية 45 دقيقة بالنسبة للنافثا الثقيلة و ميثايل ايثايل كيتون, النافثا الثقيلة و البيوتانول المستمر ازدادت نسبة المواد المتكتلة المزالة, و لغاية 30 دقيقة بالنسبة النافثا الثقيلة و البيوتانول المتفرع, بعدها انخفضت هذة النسبة, و بزيادة سرعة الخلط لغاية 700 دورة/دقيقة ازدادت نسبة المواد المتكتلة المزالة لجميع المذيبات, و بعدها انخفضت هذة النسبة, اما بالنسبة لدرجة الحرارة فأن زيادتها ادت الى انخفاض هذة النسبة لجميع المذيبات. هذة الدراسة انتجت معادلة رياضية تربط بين المواد الصلبة المزالة و متغيرات العملية, معامل الربط للمعادلة المقترحة كان ذو قيمة عالية بشكل ملحوظ, حيث كان 0.957, 0.974, و 0.944 بالنسبة الى النافثا الثقيلة : ميثايل ايثايل كيتون, النافثا الثقيلة : البيوتانول المستمر, و الى النافثا الثقيلة : البيوتانول المتفرع على الترتيب. افضل نسبة من الشوائب المتكتلة أزيلت عند, (30 د, 900 دورة, 30 درجة مئوية), (45 د, 700 دورة, 35 درجة مئوية), و (30 د, 700 دورة, 35 درجة مئوية) بالنسبة الى النافثا الثقيلة : ميثايل ايثايل كيتون, النافثا الثقيلة : البيوتانول المستمر, و الى النافثا الثقيلة : البيوتانول المتفرع على الترتيب .


Article
Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrodearomatization of Kerosene over high metal loading Ni w/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst
ازالة الكبريت والمركبات العطرية بالهيدروجين من الكيروسين باستخدام عامل مساعد NiW/γ-Al2O3 ذو نسبة تحميل عالية

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Abstract

The present research investigates hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomatization (HAD) of raw kerosene with 0.364 wt. % sulfur and 16.498 wt. % aromatics supplied from Al-Dura Refinery. Hydrotreating reactions were carried out in one stage reactor over high metal Ni W/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst at different temperatures 275-350oC, pressures 32-62 bar, LHSV 1-4 hr-1, and H2/HC ratios 200-500. The prepared catalyst was pre-sulfided remarkably at low temperature and high pressure to avoid risky of sintering associated with gaining the active sulfide phase at high temperatures. Results showed an obvious differences between HDS and HAD rates due to difficulty of polyaromatics saturation compared with desulfurization. Sulfur and aromatics removal were achieved from 74.9% to 95.6% and from 1% to 12.8% respectively at different operating conditions. Advanced saturation conditions were promoted the hydrogenation reaction bath and played a significant role for achieving acceptable levels of HDS and HDA. In general, HDS and HDA increased with decreasing LHSV and increasing temperature, pressure, and H2/HC ratio. Burning quality, fire hazard, and aromatics content of kerosene were characterized by measuring of smoke point, flash point, and aniline point respectively. These properties were enhanced at different hydrotreating conditions due to the skeletal conformation change of kerosene hydrocarbons during reactions.

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