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Article
Pleistocene Series and its Effects
فترة البلايستوسين وتأثيراتها

Author: Hussein Y. Al-Najm حسين يوسف النجم
Journal: Adab AL Rafidayn اداب الرافدين ISSN: 03782867 Year: 2009 Issue: 55 Pages: 509-528
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Pleistocene is regarded the last series of the modern life that includes four of five series. This series is regarding the fourth one. Most scholars now days consider the modern life as an extension of Pleistocene. Others exclude it as a special period naming it Holocene. Pleistocene has witnessed many geological, geographical and natural changes that extended up till the present day. In this series many types of animals and plants have appeared clearly that some types of them still exist due to the convenant environmental factors. More over this series which can be traced back to (2) million years ago. as estimated by scholars also witnessed many changes as far as human physical and intellectual activities are concerned. More remarkably in this series glacier formation has occured in the northern part of the globe. This series was long enough to be divided into four glacial series: Gunz, Mindle, Riss and Wurm. It is characterized by severe coolness. It was punctuated by many inter-glacial Series in which the glacier thawed and heat temperature rose. Consequently these inter-glacial series had direct effect on the climate and on the flora and funa. A similar effect has been left on human life according to the environmental changes that accompanied those series.


Article
Population Growth Indices During Neolithic in Iraq
مؤشرات النمو السكاني خلال العصر الحجري الحديث في العراق

Author: Hussein Y. Al Najm حسين يوسف النجم
Journal: Adab AL Rafidayn اداب الرافدين ISSN: 03782867 Year: 2013 Issue: 65 Pages: 395-422
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Population growth was one of the most importantfeatures of the Neolithic in Iraq. Agricultural Revolution led toseveral developments according to excavation as in theincrease of population and transportations. Therefore, thisgrowth is the outcome of long material and intellectual effortscaveing social change based on obviously on a humaninteraction with environment. Iraq witnessed extensiveprogress in all economical and social aspects of life which hada clear impact in population growth later. Food production wasone of the basic factors in that era in Iraq and ancient near eastas primary evidences proved that. Moreover, agriculturaldevelopment, animal domestication, pottery, took invention,architecture and exchange concepts and the developmentsocial, intellectual and technical concepts represented the mostimportant indices of the Neolithic i. e. in Iraq according toscientific evidence based on the archaeological excavationsresults of early agricultural inhabited villages.

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